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1.
Addiction ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032979

RESUMEN

AIMS: We aimed to determine the association between stressful life events (SLEs) in the year prior to childbirth with (1) pre-pregnancy cannabis use, (2) cessation of cannabis use during pregnancy and (3) postpartum relapse to cannabis use. DESIGN: We used data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) 2016, a cross-sectional, population-based surveillance system. SETTING: Mailed and telephone surveys conducted in five states-Alaska, Colorado, Maine, Michigan and Washington-in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Women (n = 6061) who delivered a live infant within the last 6 months and had data on cannabis use. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported data included SLEs (yes/no response for 14 individual events in the 12 months prior to childbirth) and cannabis use [yes/no prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at the time of the survey (approximately 2-6 months postpartum)]. The associations between SLEs and cannabis use (primary outcomes) were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for maternal demographics (e.g. age, race, education), geography (i.e. state of residence) and cigarette smoking. FINDINGS: Pre-pregnancy, 16.4% (997/6061) of respondents endorsed using cannabis, with 36.4% (363/997) continuing cannabis use during pregnancy. Among the 63.6% (634/997) who did not report use during pregnancy, 23.2% (147/634) relapsed to cannabis use during the postpartum. Nine of the 14 possible SLEs were associated with increased odds of pre-pregnancy cannabis use [e.g. husband/partner or mother went to jail, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-3.62] and four were associated with increased odds of continued cannabis use during pregnancy (e.g. husband/partner lost job, aOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.21-3.96). The odds of postpartum relapse to cannabis were significantly associated with two SLEs (husband/partner said they did not want pregnancy, aOR = 2.86, CI = 1.10-7.72; husband/partner or mother went to jail, aOR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.13-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Stressful life events during the year prior to childbirth appear to be linked to greater odds of women's cannabis use during the perinatal period, especially during pre-pregnancy.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536112

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postmenopausal smokers have difficulty quitting smoking and experience considerable weight gain with smoking cessation. We examined whether adjunctive smoking treatment with exercise, compared to a relaxation control condition, could improve cigarette abstinence, decrease cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and ameliorate changes in body mass index (BMI) in postmenopausal smokers. METHODS: Women (N=301) signed informed consent and were randomized to treatment at two sites (Universities of Connecticut and Minnesota). We randomized groups of participants to a comprehensive group treatment program that included 12 weeks of varenicline and either a moderate exercise or relaxation component for 6 months. Participants were followed for a year after medication treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 17.3% of patients reported carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence for the 9-12-week period, and 11.6% reported prolonged abstinence at one year, with no significant differences between treatment conditions. CPD reported at study visits showed significant main effects for time in weeks, for site, and for treatment. The Exercise group reported smoking fewer CPD over time, and that advantage widened over time. In terms of BMI, significant effects for time in weeks, and for the interaction of Week X Treatment condition, reflected gradually increasing BMI in these women over time, but with the increase in BMI slower in the Exercise condition. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, compared to relaxation, was associated with a reduced BMI and CPD in postmenopausal women, but did not increase end of treatment or prolonged abstinence. Further research is needed to devise exercise programs that increase smoking cessation rates in postmenopausal women. IMPLICATIONS: This study adds to the literature on the effectiveness of a moderate exercise intervention compared to a relaxation control condition as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation in postmenopausal women. Our exercise program did not increase end of treatment or prolonged abstinence rates in postmenopausal women; however, there was a beneficial effect on smoking reduction and reduced body mass index. Additional research is needed to devise exercise programs that increase smoking cessation rates in postmenopausal women.

3.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 473, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370907

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Current literature suggests there may be a relationship between sex hormones, which dramatically increase during pregnancy, and nicotine use behaviors. We hypothesized that higher progesterone and progesterone:estradiol ratio (P/E2) would be associated with less smoking-related symptomatology (SRS), better mood and fewer cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) during ad libitum smoking and following overnight abstinence in pregnant women. Associations between SRS, mood, smoking behavior and sex hormones were estimated using multiple linear regression with adjustment for CPD and pregnancy trimester. RESULTS: There were 35 second trimester and 42 third trimester participants. Participants mean age was 26.2 (SD: 4.1), they smoked 11.3 CPD (SD: 4.4) and the mean nicotine dependence score was 4.94 (SD: 1.98). There were no statistically significant associations between progesterone levels, estradiol levels, or the P/E2 ratio and SRS or mood measures during ad libitum smoking or following overnight abstinence in this sample of pregnant women. Similarly, there were no associations between sex hormone levels and number of CPD smoked during the ad libitum period. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant associations between sex hormones and SRS, mood or smoking behavior in this sample of pregnant women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01811225), December 6, 2012.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Estradiol/sangre , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Embarazo , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo , Progesterona/sangre , Fumar/sangre , Tabaquismo/sangre
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464476

RESUMEN

Preclinical and clinical literature suggest that sex hormones impact tobacco use behaviors in women. The goal of this double-blind crossover laboratory study was to examine the effect of oral exogenous progesterone (200 mg twice per day) versus placebo on nicotine response using measures of motor speed and cognitive function in women following overnight smoking abstinence. We hypothesized that increased progesterone would blunt the nicotine response whereby producing less change in motor speed and cognition in response to nicotine exposure. Female smokers, age 18-35, were randomized to participate in two 9-day crossover testing weeks. Participants completed a lab session following overnight abstinence where they were administered nicotine nasal spray and asked to complete measures of immediate memory (IMT), delayed memory (DMT), word recall (WR), and finger tapping speed (FT). After the first 9-day testing week, participants resumed smoking and returned the following month to complete the identical lab session in the crossover condition. Forty-seven women were included in this analysis (n = 47). We found no differences in the magnitude of response for IMT, DMT, and WR between conditions. For FT, women had a blunted response to nicotine during the placebo condition. When examining the association between hormone levels and relative performance, we found increases in DMT, WR, and FT but decreases in IMT during the progesterone condition. We observed differences between progesterone versus placebo in relative change in some measures of nicotine response following overnight abstinence. Future studies are needed to further characterize this response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106043, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310925

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Approximately half of premenopausal women who smoke cigarettes also use hormonal contraceptives, with most using oral contraceptives (OCs). While research on the effects of endogenous hormones on smoking-related outcomes continues to expand, little is known about the influence of OCs on similar outcomes. We sought to explore differences in the subjective response to nicotine by OC use after stratifying by testing condition (e.g., smoking status). METHODS: Participants were regular (≥5 cigarettes/day) smokers, classified into OC and naturally cycling (NC) groups. All participants completed four total lab sessions by smoking status (ad libitum smoking, acute smoking abstinence) and anticipated progesterone level (low progesterone week (LPW), high progesterone week (HPW)). Each lab session included self-administration of intranasal nicotine (Time 0 min), assessment of subjective response via the Subjective State Scale (-30 and + 5 min). RESULTS: Compared to the NC group (n = 28), the OC group (n = 14) was younger (26.2 ±â€¯1.1 versus 24.2 ±â€¯1.1; p < 0.001) and had a lower Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score (3.4 ±â€¯0.5 versus 2.6 ±â€¯0.5; p = 0.011). Progesterone-to-estradiol ratios varied significantly by group at three of the four time points (p < 0.05). During ad libitum smoking, the OC group had significantly lower craving after nicotine administration than the NC group (1.93 ±â€¯0.33 versus 2.89 ±â€¯0.23; p = 0.024). No other significant differences in subjective response were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significantly different hormone levels, group differences in subjective response to nicotine were relatively few. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these observations, as well as explore how they may influence cessation in women.

7.
Addiction ; 114(10): 1800-1813, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059177

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In some clinical studies men and women have been found to differ in their ability to quit smoking, perhaps as a result of progesterone. The primary aim of this study was to provide a preliminary test of whether progesterone (PRO), compared with placebo (PBO), was more effective for smoking cessation in men and women. DESIGN: Pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Minneapolis/St Paul metro area, Minnesota, USA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 216 participants were randomized, including 113 men (18-60 years; PRO = 56, PBO = 57) and 103 women (18-50 years, pre-menopausal with self-reported regular menstrual cycles; PRO = 51, PBO = 52). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized (1 : 1 within sex group) to either PRO (200 mg twice daily) or PBO. Participants were assigned a quit date approximately 7 days after starting medication (luteal phase for women) and were followed for 12 weeks to assess relapse. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at week 4. Secondary outcomes included 7-day PPA at weeks 8 and 12, prolonged abstinence, continuous abstinence, urine cotinine < 50 ng/ml, expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5 parts per million (p.p.m.) and days to relapse. FINDINGS: There was a significant difference in 7-day PPA at week 4 among women [PRO: 18 (35.3%) versus PBO: 9 (17.3%), odds ratio (OR) = 2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04, 6.54, P = 0.041], but not among men [PRO: 13 (23.2%) versus PBO: 12 (21.1%), 1.13 (0.47, 2.76), P = 0.782]. There was some evidence that PRO delayed relapse in women (days to relapse; PRO: 20.5 ± 29.6 versus PBO: 14.3 ± 26.8, P = 0.03) but not in men (PRO: 13.4 ± 25.9 versus PBO: 13.3 ± 23.8, P = 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: Oral micronized progesterone may aid smoking cessation in women.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215853, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022220

RESUMEN

The urinary metabolites (Z)-7-[1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoic acid (8-iso-PGF2α), an F2-isoprostane and biomarker of oxidative damage, and "prostaglandin E2 metabolite" (PGE-M), a biomarker of inflammation, are elevated in cigarette smokers. However, there is little information in the literature on the longitudinal stability of these widely used biomarkers. In a large clinical trial involving 10 institutional sites, smokers were given, free of charge over a period of 20 weeks, Spectrum NRC600/601 research cigarettes containing 15.5 mg nicotine/g tobacco. All participants were instructed to smoke these cigarettes for the duration of the study. At weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, first morning urine voids were collected and analyzed for 8-iso-PGF2α and PGE-M using validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods. The mean level of 8-iso-PGF2α at Week 4 was 1.34 ± 1.08 (S.D.) pmol/mg creatinine (N = 226) while that of PGE-M was 73.7 ± 113 (S.D.) pmol/mg creatinine (N = 232). The corresponding levels at Week 20 were 1.35 ± 0.93 (S.D.) pmol/mg creatinine (N = 209) for 8-iso-PGF2α and 74.2 ± 142 (S.D.) pmol/mg creatinine (N = 210) for PGE-M. There was variation in these values in the intervening weeks. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.51 (95% CI, 0.45, 0.57) and 0.36 (0.30, 0.43), for 8-iso-PGF2α and PGE-M, respectively, indicating fair longitudinal stability for 8-iso-PGF2α and poorer longitudinal stability for PGE-M in cigarette smokers. Males had higher ICC values than females for both 8-iso-PGF2α and PGE-M. These results indicate that, in addition to cigarette smoking, endogenous processes of oxidative damage and inflammation influence the levels of these biomarkers over time among current smokers.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/orina , Fumar Cigarrillos/orina , Eicosanoides/orina , Inflamación/orina , Estrés Oxidativo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dinoprost/análogos & derivados , Dinoprost/orina , F2-Isoprostanos/orina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Persona de Mediana Edad
10.
J Addict Med ; 13(1): 81-82, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688803
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210104, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608961

RESUMEN

The urinary metabolites cyanoethyl mercapturic acid (CEMA) and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) have been widely used as biomarkers of exposure to acrylonitrile and acrolein, respectively, but there are no published data on their consistency over time in the urine of cigarette smokers. We provided, free of charge over a 20 week period, Spectrum NRC600/601 research cigarettes to cigarette smokers in the control arm of a randomized clinical trial of the reduced nicotine cigarette. Urine samples were collected at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 and analyzed for CEMA and 3-HPMA, and total nicotine equivalents (TNE) using validated methods. Creatinine-corrected intra-class correlation coefficients for CEMA, 3-HPMA, and TNE were 0.67, 0.46, and 0.68, respectively, indicating good longitudinal consistency for CEMA, while that of 3-HPMA was fair. A strong correlation between CEMA and TNE values was observed. These data support the use of CEMA as a reliable biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure. This is the first report of the longitudinal stability of the biomarkers of acrylonitrile and acrolein exposure in smokers. The data indicate that CEMA, the biomarker of acrylonitrile exposure, is consistent over time in cigarette smokers, supporting its use. While 3-HPMA levels were less stable over time, this biomarker is nevertheless a useful monitor of human acrolein exposure because of its specificity to this toxicant.


Asunto(s)
Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Fumar Cigarrillos/orina , Sustancias Peligrosas/efectos adversos , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/orina , Acroleína/efectos adversos , Acroleína/metabolismo , Acrilonitrilo/efectos adversos , Acrilonitrilo/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/orina , Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Toxicología/métodos
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(5): 617-622, 2019 04 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29648657

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. METHODS: Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. RESULTS: A series of repeated measures analysis of covariance found a significant smoking group × menstrual phase × sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. IMPLICATIONS: We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

13.
Addict Biol ; 24(4): 743-753, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117237

RESUMEN

We examined the extent to which orexin measured during smoking and the early phase of abstinence was related to craving, withdrawal, stress hormones, and risk for smoking relapse in men and women. Considering its role in modulating nicotine-related reward, we predicted that a reduction in circulating orexin during withdrawal would be associated with increased craving and risk for smoking relapse. Two hundred and eighty five participants provided biological samples and self-report information to identify predictors of smoking relapse. All participants attended two laboratory sessions, which were before and after a period of required abstinence from smoking. After quitting, participants also attended four weekly sessions to track smoking relapse. Only smokers who relapsed within the follow-up period exhibited reduced orexin levels during the initial withdrawal period; ACTH, but not craving nor cortisol, increased across the abstinence period for successful abstainers but not for relapsers. Sex differences in orexin and craving or withdrawal associations also emerged. Adding sex, HPA hormones, and self-reported measures of craving and withdrawal as potential mediators had minimal effects on the above abstinence and orexin effects. These results provide the first evidence that circulating orexin may be a useful marker of risk for relapse; and sex, adrenal hormones, and self-reported craving and withdrawal were not mediators of this effect. The results point to a promising pathway to investigate objective biological markers for craving and smoking relapse and highlight the complexity of the neurobiology of relapse.

14.
Prev Med ; 118: 264-271, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468790

RESUMEN

Perinatal smoking, including smoking during pregnancy and postpartum smoking relapse, is a persistent public health problem. While childhood trauma has been linked to perinatal smoking, less is known about the association with more proximal stressful life events (SLEs). The objective of this study was to examine the association between SLEs that occurred during the year prior to childbirth with perinatal smoking. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2011, perinatal smoking was assessed at three time points: (1) three months prior to pregnancy, (2) the last three months of pregnancy, and (3) two to six months postpartum. Survey respondents endorsed up to 13 SLEs (i.e., death of someone close). SLEs were analyzed individually, as well as using a cumulative score (range 0-13). Weighted analyses included unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Among those who smoked prior to pregnancy (n = 15,316), 48% (n = 7308) reported quitting smoking during pregnancy. Of those, 44% (n = 3126) reported postpartum smoking relapse. A total of 11 SLEs were associated with smoking during pregnancy and 2 SLEs were associated with postpartum smoking relapse. The odds of continued smoking during pregnancy was 12% higher for each SLE endorsed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 1.15) and this association was attenuated in relation to the odds of postpartum smoking relapse (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08). SLEs are associated with perinatal smoking. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action and to develop interventions specific to the needs of women who experience SLEs.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Atención Perinatal , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Recurrencia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 44(9): 545-551, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diversity in hospital leadership is often valued as important for achieving clinical excellence. The American Hospital Association surveyed hospitals about their actions to identify and address health disparities. The survey asked about the degree of representation of racial and ethnic minorities and women among executives and board members. METHODS: The survey contained 78 items in four domains: Leadership and Strategic Planning, Workforce, Data Collection, and Reducing Disparities. All items were standardized and pooled within each domain to construct four variables. Logistic regression models were used to assess the difference in domain scores, for each domain, between hospitals with (a) high and low representation of people of color in the C-suite, (b) high and low representation of women in the corporate (C-) suite, (c) high and low representation of people of color on the board, and (d) high and low representation of women on the board. RESULTS: Hospitals with more diverse boards with respect to race and ethnicity had significantly higher scores for all domains, indicating that these hospitals were pursuing substantially more strategies in all domains. In contrast, more racially and ethnically diverse executive suites were associated only with the Data Collection domain, while hospitals with a higher percentage of women in executive positions had lower scores for all domains except Data Collection. CONCLUSION: Hospitals with greater representation of racial and ethnic minorities in leadership positions had greater commitments to diversity initiatives. However, hospitals with women-particularly white women-in leadership positions reported fewer diversity initiatives. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms and causality behind these associations.

16.
JAMA ; 320(9): 880-891, 2018 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193275

RESUMEN

Importance: The optimal temporal approach for reducing nicotine to minimally or nonaddictive levels in all cigarettes sold in the United States has not been determined. Objectives: To determine the effects of immediate vs gradual reduction in nicotine content to very low levels and as compared with usual nicotine level cigarettes on biomarkers of toxicant exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, randomized, parallel-design study with 2 weeks of baseline smoking and 20 weeks of intervention was conducted at 10 US sites. A volunteer sample of daily smokers with no intention to quit within 30 days was recruited between July 2014 and September 2016, with the last follow-up completed in March 2017. Interventions: (1) Immediate reduction to 0.4 mg of nicotine per gram of tobacco cigarettes; (2) gradual reduction from 15.5 mg to 0.4 mg of nicotine per gram of tobacco cigarettes with 5 monthly dose changes; or (3) maintenance on 15.5 mg of nicotine per gram of tobacco cigarettes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Between-group differences in 3 co-primary biomarkers of smoke toxicant exposure: breath carbon monoxide (CO), urine 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA, metabolite of acrolein), and urine phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, indicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) calculated as area under the concentration-time curve over the 20 weeks of intervention. Results: Among 1250 randomized participants (mean age, 45 years; 549 women [44%]; 958 [77%] completed the trial), significantly lower levels of exposure were observed in the immediate vs gradual reduction group for CO (mean difference, -4.06 parts per million [ppm] [95% CI, -4.89 to -3.23]; P < .0055), 3-HPMA (ratio of geometric means, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.77 to 0.88]; P < .0055), and PheT (ratio of geometric means, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.93]; P < .0055). Significantly lower levels of exposure were observed in the immediate reduction vs control group for CO (mean difference, -3.38 [95% CI, -4.40 to -2.36]; P < .0055), 3-HPMA (ratio of geometric means, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.88]; P < .0055), and PheT (ratio of geometric means, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.81 to 0.92]; P < .0055). No significant differences were observed between the gradual reduction vs control groups for CO (mean difference, 0.68 [95% CI, -0.31 to 1.67]; P = .18), 3-HPMA (ratio of geometric means, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.91 to 1.06]; P = .64), and PheT (ratio of geometric means, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.92 to 1.04]; P = .52). Conclusions and Relevance: Among smokers, immediate reduction of nicotine in cigarettes led to significantly greater decreases in biomarkers of smoke exposure across time compared with gradual reduction or a control group, with no significant differences between gradual reduction and control. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02139930.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/análisis , Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados , Acetilcisteína/orina , Adulto , Área Bajo la Curva , Biomarcadores/orina , Pruebas Respiratorias , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Creatinina/orina , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Nicotina/análisis , Fenantrenos/orina , Humo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias , Tabaco , Productos de Tabaco/análisis , Tabaquismo
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 192: 29-37, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199844

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive efforts to develop effective smoking cessation interventions, 70-85% of American cigarette smokers who quit relapse within one year. Exercise has shown promise as an intervention; however, many results have been equivocal. This study explored how exercise is associated with smoking-related symptomatology, smoking behavior and impulsivity in male and female smokers. METHODS: Participants were recruited throughout the United States using the on-line crowdsourcing platform, Amazon's Mechanical Turk. They completed a survey with self-report measures assessing exercise, smoking-related symptomatology, smoking behavior and impulsivity. Differences between men and women were tested using t- and chi-square tests. Regression analyses tested for associations between exercise and smoking-related symptomatology, smoking behavior and impulsivity. RESULTS: Participants (N = 604) were, on average, 32 (SD = 6.2) years old, mostly Caucasian, with at least some college education and approximately half were women. Women exercised slightly less than men and had more negative affect, craving, physical symptoms and withdrawal. Women smoked more cigarettes per day, had greater nicotine dependency and more years of smoking. Positive affect was positively associated with exercise for both men and women; however, this association was significantly stronger in women. Negative affect and withdrawal were inversely associated with exercise for women only. Impulsivity was inversely associated with exercise for both men and women. CONCLUSION: Exercise was significantly associated with several smoking-related symptomatology, smoking behavior and impulsivity variables for both men and women, suggesting that exercise may be a useful intervention for smoking cessation. Future prospective research should determine how exercise directly impacts smoking cessation.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Ejercicio/fisiología , Ejercicio/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/terapia , Ansia/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 32, 2018 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has rapidly increased, there is little data about what United States medical students know or are taught about them. This study examined medical students' experiences, knowledge, and attitudes regarding e-cigarettes, as well as their evaluation of their education on e-cigarettes. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of medical students currently enrolled at the University of Minnesota Medical School (n = 984) was conducted over a three-week period in August and September 2015. Primary outcomes included students' personal experiences with e-cigarettes, knowledge and attitudes about e-cigarettes, and students' assessment of their education on e-cigarettes. RESULTS: 66.9% medical students completed the survey. 58% (n = 382) of participants identified as female. 35.8% (n = 235) were "not sure" whether e-cigarettes were approved by the FDA for smoking cessation, while 4.1% (n = 27) falsely believed they were. While 82.9% (n = 543) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt confident in their ability to discuss traditional cigarette use with patients, only 12.4% (n = 81) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt confident in their ability to discuss e-cigarettes with patients. 94.8% (n = 619) of participants believed that they had not received adequate education about e-cigarettes in medical school. A higher proportion of males reported ever using an e-cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: The gaps in medical student knowledge and wide variances in attitudes about e-cigarettes at one medical school together with their report of inadequate education in an environment of increasing use of e-cigarette use in the U.S. speaks to a need for the development of medical school curriculum on e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
J Addict Med ; 12(3): 207-211, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381494

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and co-use with tobacco is increasing. Preliminary studies have indicated that marijuana may suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) or shorten the luteal phase. Although the literature is mixed, these sex hormones may play a role in smoking cessation outcomes. This secondary subgroup analysis aims to explore the menstrual cycle of females who co-use marijuana and tobacco compared with females who only use tobacco in a sample of tobacco treatment-seeking individuals. METHODS: Female participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who self-reported regular menstrual cycles and co-use of marijuana and tobacco were matched 1:3 by age to participants who only use tobacco. Length of the follicular and luteal phases was determined using First Response Urine LH tests. Wilcoxon 2-sample t tests were used to determine differences in phase lengths between groups. RESULTS: Thirteen women who co-use marijuana and tobacco, and 39 women who only use tobacco were included in this analysis. Overall, participants were 37.3 ±â€Š8.0 (SD) years of age, mostly Caucasian (67%), and smoked 12.6 ±â€Š5.2 (SD) cigarettes per day. The luteal phase length among participants who co-use marijuana and tobacco (11.4 days ±â€Š2.2 [SD]) was significantly shorter than among participants who only use tobacco (16.8 days ±â€Š11.3 [SD]; P = 0.002). No differences were found in follicular phase length or menstrual cycle length. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that females who co-use marijuana and tobacco may have a shortened luteal phase in comparison with females who only use tobacco. Further studies are needed to better understand how marijuana use may impact the menstrual cycle and affect smoking outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Ciclo Menstrual , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Causalidad , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Fase Folicular , Humanos , Fase Luteínica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minnesota/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(6): 681-689, 2018 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575412

RESUMEN

Introduction: Postpartum smoking relapse is a highly prevalent public health problem. Mood and breast feeding are significantly associated with smoking relapse, although less is known about the temporality of these relationships. Therefore, this study utilized ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to prospectively examine changes in mood and smoking-related symptomatology in relationship to three events-childbirth, termination of breast feeding, and smoking relapse. We expected all three events to significantly alter mood and smoking-related symptomatology. Methods: We enrolled a sample of pregnant women who had recently quit smoking and intended to remain quit during the postpartum. Participants were randomized to active/placebo progesterone to prevent postpartum relapse. Participants also completed daily EMA to collect data mood and smoking-related symptomatology as well as our three events of interest. Results: Participants (n = 46) were, on average, 26.5 ± 0.8 years old and, prior to pregnancy, smoked 10.1 ± 0.7 cigarettes/day. We noted a number of significant within- and between-subject relationships. For example, participants reported a 24% decline in negative affect after childbirth (p = .0016). Among those who relapsed to smoking (n = 23), participants randomized to placebo had a significant increase in cigarette craving after relapse (ß = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62 to 1.49, p value = .0003), whereas participants randomized to active progesterone did not (ß = 0.63, 95% CI = -0.35 to 1.62, p value = .1824). Conclusions: These observations suggest that mood and smoking-related symptomatology are influenced by childbirth, breast feeding, smoking relapse, and use of exogenous progesterone. Future research should explore how these observations may inform novel postpartum smoking relapse-prevention interventions. Implications: Postpartum smoking relapse has been a persistent public health problem for more than 40 years. Although a number of significant predictors of postpartum smoking relapse have been identified (eg, depression and breast feeding), much of these analyses have relied on cross-sectional and/or self-reported retrospective data. Therefore, for the first time, we utilized ecological momentary assessment to explore the effect of childbirth, termination of breast feeding, and smoking relapse on mood and smoking-related symptomatology (eg, craving). Numerous significant relationships were observed, including a 96% increase in craving after smoking relapse. These novel observations can inform new and effective postpartum smoking relapse-prevention programs.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Afecto/efectos de los fármacos , Afecto/fisiología , Lactancia Materna/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Periodo Posparto/efectos de los fármacos , Periodo Posparto/fisiología , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Progesterona/farmacología , Progesterona/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme , Fumar/terapia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/tendencias , Adulto Joven
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