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1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914561

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Most research investigating reinforcement in alcohol use is from high-income countries. The current study sought to understand the association of different reinforcement types (alcohol-specific reward, environmental reward, behavioral activation) with multiple measures of alcohol use and cravings among individuals living with HIV in South Africa. METHOD: Baseline data were obtained from a substance use clinical trial in Cape Town (N = 65). Unhealthy alcohol use was measured using the biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth), Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT-C), average number of drinks from the timeline follow back (TLFB), and self-reported cravings. Reinforcement was measured using the proportion of income spent on alcohol (alcohol-specific reward), both subscales of the Reward Probability Index (environmental reward), and the Behavioral Activation Depression Scale (activation). Poisson and linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Each percentage point increase in income spent on alcohol was significantly associated with PEth, RR = 1.004 [95% CI (1.001, 1.007)], which translates to a 13.6% increase in the relative risk of unhealthy alcohol use for the average person in the study. More alcohol-specific reward was significantly associated with higher scores on the AUDIT-C, higher average number of drinks on the TLFB, and more cravings. Higher activation was associated with lower scores on the AUDIT-C. Neither subscale of environmental reward was associated with model outcomes. CONCLUSION: Greater alcohol-specific reward and less behavioral activation were associated with more frequent and unhealthy alcohol use in this setting, but not environmental reward. Findings highlight how different reinforcement types potentially influence alcohol use in a low-resource global setting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a structural barrier to HIV care in peri-urban areas in South Africa (SA), where approximately 80% of households are moderately or severely food insecure.(1) For people with HIV (PWH), food insecurity is associated with poor ART adherence and survival rates. Yet, measurement of food insecurity among PWH remains a challenge. DESIGN: This study examines the factor structure of the 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, isiXhosa-translated) among PWH in SA using a restrictive bifactor model. SETTING: Primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, SA. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=440) were PWH who received HIV care in Khayelitsha screening for a clinical trial. Most were categorized as severely (n=250, 56.82%) or moderately (n=107, 24.32%) food insecure in the past 30 days. RESULTS: Revised parallel analysis suggested a 3-factor structure, which was inadmissible. A 2-factor structure was examined but did not adequately fit the data. A 2-factor restrictive bifactor model was examined, such that all items loaded on a general factor (food insecurity) and all but two items loaded on one of two specific additional factors, which adequately fit the data (CFI=0.995, SRMR=0.019). The two specific factors identified were: anxiety/insufficient quality, and no food intake. Reliability was adequate (ω=.82). CONCLUSIONS: Results supported the use of a total score, and identified two specific factors of the HFIAS, which may be utilized in future research and intervention development. These findings help identify aspects of food insecurity that may drive relationships between the construct and important HIV-related variables.

4.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, and prevalence rates are high among people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly in men. Depression is also common among PLWH, especially among smokers, who may use tobacco to manage mood. Although HIV and depression have been linked to functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), little research has examined the degree to which smoking impacts these relationships in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden. METHOD: Participants (N = 289) were people living with HIV (PLWH) who were being assessed for inclusion in a study targeting depression as a barrier to HIV medication adherence. Linear regression models measured the effect of gender on tobacco use (assessed by the WHO-ASSIST) and on each of the five HRQOL functional impairment domains (assessed by the SF-21). Separate multivariable regression models examined the relationships between habitual tobacco use, defined as daily, almost daily, or weekly use, and the HRQOL domains. RESULTS: The prevalence of habitual tobacco use was 23.9% (48.1% among men, 15.5% among women). Habitual tobacco use was associated with decreased cognitive functioning for the whole sample (B = - 8.99, p < 0.05) and with lower levels of pain-related impairment for men (B = 18.1, p < 0.05). Although men reported more tobacco use (B = 8.50, p < 0.001), they reported less pain-related limitations than women (B = 8.70, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, men reported higher rates of habitual tobacco use than women. Smoking was associated with cognitive impairment and with less pain-related impairment among men. Future smoking cessation treatments tailored to PLWH who have symptoms of depression may benefit from strategies that consider pain management as a pathway to habitual smoking and recognize that motivations for use may differ by gender.

5.
Soc Sci Med ; 266: 113424, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065498

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: "Thinking too much" is a cultural idiom of distress identified across sub-Saharan Africa, including among people living with HIV (PLWH), which is associated with depression, substance use, and HIV medication nonadherence. Despite the relevance of mindfulness training to address thinking too much, improve HIV-related outcomes, and reduce substance use, efforts to adapt mindfulness training for this context and underserved populations more broadly have been limited. OBJECTIVE: We explored in this context: (a) the experience of thinking too much among PLWH struggling with adherence and substance use; (b) the appropriateness of mindfulness training to address thinking too much; and (c) potential barriers and facilitators to implementing mindfulness training. METHOD: We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients (n = 19) and providers (n = 11) at two clinics in a peri-urban area of Cape Town. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT model, we included an experiential mindfulness practice and participants shared their observations and descriptions of the intervention in the local language (isiXhosa). RESULTS: Participants found mindfulness relevant, culturally salient, and appropriate for refocusing the mind. Findings provide unique language offered by participants to tailor mindfulness training in the future (e.g., "hearing your veins," "cooling of the mind"). Participants identified potential implementation barriers, including lack of privacy, and facilitators to guide future adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to adapt and increase access to mindfulness training in resource-limited settings globally, while also maintaining treatment integrity and fidelity.

7.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(5): 529-546, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776179

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed interventions to improve uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in African countries in the Treat All era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART initiation can be improved by facilitated rapid receipt of first prescription, including community-based linkage and point-of-care strategies, integration of HIV care into antenatal care and peer support for adolescents. For people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART, scheduled SMS reminders, ongoing intensive counselling for those with viral non-suppression and economic incentives for the most deprived show promise. Adherence clubs should be promoted, being no less effective than facility-based care for stable patients. Tracing those lost to follow-up should be targeted to those who can be seen face-to-face by a peer worker. Investment is needed to promote linkage to initiating ART and for differentiated approaches to counselling for youth and for those with identified suboptimal adherence. More evidence from within Africa is needed on cost-effective strategies to identify and support PLHIV at an increased risk of non-adherence across the treatment cascade.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607502

RESUMEN

Background: Substance use is prevalent in South Africa and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes, yet, it is largely unaddressed in HIV care. Implementing an evidence-based, task-shared intervention for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and substance use integrated into HIV care may be a feasible and effective way to improve HIV treatment outcomes and reduce substance use in this population. Methods: Guided by the RE-AIM framework, a randomized, hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation trial (n = 60) is being used to evaluate a peer-delivered intervention that integrates evidence-based intervention components, including Life-Steps (problem solving and motivational skills for HIV medication adherence), behavioral activation to increase alternative, substance-free rewarding activities in one's environment, and relapse prevention skills, including mindfulness. The comparison condition is enhanced standard of care, which includes facilitating a referral to a local substance use treatment clinic (Matrix). Participants are followed for a period of 6 months. Implementation outcomes are defined by Proctor's model for implementation and include mixed methods evaluations of feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Primary patient-level effectiveness outcomes are ART adherence (Wisepill) and substance use (WHO-ASSIST and urinalysis); viral load is an exploratory outcome. Discussion: Results of this trial will provide important evidence as to whether peer delivery of an integrated intervention for ART adherence and substance use is feasible, acceptable, and effective. Implementation outcomes will provide important insight into using peers as an implementation strategy to extend task sharing models for behavioral health in resource-limited settings globally. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03529409. Trial registered on May 18, 2018.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 24(9): 2680-2690, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162093

RESUMEN

South Africa (SA) has the most people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) globally and prevalent alcohol use. Beliefs that mixing alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to adverse reactions may promote ART nonadherence. Healthcare providers (n = 11) and patients (n = 19) recruited from primary HIV and substance use care in SA described their messages, beliefs, and behaviors around simultaneous use of alcohol and ART. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis: (1) most providers indicated a message shift to reflect harm reduction principles: PLWH should manage alcohol use but not let it interfere with taking ART; however, (2) patients recalled conflicting messages from their providers and some displayed interactive toxicity beliefs and behaviors. Despite progress demonstrated by 2016 national adherence guidelines and shifted provider messaging, interactive toxicity beliefs remain a barrier to ART adherence. Results have implications for the adaptation of adherence counseling to minimize the impact of alcohol use on HIV treatment.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Personal de Salud/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Adulto , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(2): e14200, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is an unmet need to develop effective, feasible, and scalable interventions for poor adherence and depression in persons living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a nurse-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) among persons living with HIV who are failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This study is a 2-arm randomized controlled trial of CBT-AD integrated into the HIV primary care setting in South Africa. A total of 160 participants who did not achieve viral suppression from their first-line ART and have a unipolar depressive mood disorder will be randomized to receive either 8 sessions of CBT-AD or enhanced treatment as usual. Participants will be assessed for major depressive disorder using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 months. The primary outcomes are depression on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D; as assessed by a blinded assessor) at the 4-month assessment and changes in ART adherence (assessed via real-time, electronic monitoring with Wisepill) between baseline and the 4-month assessment. Secondary outcomes are HIV viral load and CD4 cell count at the 12-month assessment as well as ART adherence (Wisepill) and depression (HAM-D) over follow-up (4-, 8-, and 12-month assessments). RESULTS: The trial commenced in August 2015 and recruitment began in July 2016. Enrollment was completed in June 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study will inform whether an existing intervention (CBT-AD) can be effectively administered in LMIC by nurses with training and ongoing supervision. This will present unique opportunities to further explore the scale-up of a behavioral intervention to enhance ART adherence among persons living with HIV with major depression in a high-prevalence setting, to move toward achieving The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 goals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincialTrials.gov NCT02696824; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02696824. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14200.

11.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 57(1): 107-118, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670529

RESUMEN

South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS burden globally. In South Africa, substance use is prevalent and interferes with HIV treatment adherence and viral suppression, and yet it is not routinely treated in HIV care. More research is needed to adapt scalable, evidence-based therapies for substance use for integration into HIV care in South Africa. Behavioral activation (BA), originally developed as an efficacious therapy for depression, has been feasibly used to treat depression in low- and middle-income countries and substance use in high-income settings. Yet, to date, there is limited research on using BA for substance use in low- and middle-income countries. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework, this study sought to adapt BA therapy for substance use in HIV care in South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews among patients (n = 19) with moderate/severe substance use and detectable viral load, and HIV care providers and substance use treatment therapists (n = 11) across roles and disciplines at 2 clinic sites in a peri-urban area of Cape Town. We assessed patient and provider/therapist views on the appropriateness of the BA therapy model and sought feedback on isiXhosa-translated BA therapy components. Participants identified the central role of boredom in contributing to substance use and saw the BA therapy model as highly appropriate. Participants identified church and religious practices, sports, and yard/housework as relevant substance-free activities. These findings will inform adaptations to BA therapy for substance use and HIV medication adherence in this setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Int J Drug Policy ; 70: 61-69, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082664

RESUMEN

South Africa is home to the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Alongside the HIV/AIDS epidemic, problematic alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is prevalent and associated with poor HIV treatment and secondary HIV prevention outcomes. International guidelines and local policy both support the integration of mental health care and AOD treatment into HIV care, yet barriers exist to implementation. This study aimed to explore patient and provider perspectives on the integration of HIV and AOD treatment services in Cape Town, South Africa. This included barriers and facilitators to task sharing AOD treatment in HIV care and preferences for a task shared approach to integrating AOD treatment in HIV care, including who should deliver the behavioural intervention. We conducted thirty semi-structured qualitative interviews with HIV and AOD treatment staff, providers, and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) with moderate, problematic AOD use and difficulties (personal or structural) adhering to HIV treatment. Findings illustrated several key themes: (1) the separation between AOD and HIV services (a "siloed treatment experience"), even in the context of geographic co-location; (2) low AOD treatment literacy among HIV patients and providers, including a low awareness of existing AOD use services, even when co-located; (3) substance use stigma as a barrier to HIV and AOD treatment integration; (4) a strong patient preference for peer interventionists; and (5) the role of community health workers (CHWs) in detecting AOD use among some PLWH who had not followed up in HIV care. These findings will inform a future type 1 hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial, guided by the RE-AIM framework, to evaluate a task shared, evidence-based intervention to address problematic AOD use and improve HIV medication adherence in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Grupo Paritario , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto Joven
13.
J Health Psychol ; 23(6): 776-787, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121977

RESUMEN

Depression is prevalent among people living with HIV in South Africa and interferes with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated a nurse-delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for adherence and depression among antiretroviral therapy users with depression in South Africa ( n = 14). Primary outcomes were depression, antiretroviral therapy adherence, feasibility, and acceptability. Findings support robust improvements in mood through a 3-month follow up. Antiretroviral therapy adherence was maintained during the intervention period. Participant retention supports acceptability; however, modest provider fidelity despite intensive supervision warrants additional attention to feasibility. Future effectiveness research is needed to evaluate this nurse-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for adherence and depression in this context.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Trastorno Depresivo/enfermería , Infecciones por VIH/enfermería , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Enfermeras Practicantes , Adulto , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Proyectos Piloto , Sudáfrica
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