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Genetics ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850872


Primary cilia are sensory and signaling hubs with a protein composition that is distinct from the rest of the cell due to the barrier function of the transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium. Protein transport across the TZ is mediated in part by the BBSome, and mutations disrupting TZ and BBSome proteins cause human ciliopathy syndromes. Ciliopathies have phenotypic variability even among patients with identical genetic variants, suggesting a role for modifier loci. To identify potential ciliopathy modifiers, we performed a mutagenesis screen on nphp-4 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans and uncovered a novel allele of bbs-5. Nphp-4;bbs-5 double mutant worms have phenotypes not observed in either individual mutant strain. To test whether this genetic interaction is conserved, we also analyzed zebrafish and mouse mutants. While Nphp4 mutant zebrafish appeared overtly normal, Bbs5 mutants exhibited scoliosis. When combined, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant zebrafish did not exhibit synergistic effects, but the lack of a phenotype in Nphp4 mutants makes interpreting these data difficult. In contrast, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant mice were not viable and there were fewer mice than expected carrying three mutant alleles. In addition, postnatal loss of Bbs5 in mice using a conditional allele compromised survival when combined with an Nphp4 allele. As cilia are still formed in the double mutant mice, the exacerbated phenotype is likely a consequence of disrupted ciliary signaling. Collectively, these data support an evolutionarily conserved genetic interaction between Bbs5 and Nphp4 alleles that may contribute to the variability in ciliopathy phenotypes.

Hum Mol Genet ; 30(3-4): 234-246, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560420


Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling compartments present on most mammalian cell types. These specialized structures require a unique signaling protein composition relative to the rest of the cell to carry out their functions. Defects in ciliary structure and signaling result in a broad group of disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. One ciliopathy, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS; OMIM 209900), presents with diverse clinical features, many of which are attributed to defects in ciliary signaling during both embryonic development and postnatal life. For example, patients exhibit obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, developmental delay and skeletal abnormalities along with sensory and cognitive deficits, but for many of these phenotypes it is uncertain, which are developmental in origin. A subset of BBS proteins assembles into the core BBSome complex, which is responsible for mediating transport of membrane proteins into and out of the cilium, establishing it as a sensory and signaling hub. Here, we describe two new mouse models for BBS resulting from a targeted LacZ gene trap allele (Bbs5-/-) that is a predicted congenital null mutation and conditional (Bbs5flox/flox) allele of Bbs5. Bbs5-/- mice develop a complex phenotype consisting of increased pre-weaning lethality craniofacial and skeletal defects, ventriculomegaly, infertility and pituitary anomalies. Utilizing the conditional allele, we show that the male fertility defects, ventriculomegaly and pituitary abnormalities are only present when Bbs5 is disrupted prior to postnatal day 7, indicating a developmental origin. In contrast, mutation of Bbs5 results in obesity, independent of the age of Bbs5 loss.

Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Mutación , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/genética , Hipófisis/anomalías , Animales , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patología , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/fisiopatología , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Fenotipo , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/metabolismo , Hipófisis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hipófisis/metabolismo
J Genet ; 97(5): 1315-1325, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555080


Nodal-related protein (ndr2) is amember of the transforming growth factor type ß superfamily of factors and is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system in zebrafish. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding nodal cause holoprosencephaly and heterotaxy. Mutations in the ndr2 gene in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lead to similar phenotypes, including loss of the medial floor plate, severe deficits in ventral forebrain development and cyclopia. Alleles of the ndr2 gene have been useful in studying patterning of ventral structures of the central nervous system. Fifteen different ndr2 alleles have been reported in zebrafish, of which eight were generated using chemical mutagenesis, four were radiation-induced and the remaining alleles were obtained via random insertion, gene targeting (TALEN) or unknown methods. Therefore, most mutation sites were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes, we targeted distinct regions in all three exons of zebrafish ndr2 and observed cyclopia in the injected (G0) embryos.We show that the use of sgRNA-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes can cause penetrant cyclopic phenotypes in injected (G0) embryos. Targeted polymerase chain reaction amplicon analysis using Sanger sequencing showed that most of the alleles had small indels resulting in frameshifts. The sequence information correlates with the loss of ndr2 activity. In this study, we validate multiple CRISPR targets using an in vitro nuclease assay and in vivo analysis using embryos. We describe one specific mutant allele resulting in the loss of conserved terminal cysteine-coding sequences. This study is another demonstration of the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific mutations and provides further insights into the structure-function of the ndr2 gene.

Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/genética , Mutación , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Sitios de Unión/genética , Embrión no Mamífero/embriología , Embrión no Mamífero/metabolismo , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fenotipo , Dominios Proteicos , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/embriología , Pez Cebra/genética , Pez Cebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Pez Cebra/química