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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581393


Animal collective movements are a key example of a system that links two clearly defined levels of organization: the individual and the group. Most models investigating collective movements have generated coherent collective behaviours without the inclusion of individual variability. However, new individual-based models, together with emerging empirical information, emphasize that within-group heterogeneity may strongly influence collective movement behaviour. Here we (i) review the empirical evidence for individual variation in animal collective movements, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations have represented individual heterogeneity when modelling collective movements and (iii) present a model to show how within-group heterogeneity influences the collective properties of a group. Our review underscores the need to consider variability at the level of the individual to improve our understanding of how individual decision rules lead to emergent movement patterns, and also to yield better quantitative predictions of collective behaviour.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'.

Conducta Animal , Ecología/métodos , Etología/métodos , Movimiento , Conducta Social , Animales , Modelos Biológicos
Am J Primatol ; 78(5): 493-506, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26031411


Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six countries. Together, these lists contained 455 plant genera from 96 families. We predicted that 1) closely related Chiropotes and Cacajao would demonstrate the greatest similarity in fruit lists; 2) pitheciids living in closer geographic proximity would have greater similarities in fruit lists; and 3) fruit genus richness would be lower in lists from forest fragments than continuous forests. Fruit genus richness was greatest for the composite Chiropotes list, even though Pithecia had the greatest overall sampling effort. We also found that the Callicebus composite fruit list had lower similarity scores in comparison with the composite food lists of the other three genera (both within and between geographic areas). Chiropotes and Pithecia showed strongest similarities in fruit lists, followed by sister taxa Chiropotes and Cacajao. Overall, pitheciids in closer proximity had more similarities in their fruit list, and this pattern was evident in the fruit lists for both Callicebus and Chiropotes. There was no difference in the number of fruit genera used by pitheciids in habitat fragments and continuous forest. Our findings demonstrate that pitheciids use a variety of fruit genera, but phylogenetic and geographic patterns in fruit use are not consistent across all pitheciid genera. This study represents the most extensive examination of pitheciid fruit consumption to date, but future research is needed to investigate the extent to which the trends in fruit genus richness noted here are attributable to habitat differences among study sites, differences in feeding ecology, or a combination of both.

Dieta/veterinaria , Frutas/clasificación , Herbivoria , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Plantas/clasificación , Animales , Ecosistema , Bosques , Geografía , Filogeografía
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 147(3): 482-8, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22282198


Callicebus and the pitheciins are closely related; however, differences in their diets and dental morphology suggest that they differ in the use of mechanically protected food. We describe physical traits of fruits consumed by white-handed titi monkeys (Callicebus lugens) and determine their influence on fruit part selection and immediate seed fate after fruit handling. We tested two hypotheses about the effects of mechanical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate: (1) fruits selected for seed consumption are harder than fruits selected for their fleshy parts and (2) consumed seeds are softer than seeds with other fates. In addition, we analyzed the influence of other physical fruit traits on fruit part selection and seed fate. C. lugens included 69 species in its diet, from which it mainly consumed their fleshy parts. It also consumed seeds, alone or with fleshy fruit parts, but most of them ended up close to parent trees after being dropped or spat out. The first hypothesis was supported while the second was rejected, indicating that C. lugens tends to rely on hard fruits for obtaining seeds, while seed hardness had no influence on fruit part selection and seed fate, contrasting with the pattern reported for Pithecia and Chiropotes in other studies. Ripeness was the most influential factor for fruit part and seed fate discrimination. Results suggest a tendency to sclerocarpic foraging in C. lugens when feeding on seeds.

Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Frutas/anatomía & histología , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Semillas/anatomía & histología , Semillas/fisiología , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Estrés Mecánico