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1.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 52, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794989

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clinical implication of the increased serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration in assisted reproduction treatment (ART) is still controversial. The current study aimed to compare the predictive value of serum progesterone on day of HCG administration / metaphase II oocyte (P/MII) ratio on IVF/ ICSI outcome to serum progesterone (P) level alone and the ratio of serum progesterone/estradiol level (P/E2) ratio in prediction of pregnancy rates after ART. MATERIAL & METHODS: Two hundred patients admitted to the IVF/ICSI program at Minia IVF center in Egypt in the period from October 2016 to May 2018 were included in this study. Serum Progesterone (P) and Estradiol (E2) levels were estimated on the day of HCG administration. The ratio between serum P and the number of MII oocytes (P/MII ratio) was calculated and the predictive values of the three parameters (P, P/E2 ratio and P/MII ratio) in prediction of cycle outcomes were measured. RESULTS: P/ MII oocyte ratio was significantly lower in patients who attained clinical pregnancy (n = 97) as compared with those who couldn't whilst there was no significant difference in P and P/E2 ratio between the two groups. Using a cut off value of 0.125, the sensitivity and specificity of progesterone/ MII ratio in prediction of no pregnancy in IVF/ICSI were 75.7 and 77.1% respectively with the area under The Receiver operating curve (ROC-AUC) = 0.808. The respective values of the ROC-AUC for the P and P/E2 ratio were 0.651 and 0.712 with sensitivity and specificity of 71.2 and 73.5%for P level and of 72.5 and 75.3% for P/E2 ratio. Implantation or clinical pregnancy rates were significantly different between patients with high and low P/MII ratio irrespective of day of embryo transfer (day 3 or 5). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with normal ovarian response, serum progesterone on day of HCG / MII oocyte ratio can be a useful predictor of pregnancy outcomes and in deciding on freezing of all embryos for later transfer instead of high progesterone level alone.

2.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915968

RESUMEN

Neurodegenerative diseases, for example Alzheimer's, are perceived as driven by hereditary, cellular, and multifaceted biochemical actions. Numerous plant products, for example flavonoids, are documented in studies for having the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier and moderate the development of such illnesses. Computer-aided drug design (CADD) has achieved importance in the drug discovery world; innovative developments in the aspects of structure identification and characterization, bio-computational science, and molecular biology have added to the preparation of new medications towards these ailments. In this study we evaluated nine flavonoid compounds identified from three medicinal plants, namely T. diversifolia, B. sapida, and I. gabonensis for their inhibitory role on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, using pharmacophore modeling, auto-QSAR prediction, and molecular studies, in comparison with standard drugs. The results indicated that the pharmacophore models produced from structures of AChE, BChE and MAO could identify the active compounds, with a recuperation rate of the actives found near 100% in the complete ranked decoy database. Moreso, the robustness of the virtual screening method was accessed by well-established methods including enrichment factor (EF), receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Boltzmann-enhanced discrimination of receiver operating characteristic (BEDROC), and area under accumulation curve (AUAC). Most notably, the compounds' pIC50 values were predicted by a machine learning-based model generated by the AutoQSAR algorithm. The generated model was validated to affirm its predictive model. The best models achieved for AChE, BChE and MAO were models kpls_radial_17 (R2 = 0.86 and Q2 = 0.73), pls_38 (R2 = 0.77 and Q2 = 0.72), kpls_desc_44 (R2 = 0.81 and Q2 = 0.81) and these externally validated models were utilized to predict the bioactivities of the lead compounds. The binding affinity results of the ligands against the three selected targets revealed that luteolin displayed the highest affinity score of -9.60 kcal/mol, closely followed by apigenin and ellagic acid with docking scores of -9.60 and -9.53 kcal/mol, respectively. The least binding affinity was attained by gallic acid (-6.30 kcal/mol). The docking scores of our standards were -10.40 and -7.93 kcal/mol for donepezil and galanthamine, respectively. The toxicity prediction revealed that none of the flavonoids presented toxicity and they all had good absorption parameters for the analyzed targets. Hence, these compounds can be considered as likely leads for drug improvement against the same.

3.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(1): 146-150, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683041

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hepcidin, a key element in iron hemostasis, is a small antimicrobial peptide encoded by the HAMP gene on 19q13. Several studies have revealed that the expression of hepcidin is influenced by single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the promoter region of HAMP. Therefore, this research aimed to study the frequency distribution of HAMP promoter genetic variants and their associations with serum iron, serum transferrin and serum ferritin levels in Saudi Arabian women (aged 15-25). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 108 female subjects, among whom 50 had normal levels of iron and 58 were iron deficient. All participants were enrolled at the University of Tabuk. The HAMP promoter rs10421768 A>G gene polymorphism (c.-582 A>G) was detected by using an allele-specific or amplification-refractory mutation PCR system. The AS-PCR primers were designed by using Primer3 software. RESULTS: The frequencies of HAMP promoter rs10421768 genotypes AA, AG and GG were 3.45, 96.55 and 0% in the iron-deficient women and 12, 88 and 0% in the healthy women, respectively. The distributions of the HAMP promoter c.-582 A>G genotypes observed between the iron-deficient and normal women were not significantly different (p = 0.239). A significant difference in the HAMP genotype (c.-582 A>G) between the iron-deficient women and healthy women was associated with reduced serum iron (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the HAMP genotype (c.-582 A>G) was associated with reduced serum iron in women in northern Saudi Arabia. However, no significant difference was found between healthy women and iron-deficient women.

4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(3 & 4): 409-414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154255

RESUMEN

Purpose: Microsporidium is a spore-forming intracellular parasite that affects a wide range of hosts including humans. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a key role in the immunity to infection with microsporidia. Recently, the TNF-α antagonists have proven successful in treating variable autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of using TNF-α antagonists as a therapeutic regimen in the prevalence of infections with microsporidia. Materials and Methods: Diarrheal patients with distinct autoimmune diseases (n = 100) were assigned to the study. Patients taking anti-TNF-α medications (n = 60) were allocated to Group 1A and those undergoing non-TNF-α inhibitor treatment (n = 40) to Group 1B. Furthermore, patients with diarrhea without autoimmune disorders (n = 20) were allocated as controls. Stool specimens, 3 per patient, were collected and microscopically examined for microsporidia spores. A microsporidia-specific stool polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the microscopic findings. Results: Microsporidia infection was identified in 28.3% (17/60), 10% (4/40), and in 5% (1/20) of patients in Group 1A, Group 1B, and in the control group, respectively. Overall, infection was significantly high in cases compared to the controls and in patients receiving TNF-α antagonists compared to patients not given TNF-α inhibitors (P < 0.05). Finally, infection was significantly higher in cases treated with TNF-α antagonists for ≥2 months compared to cases treated for <2 months of duration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was a significant increase in microsporidia infection in autoimmune disease patients undergoing treatment with TNF-α antagonists, and the duration of treatment is one of the risk factors. The study highlights the importance of microsporidia testing in immunocompromised patients, particularly those undergoing treatment with anti-TNF-α drugs and emphasises the need for awareness among clinicians regarding this opportunistic parasite.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128396

RESUMEN

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a Betacoronavirus that results in a severe fatal respiratory disease; however, it is also associated with mild inapparent infections. The western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) contains the holy places where millions of Muslims gathered from all over the world, all year round, with a high probability of mass disease transmission. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MERS-CoV among military personnel and their families during the period 2014-2019, in the western part of the KSA. A total of 35,203 sputum samples collected from patients with respiratory distress were screened for the existence of MERS-CoV using real-time RT-PCR in the examined patients. MERS-CoV infections were detected at a very low percentage in the examined patients. Only 42 of the examined subjects (0.12%) were found positive for MERS-CoV. Most infected cases (32/42) cases were detected in 2014, and the rest of cases were reported in 2015-2019. The cases with fatal consequences (n:20) were only detected in 2014. It was concluded that there is a very low prevalence of MERS-CoV infections among the military personnel and their families. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989703

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes to the living organisms. In the present study, the hepato-protective ability of thymoquinone (TQ), the active principle of Nigella sativa seed, or ebselen (Eb), an organoselenium compound, against As intoxication in female rats was investigated. For this purpose, animals were allocated randomly into control, As (20 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), Eb (5 mg/kg), As+TQ, and As+Eb groups that were orally administered for 28 consecutive days. Arsenic exposure resulted in hepatic oxidative damage which was evidenced by marked decreases in antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH)) concomitant with high malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Furthermore, As toxicity induced significant elevations in liver accumulation of As, serum hepatic indices (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB)), and apoptotic marker (B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and caspase 3) levels. Additionally, notable increments in hepatic fibrotic markers (epidermal growth factor (EFG) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)) associated with high nitric oxide, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were noticed following As intoxication. Biochemical findings were well-supported by hepatic histopathological screening. The co-treatment of As-exposed rats with TQ or Eb considerably improved liver function and antioxidant status together with lessened hepatic As content, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. The overall outcomes demonstrated that TQ or Eb ameliorates As-induced liver injury through their favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and fibrolytic properties.

7.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 176-182, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883931

RESUMEN

Purpose: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an important causative agent of nosocomial diarrhoea and has become a major worldwide public health concern. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) amongst patients with nosocomial diarrhoea in a large tertiary care hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia, and to define molecular characteristics and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of C. difficile strains isolated from those patients. Materials and Methods: Stool specimens were collected from 456 patients and were cultured for C. difficile isolation. The isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting genes encoding the toxins (toxin A, toxin B and binary toxin [CDT]), genotyping by PCR ribotyping method and antimicrobial sensitivity testing using E test strips. Results: Seventy-four C. difficile strains were recovered, of which 44 (59.5%) were A+B+CDT-, 14 (18.9%) were A-B+CDT-, 4 (5.4%) were A+B+CDT+ and 12 (16.2%) were A-B-CDT-. Toxigenic strains, and hence CDI, were detected in 13.6% of the patients (62/456). Fourteen different ribotypes were distinguished amongst bacterial isolates, of which ribotypes 002, 001, 017, 014 and 020 were the most prevalent (20.3%, 18.9%, 18.9%, 9.5% and 8.1%, respectively). Four isolates (5.4%) belonged to ribotype 027. All bacterial isolates showed sensitivity to metronidazole, vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. The isolates exhibited resistance to linezolid (2.7%), chloramphenicol (5.4%), rifampicin (13.5%), tetracycline (21.6%), moxifloxacin (48.6%), clindamycin (54%) and imipenem (83.8%). Multiple drug resistance was observed in 56.8% of the isolates. Conclusion: Further larger studies are required for an accurate understanding of CDI epidemiology in Saudi Arabia.

8.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2121-2132, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710811

RESUMEN

Sepsis results from a major systemic inflammatory response and can induce disorders in multiple organs. The present study evaluated the potential protective effects of oleuropein (OLE) against hyperinflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis in mice. Sixty male Balb/c mice were randomly categorized into five groups of 12 animals each: control, intraperitoneally injected with OLE (50 mg/kg), injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and two groups administered OLE (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to LPS injection. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, the animals were sacrificed. Serum, liver, and kidney tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses, histopathological examinations, and investigation of inflammation-related gene expression. OLE pretreatment significantly reduced liver damage parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) and kidney damage parameters (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and kidney injury molecule-1) in the septic mice. OLE pretreatment ameliorated LPS-induced liver and kidney histological changes. OLE significantly mitigated the increased levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidneys and reduced levels of reduced glutathione induced by LPS. LPS injection also resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and inflammation-related genes (Nos2, Hmgb1, Mpo, Cd46, Map2k4, and Map2k7) in the hepatic and renal tissues. OLE reduced these expressions to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Moreover, OLE pretreatment enhanced the survival rate of septic mice. In conclusion, OLE alleviated the inflammatory response to protect against LPS-induced sepsis in mice.

9.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(1): 94-100, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719215

RESUMEN

Purpose: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens worldwide. However, the outcomes of H. pylori infection are markedly variable from asymptomatic mild lesion to malignant transformation. Many factors are suggested to influence these infection outcomes, including host immunity and genetic susceptibility. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can recognise different microbial components and play an essential role in the mucosal immune response against H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: The association between the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of TLR2, 4, 9 and 10 and H. pylori-related gastric diseases were investigated by molecular methods after the confirmation of H. pylori infection. The study included 210 patients in three groups; chronic gastritis (n = 90), peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (n = 75) and gastric carcinoma (n = 45). Results: The results showed a significant association between TLR4 SNPs (rs 4986790 and rs 4986791) and the presence of H. pylori infection, especially in chronic gastritis patient group. Furthermore, TLR9-rs352140 TT genotype was more prevalent among chronic gastritis patient group. TLR10-rs 10004195 TT genotype was found to be less prevalent among H. pylori-related chronic gastritis and PUD and was suspected to have a protective effect. TLR2 SNPs (rs3804099 and rs3804100) showed no significant statistical difference between H. pylori-infected patients and the controls. Conclusion: TLR genes polymorphisms may play a role in H. pylori infection susceptibility and may influence its outcomes; however, the ethnic and other factors may modify this effect.

10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 129-134, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418381

RESUMEN

In most developing countries, Dientamoeba fragilis infection is an obscure protozoan infection. We aimed to determine a frequency and clinical importance of D. fragilis infection in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A 1-year case control study included patients with gastrointestinal (cases, n=114) or non-gastrointestinal symptoms (controls, n=90). The fecal samples were examined with the classical parasitological methods for intestinal protozoa, and by real time PCR for D. fragilis. The infection by D. fragilis was detected in 5.8% by PCR and in 4.4% patients by microscopy. The infection was identified more in control group (n=9) than in cases (n=3); a sole infection in 11 patients and mixed with Giardia in 1 patient. The other enteric parasites detected were Blastocystis sp. (8.3%), Giardia sp. (5.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.4%), Entamoeba coli (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). Our results tend to reinforce the need to increase awareness of D. fragilis infection in Saudi Arabia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Dientamebiasis/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Digestivo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Dientamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Dientamebiasis/parasitología , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(11): 1319-1323, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The widespread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) antimicrobial decolonization in the clinical setting may lead to an increase in the prevalence of multiresistance to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) owing to their selection. This study aimed to investigate the impact of MRSA decolonization strategies, using mupirocin and chlorhexidine, on their CoNS susceptibility. METHODS: A total of 312 CoNS isolates were collected before starting the decolonization protocols "baseline strains" (BLS) group, 330 isolates were collected after application of the targeted decolonization protocol "targeted decolonization strains" group, and 355 isolates were collected after application of the universal decolonization protocol "universal decolonization strains" group. Methicillin-resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) were identified and tested for mupirocin and chlorhexidine susceptibilities. Heptaplex polymerase chain reaction assay was applied for simultaneous screening for chlorhexidine (CHX-R) and mupirocin resistance (Mu-R) genes. RESULTS: Mu-R prevalence of MR-CoNS among the BLS group was considered moderate (9.1%); however, CHX-R in the BLS group was 5.8%, the rate of which significantly increased among the universal decolonization strains group. DISCUSSION: Both MRSA decolonization strategies have an additional benefit in reducing the prevalence of MR-CoNS. The prevalence Mu-R rate didn't change significantly during either of the MRSA decolonization practices that may be due to the local nature of mupirocin application on the nasal mucosa only. In contrast CHX-R that was found to be significantly higher among the UDS group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that both MRSA decolonization strategies have an additional benefit in reducing the prevalence of MR-CoNS. Although the universal MRSA decolonization has superior efficacy in decolonization of CoNS, it may increase the risk of selecting CHX-R and Mu-R. In addition, other potential resistance genes should be studied.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Resistencia a la Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Mupirocina/farmacología , Portador Sano , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología
12.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(6): 199-205, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045263

RESUMEN

Success in eradication of Helicobacter pylori is declining globally because H. pylori has developed resistance against most of the antibiotics proposed for eradication regimens, mainly through point mutations. The present study included 200 patients with dyspepsia attending Taif Hospital. Gastric biopsies were obtained during gastroscopy and subjected to rapid urease testing. Molecular methods were used to confirm diagnoses of H. pylori infection and to identify resistance gene variants of four antibiotics; namely, clarithromycin, metronidazole, fluoroquinolones and tetracycline (23S rRNA, gyrA, rdxA and 16S rRNA respectively). Of all investigated patients, Molecular diagnoses were made in 143 of all investigated patients; thus, the prevalence was .5%. The overall rate of resistance to clarithromycin among the H. pylori-positive patients was high (39.9%) and the rate of resistance significantly greater (48.2%) among the secondary resistance group, secondary resistance being defined as resistance as a result of previous exposure to the relevant antibiotic. The rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones was considered moderate; the difference in rate of resistance between the primary and secondary resistance groups (8.4% and 9.5%, respectively) was not significant Also, there was a low prevalence of both primary and the secondary tetracycline resistance in the study cohort. In contrast, the prevalence of metronidazole resistance was considered high with no significant difference between the two resistance groups. H. pylori showed an increased prevalence of resistance to all four of the commonly used therapeutic agents. Thus, eradication therapy should be based on the regional results of susceptibility testing. Moreover, treatment tailored according to individually determined H. pylori susceptibility may be a reasonable future goal.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Infecciones por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/aislamiento & purificación , Patología Molecular , Adulto , Anciano , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Claritromicina/farmacología , Estudios de Cohortes , Girasa de ADN/genética , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/epidemiología , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Nitrorreductasas/genética , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Tetraciclina/farmacología , Adulto Joven
13.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 71: 201-7, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869515

RESUMEN

In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/administración & dosificación , Quimiotaxis/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Fagocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Quimiotaxis/fisiología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Neutrófilos/fisiología , Fagocitosis/fisiología , Ticagrelor
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