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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149486, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391157

RESUMEN

This study evaluates geochemical and oxidative potential (OP) properties of the respirable (finer than 4 µm) fractions of 22 powdered coal samples from channel profiles (CP4) in Chinese mined coals. The CP4 fractions extracted from milled samples of 22 different coals were mineralogically and geochemically analysed and the relationships with the OP evaluated. The evaluation between CP4/CP demonstrated that CP4 increased concentrations of anatase, Cs, W, Zn and Zr, whereas sulphates, Fe, S, Mo, Mn, Hf and Ge decreased their CP4 concentrations. OP results from ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT) tests evidenced a clear link between specific inorganic components of CP4 with OPAA and the organic fraction of OPGSH and OPDTT. Correlation analyses were performed for OP indicators and the geochemical patterns of CP4. These were compared with respirable dust samples from prior studies. They indicate that Fe (r = 0.83), pyrite (r = 0.66) and sulphate minerals (r = 0.42) (tracing acidic species from pyrite oxidation), followed by S (r = 0.50) and ash yield (r = 0.46), and, to a much lesser extent, Ti, anatase, U, Mo, V and Pb, are clearly linked with OPAA. Moreover, OPGSH correlation was identified by organic matter, as moisture (r = 0.73), Na (r = 0.56) and B (r = 0.51), and to a lesser extent by the coarse particle size, Ca and carbonate minerals. In addition, Mg (r = 0.70), B (r = 0.47), Na (r = 0.59), Mn, Ba, quartz, particle size and Sr regulate OPDTT correlations. These became more noticeable when the analysis was done for samples of the same type of coal rank, in this case, bituminous.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Mineral , Polvo , China , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Estrés Oxidativo , Polvos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148728, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328931

RESUMEN

In this work, time-series analyses of the chemical composition and source contributions of PM2.5 from an urban background station in Barcelona (BCN) and a rural background station in Montseny (MSY) in northeastern Spain from 2009 to 2018 were investigated and compared. A multisite positive matrix factorization analysis was used to compare the source contributions between the two stations, while the trends for both the chemical species and source contributions were studied using the Theil-Sen trend estimator. Between 2009 and 2018, both stations showed a statistically significant decrease in PM2.5 concentrations, which was driven by the downward trends of levels of chemical species and anthropogenic source contributions, mainly from heavy oil combustion, mixed combustion, industry, and secondary sulfate. These source contributions showed a continuous decrease over the study period, signifying the continuing success of mitigation strategies, although the trends of heavy oil combustion and secondary sulfate have flattened since 2016. Secondary nitrate also followed a significant decreasing trend in BCN, while secondary organic aerosols (SOA) very slightly decreased in MSY. The observed decreasing trends, in combination with the absence of a trend for the organic aerosols (OA) at both stations, resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of OA in PM2.5 by 12% in BCN and 9% in MSY, mostly from SOA, which increased by 7% in BCN and 4% in MSY. Thus, at the end of the study period, OA accounted for 40% and 50% of the annual mean PM2.5 at BCN and MSY, respectively. This might have relevant implications for air quality policies aiming at abating PM2.5 in the study region and for possible changes in toxicity of PM2.5 due to marked changes in composition and source apportionment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Nitratos , Material Particulado/análisis , España , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
3.
Environ Int ; 156: 106614, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000503

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The recent evidence of the short-term impact of air pollution on youth cognitive functions is based primarily on observational studies. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether purifying the air of the classrooms produced short-term changes in attention processes of adolescents. METHODS: We recruited a total of 2,123 adolescents (13-16 years old) in 33 high schools in Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain). In each school, adolescents from each class were randomly split into two equal-sized groups and assigned to two different classrooms. A set of two air cleaner devices with the same appearance (one recirculating and filtrating the air and the other only recirculating the air) was used. Each one of the devices was placed at random at one of the two classrooms. Students were masked to intervention allocation and had to complete several computerized activities for 1.5 h, including an attention test (Flanker task) to be performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The response speed consistency, expressed as hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE, in ms), was measured as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using conditional linear regressions with classroom as strata, adjusted for variables that may differ from one class to another such as temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration. RESULTS: Average levels of PM2.5 and black carbon throughout the 1.5 h of experiment were 89% and 87%, respectively, lower in the classrooms with air cleaner than in the control classrooms. No differences were found in the median of HRT-SE between classrooms with cleaned air and normal air (percent change: 1.37%, 95% confidence interval: -2.81%, 5.56%). Sensitivity analyses with secondary attention outcomes resulted in similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: Cleaning the air of a classroom to reduce exposure to air pollutants for 1.5 h did not have an impact on the attention function of adolescents. Still, in light of previous evidence suggesting an association between air pollution and attention, further experimental studies should explore other short-term timescales of exposure and age ranges.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Adolescente , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Atención , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Instituciones Académicas , España
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146739, 2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798874

RESUMEN

Biomass burning (BB) including forest, bush, prescribed fires, agricultural fires, residential wood combustion, and power generation has long been known to affect climate, air quality and human health. With this work we supply a systematic review on the health effects of BB emissions in the framework of the WHO activities on air pollution. We performed a literature search of online databases (PubMed, ISI, and Scopus) from year 1980 up to 2020. A total of 81 papers were considered as relevant for mortality and morbidity effects. High risk of bias was related with poor estimation of BB exposure and lack of adjustment for important confounders. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations originating from BB were associated with all-cause mortality: the meta-analytical estimate was equal to 1.31% (95% CI 0.71, 1.71) and 1.92% (95% CI -1.19, 5.03) increased mortality per each 10 µg m-3 increase of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Regarding cardiovascular mortality 8 studies reported quantitative estimates. For smoky days and for each 10 µg m-3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations, the risk of cardiovascular mortality increased by 4.45% (95% CI 0.96, 7.95) and by 3.30% (95% CI -1.97, 8.57), respectively. Fourteen studies evaluated whether respiratory morbidity was adversely related to PM2.5 (9 studies) or PM10 (5 studies) originating from BB. All found positive associations. The pooled effect estimates were 4.10% (95% CI 2.86, 5.34) and 4.83% (95% CI 0.06, 9.60) increased risk of total respiratory admissions/emergency visits, per 10 µg m-3 increases in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Regarding cardiovascular morbidity, sixteen studies evaluated whether this was adversely related to PM2.5 (10 studies) or PM10 (6 studies) originating from BB. They found both positive and negative results, with summary estimates equal to 3.68% (95% CI -1.73, 9.09) and 0.93% (95% CI -0.18, 2.05) increased risk of total cardiovascular admissions/emergency visits, per 10 µg m-3 increases in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. To conclude, a significant number of studies indicate that BB exposure is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and respiratory morbidity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Biomasa , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Humo
5.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 71(2): 268-280, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758088

RESUMEN

Vehicle non-exhaust emissions are a major component of particle matter, including the direct wear of tires, brakes, road, and the resuspension of deposited particles. It is suggested that resuspended PM (RPM) emissions can be at the same magnitude or even larger than combustion emissions in urban centers. Factors affecting RPM can be included in four categories: road characteristics, traffic condition, land use, and meteorology. In order to study and evaluate these influencing factors, road dust less than 10 micrometers (RD10) was collected in 41 sites across Bogotá. The sampling points had diverse characteristics. RD10 levels varied between 1.0 and 45.8 mg/m2 with an average of 8.9 ± 8.4 mg/m2. Lower RD10 values were observed when vegetation density was high, pavement condition good, driving speeds fast and construction activities absent. On the contrary, RD10 increased under heavy-duty traffic influence and dry conditions. Among dust mitigation measures, management of land-use variables could be as important as traffic control and road maintenance. Implications: This study documented for the first time in Latin America dust loadings less than 10 micrometers, information that can be used to estimate resuspended particle matter emissions in the region. The influence of meteorology, traffic characteristics, road condition, and land-use variables was analyzed and quantified. The management of land-use variables could be as important as traffic control and road maintenance for road dust mitigation. Further research interests are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Polvo , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , América Latina , Tamaño de la Partícula , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
6.
Environ Res ; 191: 109978, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827521

RESUMEN

Portable miniaturised scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) instruments measuring atmospheric particles within the 10-241 nm size range were used to track particle number size distributions and concentrations during near-simultaneous pedestrian, bicycle, bus, car, tram and subway commuting journeys in Barcelona, Spain on 4th-6th July 2018. The majority of particles in this size range were <100 nm, with k-means cluster analysis identifying peaks at 15-22 nm, 30-40 nm, and 45-75 nm. Around 10-25% of the particles measured however were >100 nm (especially in the subway environment) and so lie outside the commonly defined range of "ultrafine" particles (UFP, or <100 nm particles). The study demonstrated in detail how personal exposure to quasi-UFP (QUFP, <241 nm), most of which present in the city streets are produced by road traffic, varies greatly depending on the transport mode and route chosen. Proximity to fresh traffic exhaust sources, such as in a car with open windows, on-road cycling, walking downwind of busy roads, or in a subway station contaminated by roadside air, enhances commuter exposure to particles <30 nm in size. In contrast, travelling inside air-conditioned bus or tram offers greater protection to the commuter from high concentrations of fresh exhaust. Ultrafine number size distributions in traffic-contaminated city air typically peak in the size range 30-70 nm, but they can be shifted to finer sizes not only by increased content of fresh proximal exhaust emissions but also by bursts of new particle formation (NPF) events in the city. One such afternoon photochemical nucleation NPF event was identified during our Barcelona study and recognised in different transport modes, including underground in the subway system. The integration of static urban background air monitoring station information with particle number concentration and size distribution data obtained from portable miniaturised SMPS instruments during commuting journeys opens new approaches to investigating city air quality by offering a level of detail not previously available.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , España , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139596, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531513

RESUMEN

Road dust resuspension has a significant contribution to the atmospheric particulate matter levels in urban areas, but loadings, emission factors, and chemical source profiles vary geographically, hampering the accuracy of emission inventories and source contribution estimates. Given the dearth of studies on the variability of road dust, in the present study, an in-situ resuspension chamber was used to collect PM10 samples from seven representative streets in Viana do Castelo, the northernmost coastal city in Portugal. PM10 samples were analysed for organic and elemental carbon by a thermo-optical technique, elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES, and organic constituents by GC-MS. Emission factors were estimated to be, on average, 340 and 41.2 mg veh-1 km-1 for cobbled and asphalt pavements, respectively. Organic carbon accounted for 5.56 ± 1.24% of the PM10 mass. Very low concentrations of PAHs and their alkylated congeners were detected, denoting a slight predominance of petrogenic compounds. Si, Al, Fe, Ca and K were the most abundant elements. The calculation of various geochemical indices (enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, pollution index and potential ecological risk) showed that road dust was extremely enriched and contaminated by elements from tyre and brake wear (e.g. Sb, Sn, Cu, Bi and Zn), while lithophile elements showed no enrichment. For As, the geochemical and pollution indices reached their maximum in the street most influenced by agricultural activities. Sb, Cd, Cu and As can pose a very high ecological risk. Sb can be regarded as the pollutant of highest concern, since it represented 57% of the total ecological risk. Hazard indices higher than 1 for some anthropogenic elements indicate that non-carcinogenic effects may occur. Except for a street with more severe braking, the total carcinogenic risks can be considered insignificant.

8.
Environ Int ; 135: 105345, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810011

RESUMEN

Ultrafine particles (UFP) are suspected of having significant impacts on health. However, there have only been a limited number of studies on sources of UFP compared to larger particles. In this work, we identified and quantified the sources and processes contributing to particle number size distributions (PNSD) using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) at six monitoring stations (four urban background and two street canyon) from four European cities: Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. These cities are characterised by different meteorological conditions and emissions. The common sources across all stations were Photonucleation, traffic emissions (3 sources, from fresh to aged emissions: Traffic nucleation, Fresh traffic - mode diameter between 13 and 37 nm, and Urban - mode diameter between 44 and 81 nm, mainly traffic but influenced by other sources in some cities), and Secondary particles. The Photonucleation factor was only directly identified by PMF for Barcelona, while an additional split of the Nucleation factor (into Photonucleation and Traffic nucleation) by using NOx concentrations as a proxy for traffic emissions was performed for all other stations. The sum of all traffic sources resulted in a maximum relative contributions ranging from 71 to 94% (annual average) thereby being the main contributor at all stations. In London and Zurich, the relative contribution of the sources did not vary significantly between seasons. In contrast, the high levels of solar radiation in Barcelona led to an important contribution of Photonucleation particles (ranging from 14% during the winter period to 35% during summer). Biogenic emissions were a source identified only in Helsinki (both in the urban background and street canyon stations), that contributed importantly during summer (23% in urban background). Airport emissions contributed to Nucleation particles at urban background sites, as the highest concentrations of this source took place when the wind was blowing from the airport direction in all cities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Emisiones de Vehículos , Ciudades , Europa (Continente) , Londres , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 32114-32127, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494852

RESUMEN

Source apportionment of atmospheric PM1 is important for air quality control, especially in urban areas where high mass concentrations are often observed. Chemical analysis of molecular inorganic and organic tracer compounds and subsequently data analysis with receptor models give insight on the origin of the PM1 sources. In the present study, four source apportionment approaches were compared with an extended database containing inorganic and organic compounds that were measured during an intensive sampling campaign at urban traffic and urban background sites in Barcelona. Source apportionment of the combined database, containing both inorganic and organic compounds, was compared with more conventional approaches using inorganic and organic databases separately. Traffic emission sources were identified in all models for the two sites. The combined inorganic and organic databases provided higher discrimination capacity of emission sources. It identified aerosols generated by regional recirculation of biomass burning, secondary biogenic organic aerosols, harbor emissions, and specific industrial emissions. In this respect, this approach identified a relevant industrial source situated at NE Barcelona in which a waste incinerator plant, a combined-cycle power plant, and an industrial glass complex are located. Models using both inorganic and organic molecular tracer compounds improve the source apportionment of urban PM.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Biomasa , Industrias , Centrales Eléctricas , Estaciones del Año
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029876, 2019 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366661

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse effects on human health. During the last decade, special attention has been given to mineral dust particles from desert dust and sand storms. However, evidence from previous reviews reported inconclusive results on their health effects and the biological mechanism remains unclear. We aim to systematically synthesise evidence on the health effects of desert dust and sand storms accounting for the relevant desert dust patterns from source areas and emissions, transport and composition. METHODS AN ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review that investigated the health effects of desert dust and sand storms in any population. The search will be performed for any eligible studies from previous reviews and selected electronic databases until 2018. Study selection and reporting will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data from individual studies will be extracted using a standardised data extraction form. Quality of the studies will be assessed using a risk of bias tool for environmental exposures developed by experts convened by the WHO. A meta-analysis will be performed by calculating the appropriate effect measures of association for binary and continuous outcomes from individual studies. Subgroup analyses will be performed by geographical areas to account for desert dust patterns. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No primary data will be collected. For this reason, no formal ethical approval is required. This systematic review will help to fill the research gaps in the knowledge of desert dust on human health. The results will be disseminated through a WHO peer-reviewed publication and a conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018091809.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Polvo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Estado de Salud , Arena , Clima Desértico , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
11.
Environ Res ; 172: 529-542, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852456

RESUMEN

Vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ) was investigated inside 14 diesel/non-diesel taxi pairs operating simultaneously and under normal working conditions over six weekday hours (10.00-16.00) in the city of Barcelona, Spain. Parameters measured included PM10 mass and inorganic chemistry, ultrafine particle number (N) and size, lung surface deposited area (LDSA), black carbon (BC), CO2, CO, and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Most taxi drivers elected to drive with windows open, thus keeping levels of CO2 and internally-generated VOCs low but exposing them to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants entering from outside and confirming that air exchange rates are the dominant influence on VIAQ. Median values of N and LDSA (both sensitive markers of VIAQ fluctuations and likely health effects) were reduced to around 104 #/cm3 and < 20 µm2/cm3 respectively under closed conditions, but more than doubled with windows open and sometimes approached 105 #/cm3 and 240 µm2/cm3. In exceptional traffic conditions, transient pollution peaks caused by outside infiltration exceeded N = 106 #/cm3 and LDSA= 1000 µm2/cm3. Indications of self-pollution were implicated by higher BC and CO levels, and larger UFP sizes, measured inside diesel taxis as compared to their non-diesel pair, and the highest concentrations of CO (>2 ppm) were commonly associated with older, high-km diesel taxis. Median PM10 concentrations (67 µg/m3) were treble those of urban background, mainly due to increased levels of organic and elemental carbon, with source apportionment calculations identifying the main pollutants as vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust particles. Enhancements in PM10 concentrations of Cr, Cu, Sn, Sb, and a "High Field Strength Element" zircon-related group characterised by Zr, Hf, Nb, Y and U, are attributed mainly to the presence of brake-derived PM. Volatile organic compounds display a mixture which reflects the complexity of traffic-related organic carbon emissions infiltrating the taxi interior, with 2-methylbutane and n-pentane being the most abundant VOCs, followed by toluene, m-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. Internally sourced VOCs included high monoterpene concentrations from an air freshener, and interior off-gassing may explain why the youngest taxi registered the highest content of alkanes and aromatic compounds. Carbon dioxide concentrations quickly climbed to undesirable levels (>2500 ppm) under closed ventilation conditions and could stay high for much of the working day. Taxi drivers face daily occupational exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and would benefit from a greater awareness of VIAQ issues, notably the use of ventilation, to encourage them to minimise possible health effects caused by their working environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Automóviles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Exposición Profesional , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , Automóviles/normas , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , España , Emisiones de Vehículos
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 652: 434-446, 2019 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368174

RESUMEN

Road dust has been identified as one of the main sources of outdoor PM10 in Bogota (a Latin American megacity), but there are no studies that have analyzed the physicochemical characteristics and origins of its respirable fraction. A characterization of inorganic compounds (water soluble ions, major and trace elements, organic and elemental carbon) and an analysis of source contributions to the PM10 fraction of road dust were carried out in this study. A total of twenty road dust samples, selected from representative industrial, residential and commercial areas, were swept and resuspended to obtain the thoracic fraction. Size distribution by laser diffraction and individual particle morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the volume (%) of thoracic particles was higher in samples from industrial zones where heavy vehicular traffic, industrial emissions and deteriorated pavements predominated. Crustal elements were the most abundant species, accounting for 49-62% of the thoracic mass, followed by OC (13-29%), water-soluble ions (1.4-3.8%), EC (0.8-1.9%) and trace elements (0.2-0.5%). The Coefficient of Divergence was obtained to identify the spatial variability of the samples. A source apportionment analysis was carried out considering the variability of chemical profiles, enrichment factors and ratios of Fe/Al, K/Al, Ca/Al, Ti/Al, Cu/Sb, Zn/Sb, OC/TC and OC/EC. By means of a PCA analysis, five components were identified, including local soils and pavement erosion (63%), construction and demolition activities (13%), industrial emissions (6%), brake wear (5%) and tailpipe emissions (4%). These components accounted for 91% of the total variance. The results provide data to understand better one of the main sources of PM10 emissions in Bogota, such as road dust. These data will be useful to optimize environmental policies, and they may be used in future studies of human health and air quality modeling.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 233: 142-155, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059629

RESUMEN

Bogota registers frequent episodes of poor air quality from high PM10 concentrations. It is one of the main Latin American megacities, located at 2600 m in the tropical Andes, but there is insufficient data on PM10 source contribution. A characterization of the chemical composition and the source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in Bogota was carried out in this study. Daily samples were collected from June 2015 to May 2016 (a total of 311 samples). Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble compounds (SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NH4+), major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace metals (V, Cd, Pb, Sr, Ba, among others) were analyzed. The results were interpreted in terms of their variability during the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS). The data obtained revealed that the carbonaceous fraction (∼51%) and mineral dust (23%) were the main PM10 components, followed by others (15%), Secondary Inorganic Compounds (SIC) (11%) and sea salt (0.4%). The average concentrations of soil, SIC and OC were higher during RS than DS. However, peak values were observed during the DS due to photochemical activity and forest fires. Although trace metals represented <1% of PM10, high concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and Sb on RS, and Cu on DS, were obtained. By using a PMF model, six factors were identified (∼96% PM10) including fugitive dust, road dust, metal processing, secondary PM, vehicles exhaust and industrial emissions. Traffic (exhaust emissions + road dust) was the major PM10 source, accounting for ∼50% of the PM10. The results provided novel data about PM10 chemical composition, its sources and its seasonal variability during the year, which can help the local government to define control strategies for the main emission sources during the most critical periods.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Altitud , Carbono , Colombia , Polvo/análisis , Industrias , Tamaño de la Partícula , Estaciones del Año , Oligoelementos/análisis , Estados Unidos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
14.
Chemosphere ; 190: 454-462, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028600

RESUMEN

Dust is a mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles originated from multiple sources, which can represent an hazard for human health. Playgrounds are a site of particularly concern, due to sand dust ingestion by toddlers and inhalation. In this study, 37 sands used in public playgrounds in the city of Barcelona were physico-chemically characterized also in relation to routine maintenance activities such as disinfection and sand renewal. The analyzed sands show a felsic mineralogy dominated by Na-feldspar, quartz, and, to a lesser extent, K-feldspar, with minor amounts of clay minerals, carbonates and hematite. Particle fractions below 10, 2.5 and 1 µm represent, on average, 0.65%, 0.17% and 0.07% of bulk volume, respectively, although, due to the human grinding, these initial fractions increased every year by a 18%, 5% and 2% respectively. Disinfection of sands effectively reduced only the NH4+ concentration, among inorganic species. The average metal content was anthropogenically enriched, with respect to the upper continental crust, only for Sb and As. Both elements show high spatial variation indicating local sources such as road traffic for Sb (contributing mostly to the total concentration), and industry for As (also contributing with highly bioaccessible Sb, Cu and Zn). A clear inverse relationship between total concentrations of some elements and their leachable (Sb) and bioaccessible (Sb and Cr) fractions is observed. The most bioaccessible elements were Ca > Ni > Cu > Sr > Cd > Pb, all above the 25% of the total concentration. Bioaccessibility was higher for the carbonate-bearing particles and for the anthropic emitted metals (>50% of Ba, Cu, K, Pb and Zn).


Asunto(s)
Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado/análisis , Silicatos de Aluminio/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Metales/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Compuestos de Potasio/análisis , Dióxido de Silicio/análisis
15.
Environ Pollut ; 237: 713-720, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128243

RESUMEN

The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables. We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 µm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions for mitigation measures.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(11): 10018-10029, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889888

RESUMEN

Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition. Total suspended particles (TSP) in the combustion flue gas were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of cyclone and baghouse filter and further analysed for organic and elemental carbon, carbonates and 57 chemical elements. High particulate matter collection efficiencies in the range of 94-99% were observed for the baghouse, while removal rates of only 1.4-17% were registered for the cyclone. Due to the sand bed, Si was the major element in bottom ashes. Fly ashes, in particular those from eucalypt combustion, were especially rich in CaO, followed by relevant amounts of SiO2, MgO and K2O. Ash characteristics varied among experiments, showing that their inorganic composition strongly depends on both the biomass composition and combustion conditions. Inorganic constituents accounted for TSP mass fractions up to 40 wt%. Elemental carbon, organic matter and carbonates contributed to TSP mass fractions in the ranges 0.58-44%, 0.79-78% and 0.01-1.7%, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Dióxido de Silicio , Carbono , Ceniza del Carbón/química , Bosques , Incineración , Material Particulado
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(10): 1630-1636, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27128166

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A few studies have reported associations between traffic-related air pollution exposure at schools and cognitive development. The role of PM components or sources other than traffic on cognitive development has been little explored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the role of PM sources in school air on cognitive development. METHODS: A cohort of 2,618 schoolchildren (average age, 8.5 years) belonging to 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain) was followed up for a year. Children completed computerized tests assessing working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness during four visits. Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was measured during two 1-week campaigns in each school, both outdoors and in the classroom. Source apportionment resulted in nine sources: mineral, organic/textile/chalk, traffic, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, road dust, metallurgy, sea spray, and heavy oil combustion. Differences in cognitive growth trajectories were assessed with mixed models with age-by-source interaction terms. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in indoor traffic-related PM2.5 was associated with reductions in cognitive growth equivalent to 22% (95% CI: 2%, 42%) of the annual change in working memory, 30% (95% CI: 6%, 54%) of the annual change in superior working memory, and 11% (95% CI: 0%, 22%) of the annual change in the inattentiveness scale. None of the other PM2.5 sources was associated with adverse effects on cognitive development. CONCLUSIONS: Traffic was the only source of fine particles associated with a reduction in cognitive development. Reducing air pollution from traffic at primary schools may result in beneficial effects on cognition. CITATION: Basagaña X, Esnaola M, Rivas I, Amato F, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Forns J, López-Vicente M, Pujol J, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Querol X, Sunyer J. 2016. Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources: a longitudinal observational study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1630-1636; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP209.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 208(Pt A): 125-136, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26189044

RESUMEN

The present work assesses indoor air quality in stations of the Barcelona subway system. PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms of 4 subway stations were measured during two different seasons and the chemical composition was determined. A Positive Matrix Factorization analysis was performed to identify and quantify the contributions of major PM2.5 sources in the subway stations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations varied according to the stations design and seasonal periods. PM2.5 was composed of haematite, carbonaceous aerosol, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, trace elements, insoluble sulphate and halite. Organic compounds such as PAHs, nicotine, levoglucosan and aromatic musk compounds were also identified. Subway PM2.5 source comprised emissions from rails, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. The subway source showed different chemical profiles for each station, but was always dominated by Fe. Control actions on the source are important for the achievement of better air quality in the subway environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Vías Férreas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Estaciones del Año , España
19.
Environ Res ; 142: 495-510, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277386

RESUMEN

Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Aire , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Aire/análisis , Aire/normas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , España , Transportes/normas , Urbanización , Caminata
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 523: 59-63, 2015 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25862991

RESUMEN

Greenness has been reported to improve mental and physical health. Reduction in exposure to air pollution has been suggested to underlie the health benefits of greenness; however, the available evidence on the mitigating effect of greenness on air pollution remains limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenness within and surrounding school boundaries and monitored indoor and outdoor levels of traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) including NO2, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and traffic-related PM2.5 at 39 schools across Barcelona, Spain, in 2012. TRAP levels at schools were measured twice during two one-week campaigns separated by 6months. Greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was measured as the average of satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within boundaries of school and a 50m buffer around the school, respectively. Mixed effects models were used to quantify the associations between school greenness and TRAP levels, adjusted for relevant covariates. Higher greenness within and surrounding school boundaries was consistently associated with lower indoor and outdoor TRAP levels. Reduction in indoor TRAP levels was partly mediated by the reduction in outdoor TRAP levels. We also observed some suggestions for stronger associations between school surrounding greenness and outdoor TRAP levels for schools with higher number of trees around them. Our observed reduction of TRAP levels at schools associated with school greenness can be of public importance, considering the burden of health effects of exposure to TRAPs in schoolchildren.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/estadística & datos numéricos , España
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