Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 95, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644773

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with outpatient follow-up of children with congenital syphilis. METHODS: A non-concurrent cohort study performed in primary care units and three reference maternity hospitals in Fortaleza (Ceará State). Data were collected from September 2013 to September 2016 in the notification forms and in the medical records of hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, and they were presented considering an adequate and inadequate follow-up. Children who attended the primary care unit or referral outpatient clinic during the period recommended by the Ministry of Health were considered adequately followed up and performed the recommended examinations. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in the comparative analysis. The estimated risk of adequate non-follow-up was verified by simple and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The total of 460 children with congenital syphilis were notified, of which 332 (72.2%) returned for at least one appointment and were part of the study. Exactly 287 (86.4%) children attended the primary health unit; however, there was no reference to congenital syphilis in 236 (71.1%) medical records and no information on the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test was found in 264 (79.5%) children. There was nonadherence to subsequent appointments by 272 (81.9%) individuals. The following variables had a statistically significant association with the non-adequate follow-up of the children: marital status of the mothers, number of prenatal appointments, number of pregnancies, blood count, and radiography of long bones. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with congenital syphilis attended primary care for follow-up, but the services do not meet the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for adequate follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatorios/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sífilis Congénita/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sífilis Congénita/epidemiología , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209906, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608958

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis (CS) is a major cause of mortality in several countries, especially in Latin America and the Caribbean. This study aimed to analyze fetal and infant mortality of CS reported to the Health Information System in a State in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional study that analyzed the deaths of CS from 2010 to 2014 through the linkage of the Mortality Information System (SIM) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sinan). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 was used to calculate the rates of Fetal, Perinatal, Neonatal (early and late), and Postneonatal Mortality. Simple linear regression was performed. Fisher's exact test or Pearson's chi-square test were used for comparison of proportions and Student's t-test was used for comparison of means. Of the 414 cases reported to the SIM as deaths possibly caused by CS, 44 (10.6%) presented CS as the underlying cause. From 2010 to 2014 the Infant Mortality Rate of CS was 16.3 per 100,000 live births (y = 0.65x + 14.33, R2 = 0.2338, p = 0.003). There was an 89.4% underreporting of deaths. Perinatal deaths and fetal deaths of CS accounted for 87.7% and 73.9% of total deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study revealed a significant Fetal and Infant Mortality rate of CS and demonstrated the importance of using the linkage method in studies that involve the analysis of secondary data obtained from mortality and disease reporting systems. The underreporting of CS as a cause of fetal and infant mortality leads to unawareness of the reality of deaths from this disease, hindering the development of public policies aimed at its prevention.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información en Salud , Sífilis Congénita/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Adulto Joven
3.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 95, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043320

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with outpatient follow-up of children with congenital syphilis. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study performed in primary care units and three reference maternity hospitals in Fortaleza (Ceará State). Data were collected from September 2013 to September 2016 in the notification forms and in the medical records of hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, and they were presented considering an adequate and inadequate follow-up. Children who attended the primary care unit or referral outpatient clinic during the period recommended by the Ministry of Health were considered adequately followed up and performed the recommended examinations. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in the comparative analysis. The estimated risk of adequate non-follow-up was verified by simple and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The total of 460 children with congenital syphilis were notified, of which 332 (72.2%) returned for at least one appointment and were part of the study. Exactly 287 (86.4%) children attended the primary health unit; however, there was no reference to congenital syphilis in 236 (71.1%) medical records and no information on the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test was found in 264 (79.5%) children. There was nonadherence to subsequent appointments by 272 (81.9%) individuals. The following variables had a statistically significant association with the non-adequate follow-up of the children: marital status of the mothers, number of prenatal appointments, number of pregnancies, blood count, and radiography of long bones. CONCLUSIONS Most children with congenital syphilis attended primary care for follow-up, but the services do not meet the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for adequate follow-up.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar fatores associados ao seguimento ambulatorial não adequado de crianças notificadas com sífilis congênita. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte não concorrente, realizado em unidades de atenção primária e três maternidades de referência de Fortaleza (Ceará). Os dados foram coletados de setembro de 2013 a setembro de 2016 nas fichas de notificação e nos prontuários médicos de internamento e de seguimento ambulatorial, e apresentados considerando o seguimento adequado e não adequado. Foram consideradas adequadamente seguidas as crianças que compareceram à unidade de atenção primária ou ao ambulatório de referência no período recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde e realizaram os exames preconizados. Utilizou-se os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fisher na análise comparativa. O risco estimado de não seguimento adequado foi verificado por regressão logística simples e múltipla. RESULTADOS Foram notificadas 460 crianças com sífilis congênita, das quais 332 (72,2%) retornaram para pelo menos uma consulta e fizeram parte do estudo. Compareceram à unidade primária de saúde 287 (86,4%) crianças; entretanto, não havia referência à sífilis congênita em 236 (71,1%) prontuários e não foram encontradas informações acerca da solicitação do exame venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) em 264 (79,5%). Houve não adesão às consultas subsequentes por parte de 272 (81,9%) indivíduos. As seguintes variáveis apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com o seguimento não adequado das crianças: estado civil das genitoras, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de gestações, hemograma e radiografia de ossos longos. CONCLUSÕES A maioria das crianças notificadas com sífilis congênita comparecem à atenção primária para seguimento, porém os serviços não atendem às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde para o seguimento adequado.

4.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 31(4): 1-8, 21/12/2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-996891

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Analisar os diferenciais da mortalidade infantil, sua distribuição espacial no estado do Ceará e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos óbitos neonatais. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, tendo os municípios como unidade de análise, que utilizou técnicas de análise espacial e regressão linear para identificar aglomerados espaciais e tendências da mortalidade na série de 2005 a 2015. Os dados foram coletados no DATASUS, no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade e no Sistema de Nascidos Vivos, utilizando-se a base cartográfica do estado do Ceará, por município, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). RESULTADOS: A taxa de mortalidade infantil no período analisado foi de 14,7 por mil nascidos vivos, com redução significativa da linha de tendência com ajuste linear de 63% (R2 =88; p<0,001), predomínio do componente neonatal precoce (53,7%) e distribuição heterogênea da mortalidade infantil entre os municípios. A maioria das crianças era do sexo masculino (56,3%), prematuras (60,7%), apresentaram baixo peso ao nascer (64,1%), nasceram de parto vaginal (57,6%), tiveram óbito após o parto (84,3%) e como causa do óbito, afecções originadas no período neonatal e malformações congênitas (96,2%). Segundo as genitoras, destacou-se a faixa etária de 20 a 34 anos (51,6%), com escolaridade inferior a 12 anos de estudo (62,8%). CONCLUSÃO: Aglomerados de autocorrelação espacial foram identificados para a mortalidade geral e a neonatal precoce. Apesar da redução significativa da mortalidade no período, alguns municípios apresentaram taxas acima da média do estado.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the differences in infant mortality and its spatial distribution in the state of Ceará and to identify the epidemiological profile of neonatal deaths. METHODS: An ecological study was carried out in the municipalities using spatial analysis and linear regression techniques to identify spatial clusters and mortality trends in the period from 2005 to 2015. Data were collected from DATASUS, the Mortality Information System, and the Live Births System using a cartographic base of the state of Ceará by municipality developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ­ IBGE). RESULTS: The infant mortality rate in the period analyzed was 14.7 per thousand live births and there was a significant reduction in the trend line with linear adjustment of 63% (R2=88; p<0.001), predominance of the early neonatal component (53.7%) and heterogeneous distribution of infant mortality among municipalities. Most of the children were male (56.3%), premature (60.7%), had low birth weight (64.1%), were born vaginally (57.6%), died after delivery (84.3%) and the main causes of death were conditions originating in the neonatal period and congenital malformations (96.2%). As for the mothers, the majority were 20 to 34 years old (51.6%) and had less than 12 years of study (62.8%). CONCLUSION: Clusters of spatial autocorrelation were identified for general and early neonatal mortality. Despite the significant reduction in mortality in the period, some municipalities presented rates above the state's average.


OBJETIVO: Analizar los diferenciales de la mortalidad infantil, su distribución espacial en el estado de Ceará y trazar el perfil epidemiológico de los óbitos neonatales. MÉTODOS: Estudio ecológico con unidad de análisis en los municipios utilizando técnicas de análisis espacial y regresión linear para la identificación de aglomerados espaciales y tendencias de mortalidad entre 2005 y 2015. Se recogieron los datos en el DATASUS, en el Sistema de Información de Mortalidad y en el Sistema de Nacidos Vivos utilizándose la base cartográfica del estado de Ceará, por municipio, del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE). RESULTADOS: La tasa de mortalidad infantil en el período analizado fue de 14,7 para cada mil nacidos vivos con reducción significativa de línea de tendencia con ajuste linear del 63% (R2 =88; p<0,001), predominio del componente neonatal precoz (53,7%) y distribución heterogénea de la mortalidad infantil entre los municipios. La mayoría de los niños era del sexo masculino (56,3%), prematuros (60,7%), con bajo peso al nacer (64,1%), de parto vaginal (57,6%), con óbito después del parto (84,3%) y las afecciones originadas del periodo neonatal y las malformaciones congénitas como causa de óbito (96,2%). Se destacó la franja de edad entre 20 y 34 años (51,6%) entre las genitoras con escolaridad inferior a 12 años de estudio (62,8%). CONCLUSIÓN: Se han identificado aglomerados de auto correlación espacial para la mortalidad general y la neonatal precoz. Pese una reducción significativa de la mortalidad en el período, algunos municipios presentaron tasas por encima de la media del estado.

5.
Pathog Glob Health ; 112(2): 79-85, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405082

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes. In the spatial analysis, 12 leprosy cases presented similar genotypes organized into 4 clusters. The most common genotypes in the current study was AC8b: 8, AC9: 7, AC8a: 8, GTA9: 10, which may represent a genotype of circulating strains most often in Ceará. A minimum set of four MIRU-VNTR loci was demonstrated to study the genetic diversity of M. leprae isolates from NS.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Genotipo , Técnicas de Genotipaje/métodos , Lepra/microbiología , Repeticiones de Minisatélite , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación , Cavidad Nasal/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Líquidos Corporales/microbiología , Brasil , Niño , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 805-811, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211240

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS: M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua , Brasil , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Genotipo , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(12): 805-811, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-894856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Microbiología del Agua , Brasil , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Genotipo
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 50(2): 216-222, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562758

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION:: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS:: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. leprae was amplified by qPCR and a standard curve was created with the pIDTBlue 16SrRNAMlep plasmid. The Juazeiro do Norte water samples and the biopsies were genotyped (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] 1 to 4) and the SNP 4 genotypes were subtyped. RESULTS:: Of the 149 water samples analyzed, 54.4% were positive for the M. leprae DNA. The M. leprae bacilli copy number ranged from 1.42 × 10 -1 to 1.44 × 10 + 2 . Most biopsies showed SNP type 4 (64%), while all samples from Juazeiro do Norte were SNP type 4, with subtype 4-N appearing at the highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS:: We suggest that environmental waters containing M. leprae bacilli play an important role in disease transmission, justifying PGL-1 seropositivity in individuals living in areas where there is no reported case, and in leprosy cases individuals who report no previous contact with other case. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify disease transmission in this region and to explore the role of the environment. We also suggest that in this area surveillance for leprosy cases should be intensified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Dulce/microbiología , Lepra/microbiología , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua , Biopsia , Brasil , Genotipo , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 216-222, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-842831

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013. The 16S rRNA gene region of M. leprae was amplified by qPCR and a standard curve was created with the pIDTBlue 16SrRNAMlep plasmid. The Juazeiro do Norte water samples and the biopsies were genotyped (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] 1 to 4) and the SNP 4 genotypes were subtyped. RESULTS: Of the 149 water samples analyzed, 54.4% were positive for the M. leprae DNA. The M. leprae bacilli copy number ranged from 1.42 × 10 -1 to 1.44 × 10 + 2 . Most biopsies showed SNP type 4 (64%), while all samples from Juazeiro do Norte were SNP type 4, with subtype 4-N appearing at the highest frequency. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that environmental waters containing M. leprae bacilli play an important role in disease transmission, justifying PGL-1 seropositivity in individuals living in areas where there is no reported case, and in leprosy cases individuals who report no previous contact with other case. Therefore, further investigation is needed to clarify disease transmission in this region and to explore the role of the environment. We also suggest that in this area surveillance for leprosy cases should be intensified.

10.
Lepr Rev ; 87(1): 60-70, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In leprosy, sensory function of nerves is evaluated with monofilaments test and the motor function with voluntary muscle test, however electroneuromyography is considered as the gold-standard tool. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: i) to evaluate the correlation between clinical tests and electroneuromyography for the diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy; and ii) to identify the prevalence of leprosy neuropathy and the most compromised peripheral nerves in leprosy. METHODS: We analysed the data from a nested case-control study that identified 166 patients diagnosed with leprosy neuropathy confirmed by electromyography. This study was designed for an analysis of correlation between the diagnostic tests. RESULTS: The most prevalent type of the neural damage was the sensory and motor multiple mononeuropathy, observed in 62 (37.3%) cases. The highest prevalence was the ulnar nerve in 67 (40.3%) cases. Agreement specified by nerves was moderate, ranging from k = 0.58 in the deep peroneal nerve to k = 0.41 in the posterior tibial nerve). Overall agreement between the clinical tests and electroneuromyography was very poor. Monofilaments test with k = 0.02 (95% CI 0.00-0.12) and voluntary muscle test with 0.16 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.28, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low to moderate correlation between clinical tests (monofilaments and voluntary muscle tests) and the electroneuromyography examination. The most prevalent type of neural impairment was the sensory and motor multiple mononeuropathy, and the most affected nerve was the ulnar.


Asunto(s)
Electrofisiología/métodos , Lepra/complicaciones , Examen Neurológico/métodos , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Periférico/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 31(9): 2005-16, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26578024

RESUMEN

This study aimed to analyze the relationship between pediatric AIDS cases and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. This was an ecological and descriptive study with socioeconomic data from the 2010 Population Census and AIDS data in children for 2001-2011 from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pearson's correlation was performed and the Moran index was used to verify spatial autocorrelation. A multinomial model was used to identify clusters. Of the total sample, 57.8% were male. In 18.8% of the children, the diagnosis was made after two years of age. There was a positive spatial correlation between AIDS cases in children and income (I = 0.6; p = 0.001) and the proportion of poor (I = 0.5; p = 0.001). Neighborhoods with these characteristics are mainly located in the Northwest and Southwest areas of the city. Spatial correlation between pediatric AIDS cases and socioeconomic indicators highlights the need for interventions aimed at improving health and living conditions.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Salud del Niño , Ciudades/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Espacial
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 898-905, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26560980

RESUMEN

A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial , Adulto Joven
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 898-905, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-764588

RESUMEN

A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Portador Sano/microbiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Lepra/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Lepra/epidemiología , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacial
14.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487292

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze if the distribution of specialized care services for HIV/AIDS is associated with AIDS rates. METHODS: Ecological study, for which the distribution of 10 specialized care services in the Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil, was obtained, and the mean rates of the disease were estimated per mesoregion. We evaluated 7,896 individuals who had been diagnosed with AIDS, were aged 13 years or older, lived in Ceara, and had been informed of their condition between 2001 and 2011. Maps were constructed to verify the relationship between the distribution of AIDS cases and institutionalized support networks in the 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. BoxMap and LisaMap were used for data analysis. The Voronoi diagram was applied for the distribution of the studied services. RESULTS: Specialized care services concentrated in AIDS clusters in the metropolitan area. The Noroeste Cearense and west of the Sertoes Cearenseshad high AIDS rates, but a low number of specialized care services over time. Two of these services were implemented where clusters of the disease exist in the second period. The application of the Voronoi diagram showed that the specialized care services located outside the metropolitan area covered a large territory. We identified one polygon that had no services. CONCLUSIONS: The scenario of AIDS cases spread away from major urban areas demands the creation of social support services in areas other than the capital and the metropolitan area of the state; this can reduce access barriers to these institutions. It is necessary to create specialized care services for HIV/AIDS in the Noroeste Cearense and north of Jaguaribe.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/terapia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Características de la Residencia
15.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(9): 2005-2016, Set. 2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-765121

RESUMEN

Objetivou-se analisar a relação entre casos de AIDS em crianças e características socioeconômicas de bairros de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Estudo ecológico descritivo, cujos dados socioeconômicos foram obtidos do Censo Demográfico de 2010 e os de AIDS em crianças referentes ao período de 2001 a 2011 no Sistema de Notificação de Agravos. Realizou-se análise de correlação de Pearson e utilizou-se o índice de Moran para verificar a autocorrelação espacial. Adotou-se o modelo multinomial para identificar clusters. Verificou-se 57,8% das crianças do sexo masculino. Em 18,8% das crianças o diagnóstico ocorreu após os dois anos de idade. Observou-se correlação espacial positiva dos casos de AIDS em crianças em relação à renda (I = 0,6; p = 0,001) e à proporção de pobres (I = 0,5; p = 0,001). Os bairros com essa caracterização estão localizados principalmente ao noroeste e sudoeste da cidade. A correlação espacial dos casos de AIDS em crianças com os indicadores socioeconômicos evidencia a necessidade de intervenções voltadas à saúde e melhoria das condições de vida.


This study aimed to analyze the relationship between pediatric AIDS cases and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. This was an ecological and descriptive study with socioeconomic data from the 2010 Population Census and AIDS data in children for 2001-2011 from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases. Pearson’s correlation was performed and the Moran index was used to verify spatial autocorrelation. A multinomial model was used to identify clusters. Of the total sample, 57.8% were male. In 18.8% of the children, the diagnosis was made after two years of age. There was a positive spatial correlation between AIDS cases in children and income (I = 0.6; p = 0.001) and the proportion of poor (I = 0.5; p = 0.001). Neighborhoods with these characteristics are mainly located in the Northwest and Southwest areas of the city. Spatial correlation between pediatric AIDS cases and socioeconomic indicators highlights the need for interventions aimed at improving health and living conditions.


El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la relación entre los casos de sida en niños y las características socioeconómicas de los barrios de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio ecológico y descriptivo, cuyos datos socioeconómicos se obtuvieron del Censo Demográfico de 2010, los datos de sida en niños -para el período 2001-20- se obtuvieron del Sistema de Notificación de Enfermedades. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación de Pearson y el índice de Moran para verificar la autocorrelación espacial. Se adoptó el modelo multinomial para identificar clusters. Hubo un 57,8% de los niños varones. En un 8,8%, el diagnóstico se produjo después de dos años de edad. Hubo una correlación positiva espacial entre los casos de sida en niños, en relación con los ingresos (I = 0,6; p = 0,001) y la proporción de pobres (I = 0,5; p = 0,001). Los vecindarios con esta caracterización están principalmente al noroeste y sudoeste de la ciudad. La correlación espacial de los casos de sida en niños con indicadores socioeconómicos destaca la necesidad de intervenciones dirigidas a mejorar las condiciones de vida y salud.


Asunto(s)
Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Salud del Niño , Estudios Transversales , Ciudades/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 23(3): 441-9, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26155005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Características de la Residencia , Población Urbana
17.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 23(3): 441-449, May-June 2015. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: lil-755945

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES:

to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women.

METHOD:

ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census.

RESULTS:

the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase.

CONCLUSION:

precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions.

.

OBJETIVOS:

analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos notificados de gestantes infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana e identificar as áreas urbanas de maior vulnerabilidade social para a ocorrência da infecção entre gestantes.

MÉTODO:

estudo ecológico, desenvolvido mediante técnicas de análise espacial de dados de área. Utilizaram-se dados secundários do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, do município de Recife, Pernambuco. Dados sobre natalidade foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos e dados socioeconômicos do Censo Demográfico 2010.

RESULTADOS:

verificou-se presença de autocorrelação espacial, sendo o Índice Global de Moran significante para a distribuição. Identificaram-se clusters, considerados áreas de alto risco, localizados em bairros agrupados, com taxas de infecção em gestantes igualmente altas entre si. Distinguiu-se bairro, situado no noroeste do município, considerado em fase de transição epidemiológica.

CONCLUSÃO:

precárias condições de vida evidenciadas pelos indicadores analfabetismo, ausência de pré-natal e pobreza mostraram-se relevantes para o risco da transmissão vertical do HIV, convergindo para o agrupamento de casos entre regiões desfavorecidas.

.

OBJETIVOS:

analizar la distribución espacial de los casos notificados de gestantes infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana e identificar las áreas urbanas de mayor vulnerabilidad social para la ocurrencia de la infección entre gestantes.

MÉTODO:

estudio ecológico, desarrollado mediante técnicas de análisis espacial de datos de área. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Notificación de Enfermedades, del municipio de Recife, Pernambuco. Los datos sobre natalidad fueron obtenidos del Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos y los datos socioeconómicos del Censo Demográfico 2010.

RESULTADOS:

se verificó la presencia de autocorrelación espacial, siendo el Índice Global de Moran significativo para la distribución. Se identificaron clusters, considerados áreas de alto riesgo, localizados en barrios agrupados, con tasas de infección en gestantes igualmente altas entre sí. Se distinguió un barrio, situado en el noroeste del municipio, considerado en fase de transición epidemiológica.

CONCLUSIÓN:

las precarias condiciones de vida evidenciadas por los indicadores analfabetismo, la ausencia de prenatal y la pobreza, se mostraron relevantes para el riesgo de la transmisión vertical del HIV, convergiendo para el agrupamiento de casos entre regiones desfavorecidas.

.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Población Urbana , Brasil/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 20(4): 1177-84, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923628

RESUMEN

This study describes the historic records on AIDS in the Brazilian state of Ceará, with analysis by gender, age group and race. It is a descriptive, retrospective, ecological study, analyzing 7,896 notifications of cases of AIDS, of people aged 13 and above, resident in the Ceará, over the period 2001 through 2011. Percentage occurrences and other data were calculated based on the variables gender, age group and race. Average and comparison tests were made, considering p < 0.05 and the trend line. There is a progressive increase in the number of cases. The majority of cases are in men. The ratio between the sexes falls from 2003 through 2007, but the number of women is still lower overall in the period. Higher rates of occurrence were found between the ages of 30 and 39, and of those with black-white mixed-race skin color (80%). Based on the variables studied in the series that was analyzed, the results indicate a need for differentiated strategies in prevention and control of the disease in the state.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/historia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
19.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(4): 1177-1184, 04/2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-744868

RESUMEN

This study describes the historic records on AIDS in the Brazilian state of Ceará, with analysis by gender, age group and race. It is a descriptive, retrospective, ecological study, analyzing 7,896 notifications of cases of AIDS, of people aged 13 and above, resident in the Ceará, over the period 2001 through 2011. Percentage occurrences and other data were calculated based on the variables gender, age group and race. Average and comparison tests were made, considering p < 0.05 and the trend line. There is a progressive increase in the number of cases. The majority of cases are in men. The ratio between the sexes falls from 2003 through 2007, but the number of women is still lower overall in the period. Higher rates of occurrence were found between the ages of 30 and 39, and of those with black-white mixed-race skin color (80%). Based on the variables studied in the series that was analyzed, the results indicate a need for differentiated strategies in prevention and control of the disease in the state.


Objetivou-se descrever a série histórica da AIDS, no Ceará, relacionada a sexo, faixa etária e raça. Estudo ecológico, descritivo e retrospectivo, analisou 7.896 notificações de casos de AIDS, de pessoas ≥ 13 anos, residentes no Ceará, entre 2001 e 2011. Calculou-se a incidência dos casos, das variáveis sexo, faixa etária e raça. Realizaram-se testes de médias e comparações, considerando p < 0,05 e a linha de tendência. A taxa de AIDS revela o aumento progressivo do número de casos. Os homens detêm a maioria dos casos. De 2003 a 2007, verificou-se queda na razão entre os sexos, porém o número de mulheres mantém-se inferior no período. Maiores incidências foram verificadas nas idades entre 30 e 39 anos, e entre os de cor parda (80%). Mediante as variáveis estudadas na série analisada, aponta-se a necessidade de estratégias diferenciadas em prevenção e controle da doença no Estado.


Asunto(s)
Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Manipulación Osteopática/métodos , Otitis Media con Derrame/terapia , Otitis Media Supurativa/complicaciones , Pruebas de Impedancia Acústica , Enfermedad Aguda , Estudios de Seguimiento , Otitis Media con Derrame/diagnóstico , Otitis Media con Derrame/etiología , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 49: 77, 2015. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-962147

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To analyze if the distribution of specialized care services for HIV/AIDS is associated with AIDS rates. METHODS Ecological study, for which the distribution of 10 specialized care services in the Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil, was obtained, and the mean rates of the disease were estimated per mesoregion. We evaluated 7,896 individuals who had been diagnosed with AIDS, were aged 13 years or older, lived in Ceara, and had been informed of their condition between 2001 and 2011. Maps were constructed to verify the relationship between the distribution of AIDS cases and institutionalized support networks in the 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. BoxMap and LisaMap were used for data analysis. The Voronoi diagram was applied for the distribution of the studied services. RESULTS Specialized care services concentrated in AIDS clusters in the metropolitan area. The Noroeste Cearense and west of the Sertoes Cearenses had high AIDS rates, but a low number of specialized care services over time. Two of these services were implemented where clusters of the disease exist in the second period. The application of the Voronoi diagram showed that the specialized care services located outside the metropolitan area covered a large territory. We identified one polygon that had no services. CONCLUSIONS The scenario of AIDS cases spread away from major urban areas demands the creation of social support services in areas other than the capital and the metropolitan area of the state; this can reduce access barriers to these institutions. It is necessary to create specialized care services for HIV/AIDS in the Noroeste Cearense and north of Jaguaribe.


OBJETIVO Analisar se a distribuição dos serviços de assistência especializada em HIV/aids está associada às taxas de aids. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico, pelo qual foi obtida a distribuição de 10 serviços de assistência especializada em HIV/aids, no estado do Ceará. As taxas médias da doença foram calculadas por mesorregião. Estudaram-se 7.896 indivíduos notificados com aids, com idade igual ou superior a 13 anos, residentes no Ceará, no período de 2001 a 2011. Construíram-se mapas para verificar relação entre distribuição dos casos de aids e das redes institucionalizadas de apoio nos períodos de 2001 a 2006 e 2007 a 2011. Utilizou-se BoxMap e LisaMap para análise dos dados. Aplicou-se o diagrama de Voronoi para os serviços estudados. RESULTADOS Verificou-se concentração dos serviços de assistência especializada nosclusters de aids na Região Metropolitana do estado. O Noroeste Cearense e o oeste dos Sertões Cearenses apresentaram elevadas taxas de aids, porém baixa quantidade de serviços especializados ao longo do tempo. Houve implantação de dois serviços especializados no segundo período onde existem aglomerados da doença. A aplicação do Diagrama de Voronoi mostrou que os serviços localizados fora da Região Metropolitana abrangem grande extensão territorial. Foi identificado polígono sem nenhum serviço. CONCLUSÕES O cenário de interiorização dos casos de aids demanda a necessidade de criação de serviços de apoio social além da capital e da Região Metropolitana do estado, a fim de diminuir as barreiras de acesso a essas instituições. É necessário criar serviços de assistência especializada em HIV/aids no Noroeste Cearense e no norte do Jaguaribe.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA