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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639647

RESUMEN

Zero and low alcohol products, particularly beer, are gaining consideration as a method to reduce consumption of ethanol. We do not know if this approach is likely to increase or decrease health inequalities. The aim of the study was to determine if the purchase and consumption of zero and low alcohol beers differs by demographic and socio-economic characteristics of consumers. Based on British household purchase data from 79,411 households and on British survey data of more than 104,635 adult (18+) respondents, we estimated the likelihood of buying and drinking zero (ABV = 0.0%) and low alcohol (ABV > 0.0% and ≤ 3.5%) beer by a range of socio-demographic characteristics. We found that buying and consuming zero alcohol beer is much more likely to occur in younger age groups, in more affluent households, and in those with higher social grades, with gaps in buying zero alcohol beer between households in higher and lower social grades widening between 2015 and 2020. Buying and drinking low alcohol beer had less consistent relationships with socio-demographic characteristics, but was strongly driven by households that normally buy and drink the most alcohol. Common to many health-related behaviours, it seems that it is the more affluent that lead the way in choosing zero or low alcohol products. Whilst the increased availability of zero and low alcohol products might be a useful tool to reduce overall ethanol consumption in the more socially advantageous part of society, it may be less beneficial for the rest of the population. Other evidence-based alcohol policy measures that lessen health inequalities, need to go hand-in-hand with those promoting the uptake of zero and low alcohol beer.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children born very preterm (VP) are at higher risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared with full-term (FT) children. We investigated the neurobiological basis of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in individuals born VP and FT by applying a graph theory approach. METHODS: Structural and diffusion MRI data were combined to generate structural connectomes and calculate measures of network integration and segregation at 7 (VP:72; FT:17) and 13 years (VP:125; FT:44). Internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 7 and 13 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Linear regression models were used to relate network measures and internalizing and externalizing symptoms concurrently at 7 and 13 years. RESULTS: Lower network integration (characteristic path length and global efficiency) was associated with higher internalizing symptoms in VP and FT children at 7 years, but not at 13 years. The association between network integration (characteristic path length) and externalizing symptoms at 7 years was weaker, but there was some evidence for differential associations between groups, with lower integration in the VP and higher integration in the FT group associated with higher externalizing symptoms. At 13 years, there was some evidence that associations between network segregation (average clustering coefficient, transitivity, local efficiency) and externalizing differed between the VP and FT groups, with stronger positive associations in the VP group. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the neurobiological basis of emotional and behavioral problems following preterm birth, highlighting the role of the structural connectome in internalizing and externalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence.

3.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664642

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mothers of children born very preterm (VP) are at increased risk of developing postnatal depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. However, mental health disorder rates are rarely assessed in this population compared with full-term peers, and it is unclear if postnatal distress symptoms precede higher rates of maternal mental health disorders at 5 years post-birth in both birth groups. METHODS: Mothers of children born VP (n = 65; mean [SD] age at birth, 33.9 [5.0]; 72.1% tertiary educated) and full-term (n = 90; mean [SD] age at birth, 33.4 [4.0]; 88.2% tertiary educated) completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma within 4 weeks of birth. At 5 years post-birth, they participated in a structured diagnostic interview assessing mood, anxiety, and trauma-related mental health disorders, both current and over the lifetime. RESULTS: There was little evidence for differences between mothers in the VP and full-term groups in rates of any mental health disorder at 5 years (VP = 14%, full-term = 14%) or lifetime (VP = 41%, full-term = 37%). In mothers of children born VP, elevated postnatal post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with higher rates of mental health disorders at 5 years (odds ratio = 21.5, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-342). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that preterm birth may not lead to increased odds of later developing maternal mental health disorders, despite known risks of elevated postnatal distress following a VP birth. However, those with post-traumatic stress symptoms following a VP birth could be more vulnerable, and assessment and monitoring is recommended.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578873

RESUMEN

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the fetal brain during pregnancy and is thought to have a role in supporting neurodevelopment. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in women with a singleton pregnancy who were <21 weeks' gestation at trial entry. Women were provided with 800 mg DHA/day or a placebo supplement from trial entry until birth. When children reached seven years of age, we invited parents to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Conners 3rd Edition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Index to assess child behavior and behavioral manifestations of executive dysfunction. There were 543 parent-child pairs (85% of those eligible) that participated in the follow-up. Scores were worse in the DHA group than the placebo group for the BRIEF Global Executive, Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition Indexes, and the Shift, Inhibit, Monitor, Working Memory, and Organization of Materials scales, as well as for the Conners 3 ADHD index, and the SDQ Total Difficulties score, Hyperactivity/Inattention score, and Peer Relationship Problems score. In this healthy, largely term-born sample of children, prenatal DHA supplementation conferred no advantage to childhood behavior, and instead appeared to have an adverse effect on behavioral functioning, as assessed by standardized parental report scales.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578942

RESUMEN

Alcohol is toxic to human health. In addition to providing nutritional information, labels on alcohol products can be used to communicate warnings on alcohol-related harms to consumers. This scoping review examined novel or enhanced health warning labels to assess the current state of the research and the key studied characteristics of labels, along with their impact on the studied outcomes. Four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL) were searched between January 2010 and April 2021, and 27 papers were included in the review. The results found that most studies were undertaken in English-speaking populations, with the majority conducted online or in the laboratory setting as opposed to the real world. Seventy percent of the papers included at least one cancer-related message, in most instances referring either to cancer in general or to bowel cancer. Evidence from the only real-world long-term labelling intervention demonstrated that alcohol health warning labels designed to be visible and contain novel and specific information have the potential to be part of an effective labelling strategy. Alcohol health warning labels should be seen as tools to raise awareness on alcohol-related risks, being part of wider alcohol policy approaches.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579030

RESUMEN

Switching from higher strength to low- and no-alcohol products could result in consumers buying and drinking fewer grams of ethanol. We undertook a scoping review with systematic searches of English language publications between 1 January 2010 and 17 January 2021 using PubMed and Web of Science, covering production, consumption, and policy drivers related to low- and no-alcohol products. Seventy publications were included in our review. We found no publications comparing a life cycle assessment of health and environmental impacts between alcohol-free and regular-strength products. Three publications of low- and no-alcohol beers found only limited penetration of sales compared with higher strength beers. Two publications from only one jurisdiction (Great Britain) suggested that sales of no- and low-alcohol beers replaced rather than added to sales of higher strength beers. Eight publications indicated that taste, prior experiences, brand, health and wellbeing issues, price differentials, and overall decreases in the social stigma associated with drinking alcohol-free beverages were drivers of the purchase and consumption of low- and no-alcohol beers and wines. Three papers indicated confusion amongst consumers with respect to the labelling of low- and no-alcohol products. One paper indicated that the introduction of a minimum unit price in both Scotland and Wales favoured shifts in purchases from higher- to lower-strength beers. The evidence base for the potential beneficial health impact of low- and no-alcohol products is very limited and needs considerable expansion. At present, the evidence base could be considered inadequate to inform policy.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab463, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584902

RESUMEN

The drivers of low-level viremia (LLV) between 20 and 200 copies/mL remain unclear. In 1042 person-visits from 497 persons with HIV on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART), the association between LLV and cumulative antiretroviral adherence (quantified using tenofovir diphosphate [TFV-DP] in dried blood spots) was assessed. Lower TFV-DP levels were associated with higher odds of LLV. As TFV-DP (fmol/punch) categories decreased from >1650 to 800-1650; 800-1650 to <800; and >1650 to <800, the adjusted odds ratios for LLV vs HIV VL <20 copies/mL were 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.1), 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1-5.0), and 4.6 (95% CI, 2.2-9.9), respectively. This suggests that adherence could impact LLV.

8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560730

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The mandible is one of the most common facial bones to be injured with great clinical variability across countries caused by assaults, road traffic accidents, and falls. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for adult mandibular fractures from January 2012 to January 2017 at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide. Our aim was to describe epidemiological trends of mandibular fractures, differences for sex and age, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty five adult patients presented with a mandibular fracture with a male predominance (4.5:1). The mean age was 34.2 years with men 11.9 years younger than females (32.0 versus 44.1 years, P < 0.001). Assaults represented 58.2% of cases. A quarter of the cohort reported alcohol use. Assaults commonly resulted in angle and symphyseal fractures, whereas almost all falls and road traffic accident resulted in condylar or coronoid fractures. Young men were 1.9 times more likely to have mandibular fractures compared to women, whereas elderly men were 11.8% less likely (P < 0.001). The most common fracture was the angle (33.6%) and the angle/symphyseal (14.2%). Men were 2.5 times more likely to have surgery. The complication rate was 10.8% and the re-operative rate was 5.0%. Women had a significantly longer admission of 1.6 days compared to men (4.4 versus 2.8 days, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Young men are more likely to have mandibular fractures from assaults and have surgery. Young women and elderly females are more likely to have animal and fall-related injuries resulting including in condylar fractures with associated injuries and extended length of stay.

9.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494301

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the causal effect of being born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g), compared with being born at term, on neurodevelopment and social-emotional development at 2 years' corrected age. METHODS: Prospective geographical cohort study of children born EP/ELBW over 12 months in 2016 from Victoria, Australia, and term-born controls. Children were assessed at 2 years' corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd edition and the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Delay was defined as <-1 standard deviation relative to the mean of controls. The estimand of interest was the mean difference/odds ratio (OR) between the EP/ELBW and control groups estimated using linear/logistic regression, adjusted for multiple pregnancy and social risk. RESULTS: A total of 205 EP/ELBW and 201 controls were assessed at 2 years. Delay/concerns were more common in the EP/ELBW group compared with controls, for cognitive (OR 3.7 [95% confidence interval 2.3, 6.0]), language (5.3 [3.1, 9.0]) and motor (3.9 [2.3, 6.3]) development, and social-emotional competence (4.1 [1.6, 10.2]). CONCLUSION: Being born EP/ELBW has an adverse effect on cognitive, language and motor development, and social-emotional competence at 2 years' corrected age. Close developmental surveillance, including social-emotional development, is recommended.

10.
AIDS ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482350

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) preferentially loads peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), resulting in higher PBMC tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). No studies have yet compared TFV-DP in PBMC from lower than daily dosing between prodrugs, which has potential implications for event-driven pre-exposure prophylaxis and pharmacologic forgiveness. DESIGN: Two separate randomized, directly observed therapy (DOT) crossover studies (DOT-DBS and TAF-DBS) were conducted to mimic low, medium, and high adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative adults were randomized to two 12-week DOT regimens of 33%, 67%, or 100% of daily dosing with emtricitabine (F)/TAF 200 mg/25 mg (TAF-DBS) or F/TDF 200 mg/300 mg (DOT-DBS), separated by a 12-week washout. PBMC steady-state concentrations (Css) of TFV-DP and FTC-TP were estimated using nonlinear mixed models and compared between F/TAF and F/TDF. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants contributed to 33% (n = 23), 67% (n = 23), and 100% (n = 23) of daily F/TAF regimens. Forty-four contributed to 33% (n = 15), 67% (n = 16), and 100% (n = 32) of daily F/TDF regimens. PBMC TFV-DP Css were 7.3- (95% CI: 6.4-8.2), 7.1- (5.9-8.2), and 6.7- (4.4-8.9) fold higher (p < 0.0001) following F/TAF vs. F/TDF; 593 vs. 81.7, 407 vs. 57.4, and 215 vs. 32.3 fmol/106 cells, respectively. TFV-DP was 2.6- (2.1-3.1) fold higher with 33% F/TAF vs. 100% F/TDF. Estimated half-lives (95% CI) of TFV-DP in PBMC were 2.9 (1.5- 5.5) days for F/TAF and 2.1 (1.5-2.9) days for F/TDF. FTC-TP was similar in both studies (p = 0.119). CONCLUSIONS: F/TAF produced 6.7- to 7.3-fold higher TFV-DP in PBMC vs. F/TDF across adherence levels, supporting increased potency and pharmacologic forgiveness with F/TAF in the PBMC compartment.

11.
Semin Perinatol ; : 151483, 2021 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482961

RESUMEN

As survival of infants born extremely preterm increases, more are now reaching adulthood. It is well documented that survivors born extremely preterm experience more developmental delay and disability in multiple domains compared with term-born controls in early childhood and school age. However, with increasing age, health problems involving physical and mental health become more evident. Despite these challenges, it is reassuring that self-reported quality of life remains good. Future directions of research include development of age-appropriate interventions to optimise health and development of individuals born extremely preterm beyond school age.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Piridonas/administración & dosificación , Tenofovir/uso terapéutico , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/administración & dosificación , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Femenino , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Inyecciones Intramusculares/efectos adversos , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piridonas/efectos adversos , Personas Transgénero , Adulto Joven
13.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452979

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (<32 weeks' gestation) have more neurodevelopmental problems compared with term-born peers. Aberrant fidgety movements (FMs) are associated with adverse motor outcomes in children born very preterm. However, associations of aberrant FMs combined with additional movements and postures to give a motor optimality score-revised (MOS-R) with school-aged cognitive and motor outcomes are unclear. Our aim with this study was to determine those associations. METHODS: Of 118 infants born <30 weeks' gestation recruited into a randomized controlled trial of early intervention, 97 had a general movements assessment at 3 months' corrected age and were eligible for this study. Early motor repertoire including FMs and MOS-R were scored from videos of infant's spontaneous movement at 3 months' corrected age. At 8 years' corrected age, cognitive and motor performances were evaluated. Associations of early FMs and MOS-R with outcomes at 8 years were determined using linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-eight (80%) infants with early motor repertoire data had neurodevelopmental assessments at 8 years. A higher MOS-R, and favorable components of the individual subscales of the MOS-R, including the presence of normal FMs, were associated with better performance for general cognition, attention, working memory, executive function and motor function at 8 years; eg, presence of normal FMs was associated with a 21.6 points higher general conceptual ability score (95% confidence interval: 12.8-30.5; P < .001) compared with absent FMs. CONCLUSIONS: Favorable early motor repertoire of infants born <30 weeks is strongly associated with improved cognitive and motor performance at 8 years.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Niño , Trastornos del Conocimiento/prevención & control , Intervención Médica Temprana , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/prevención & control , Examen Neurológico , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255843, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a programme to reduce alcohol consumption for drinkers with high alcohol consumption levels. Only 2.9% of patients in primary health care (PHC) are screened for their alcohol use in Germany, despite high levels of alcohol consumption and attributable harm. We developed an open-access simulation model to estimate the impact of higher SBIRT delivery rates in German PHC settings on population-level alcohol consumption. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hypothetical population of drinkers and non-drinkers was simulated by sex, age, and educational status for the year 2009 based on survey and sales data. Risky drinking persons receiving BI or RT were sampled from this population based on screening coverage and other parameters. Running the simulation model for a ten-year period, drinking levels and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status were changed based on effect sizes from meta-analyses. In the baseline scenario of 2.9% screening coverage, 2.4% of the adult German population received a subsequent intervention between 2009 and 2018. If every second PHC patient would have been screened for alcohol use, 21% of adult residents in Germany would have received BI or RT by the end of the ten-year simulation period. In this scenario, population-level alcohol consumption would be 11% lower than it was in 2018, without any impact on HED prevalence. Screening coverage rates below 10% were not found to have a measurable effect on drinking levels. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale implementation of SBIRT in PHC settings can yield substantial reductions of alcohol consumption in Germany. As high screening coverage rates may only be achievable in the long run, other effective alcohol policies are required to achieve short-term reduction of alcohol use and attributable harm in Germany. There is large potential to apply this open-access simulation model to other settings and for other alcohol interventions.

16.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351437

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of persistent, open metopic sutures in contemporary Australians aged 24 months and older. METHODS: Metopic suture evaluation was conducted on retrospective cranial/cervical computed tomography scans of patients aged 24 to 252 months who presented to the Women's and Children's Hospital in Adelaide, Australia, between 2010 and 2020. Suture ossification was graded according to Lottering scoring system based on 4 stages, on three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstructions (stage 1: fibrous tissue interface, stage 2: commenced fusion, stage 3: complete fusion and stage 4: obliterated suture). The complete persistent sutures were classified as stage 1. Partially closed sutures were classified into stages 2 and 3, while completely closed sutures were defined as stage 4. RESULTS: One thousand thirty-four patients (61.2% male and 38.8% female) were included, with a mean age at scan of 66 months. More than half of patients were subject to scanning due to closed-head injuries. The incidence of persistent (completely open) metopic suture was 4.8% (2.3% in males and 2.5% in females). In comparison, a partially closed metopic suture was found in 6.3% of the study cohort, with the remaining sutures located along the metopic suture line, at the glabella, mid-part of the suture, bregma and glabella-bregma areas. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent metopic sutures in our study of the Australian population is 4.8%, and it is equally distributed between the genders. The pattern of suture closure can commence from any location along the suture line, which is in contrast to the existing literature.

18.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 51: 100987, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273749

RESUMEN

Children born very preterm (VPT; <32 weeks' gestation) have alterations in brain white matter and poorer math ability than full-term (FT) peers. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest a link between white matter microstructure and math in VPT and FT children, although longitudinal studies using advanced modelling are lacking. In a prospective longitudinal cohort of VPT and FT children we used Fixel-Based Analysis to investigate associations between maturation of white matter fibre density (FD), fibre-bundle cross-section (FC), and combined fibre density and cross-section (FDC) and math computation ability at 7 (n = 136 VPT; n = 32 FT) and 13 (n = 130 VPT; n = 44 FT) years, as well as between change in white matter and math computation ability from 7 to 13 years (n = 103 VPT; n = 21 FT). In both VPT and FT children, higher FD, FC and FDC in visual, sensorimotor and cortico-thalamic/thalamo-cortical white matter tracts were associated with better math computation ability at 7 and 13 years. Longitudinally, accelerated maturation of the posterior body of the corpus callosum (FDC) was associated with greater math computation development. White matter-math associations were similar for VPT and FT children. In conclusion, white matter maturation is associated with math computation ability across late childhood, irrespective of birth group.

19.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(10): 1035-1042, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279561

RESUMEN

Importance: Survival of infants born extremely preterm (EP) (<28 weeks' gestation) has increased since the early 1990s. It is necessary to know whether increased survival is accompanied by increased neurodevelopmental disability. Objective: To examine changes in major (ie, moderate or severe) neurodevelopmental disability and survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years in infants born EP. Design, Setting, and Participants: Four prospective longitudinal cohort studies comprising all EP live births at 22 to 27 weeks' gestation from April 1, 2016, to March 31, 2017, and earlier eras (1991-1992, 1997, and 2005), and contemporaneous term-born controls in the state of Victoria, Australia. Among 1208 live births during the periods studied, data were available for analysis of 2-year outcomes in 1152 children: 422 (1991-1992), 215 (1997), 263 (2005), and 252 (2016-2017). Data analysis was performed from September 17, 2020, to April 15, 2021. Exposures: Extreme preterm live birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival, blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, and neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years' corrected age. Developmental delay comprised a developmental quotient less than -1 SD relative to the control group means on the Bayley Scales for each era. Major neurodevelopmental disability comprised blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or a developmental quotient less than -2 SDs. Individual neurodevelopmental outcomes in each era were contrasted relative to the 2016-2017 cohort using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, sex, birth weight z score, and sociodemographic variables. Changes in survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability over time were also assessed using logistic regression. Results: Survival to 2 years was highest in 2016-2017 (73% [215 of 293]) compared with earlier eras (1991-1992: 53% [225 of 428]; 1997: 70% [151 of 217]; 2005: 63% [170 of 270]). Blindness and deafness were uncommon (<3%). Cerebral palsy was less common in 2016-2017 (6%) than in earlier eras (1991-1992: 11%; 1997: 12%; 2005: 10%). There were no obvious changes in the rates of developmental quotient less than -2 SDs across eras (1991-1992: 18%; 1997: 22%; 2005: 7%; 2016-2017: 15%) or in rates of major neurodevelopmental disability (1991-1992: 20%; 1997: 26%; 2005: 15%; 2016-2017: 15%). Rates of survival free of major neurodevelopmental disability increased steadily over time: 42% (1991-1992), 51% (1997), 53% (2005), and 62% (2016-2017) (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.15-1.48 per decade; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that survival free of major disability at age 2 years in children born EP has increased by an absolute 20% since the early 1990s. Increased survival has not been associated with increased neurodevelopmental disability.

20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2675-2680, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278433

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentration in dried blood spots (DBSs) is a reliable pharmacokinetics biomarker of adherence to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We aimed to use DBSs to estimate pill intake among participants using on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to identify predictive factors associated with higher TFV-DP concentrations. METHODS: DBSs were collected at the last study visit of the open-label phase of the ANRS IPERGAY study, assessing on-demand oral TDF/emtricitabine for PrEP among MSM and transgender female participants. We quantified TFV-DP in DBSs centrally. We assessed correlation between pill count and TFV-DP concentration by Spearman correlation and explored associations between participant demographics, sexual behaviour and PrEP use during sexual intercourse (SI) with TFV-DP concentrations by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The median age of the 245 participants included in this study was 40 years, with a median body weight of 73 kg. Median (IQR) TFV-DP concentration reached 517 (128-868) fmol/punch, corresponding to an estimated intake of 8-12 tablets per month (2-3 doses per week). Only 39% of participants had a TFV-DP concentration above 700 fmol/punch. TFV-DP concentrations were moderately correlated with pill count (r: 0.59; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only systematic use of PrEP during SI and more frequent episodes of SI in the past 4 weeks were significantly associated with higher TFV-DP levels [OR (95% CI): 11.30 (3.62-35.33) and 1.46 (1.19-1.79), respectively; P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants using on-demand PrEP, estimated pill intake reached 8-12 tablets per month and was correlated with frequency and systematic use of PrEP for SI.

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