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BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 60, 2023 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721102


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has continuously affected human life with several devastating effects. Currently, there are effective vaccines to protect people from COVID-19 and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted strategies to influence COVID-19 vaccine uptake in hard-to-reach communities in Ghana. However, prior studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in Ghana are online surveys targeting the literates and those in urban areas, leaving residents in far-flung communities. We assessed knowledge, attitude and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine among residents in rural communities in Ghana. METHODS: This study was a community-based cross-sectional study and was conducted at three selected regions in Ghana (Northern, Ashanti and Western North) from May to November, 2021. This study included residents 15-81 years, living in the selected rural communities for more than 1 year. Study participants were recruited and questionnaires administered to collect data on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26.0 and GraphPad Prism Version 8.0 software. RESULTS: Of the 764 participants included in this study, more than half had inadequate knowledge (55.0%), poor attitudes (59.4%) and bad perception about COVID-19 vaccine (55.4%). The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in this study was 41.9%. The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in Ashanti, Northern and Western North regions were 32.5%, 26.2% and 29.6% respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, receiving recent or previous vaccine such as HBV vaccine [aOR = 1.57, 95% CI (1.23-3.29), p = 0.002], having good attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine [aOR = 61.47, 95% CI (29.55-127.86), p < 0.0001] and having good perception about the COVID-19 vaccine [aOR = 3.87, 95% CI (1.40-10.72), p < 0.0001] were independently associated with higher odds of accepting COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: More than half of residents in Ghanaian rural communities have inadequate knowledge, poor attitudes and bad perception about COVID-19 vaccine. The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine is generally low among rural residents in Ashanti, Northern and Western North regions of Ghana. Residents living in hard-to-reach communities must be educated about the benefits of COVID-19 vaccine to achieve effective vaccination program.

COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Población Rural , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control
AIDS Care ; 35(3): 385-391, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102039


Human Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status disclosure to sexual partners is associated with prevention, care, treatment, and support for pregnant women with HIV. We aimed to assess HIV status disclosure and sexual activity among pregnant women with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based survey using quantitative methods. Data were collected from 118 pregnant women with HIV enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program from January to November 2019. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of these pregnant women did not know they had HIV until they were tested in the routine antenatal HIV testing program. HIV status nondisclosure rate was 62.7%, and the most common reason for nondisclosure was fear of loss of financial support (41.9%). Higher parity was associated with lower odds of disclosing HIV status (aOR = 0.36; p < 0.01). Sexual activity with partners and condom use were associated with HIV disclosure (ps < 0.01). Pregnant women who disclosed their HIV status to their partners were sexually active with them (37.3%), and all those who did not but were sexually active with their partners did not use condoms (36.2%) during the pregnancy. Our findings emphasize the need for interventions that encourage HIV status disclosure and affirm the importance of routine HIV testing for pregnant women.

Infecciones por VIH , Mujeres Embarazadas , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Revelación , Estudios Transversales , Ghana , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Revelación de la Verdad
Clin Med Insights Cardiol ; 16: 11795468221120092, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060113


Introduction: Hypertension is an important public health menace globally and in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of hypertension is on the rise in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMIC) such as Ghana. This rise led to the adoption of the May Measurement Month (MMM) initiative, a global blood pressure screening campaign. We aimed to create awareness and present the findings of the 2019 MMM screening campaign in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Ghana was 1 of 92 countries that participated in this global community-based cross-sectional study in May 2019. Participants (⩾18 years) were recruited by opportunistic sampling. The blood pressures of participants were measured 3 times and the mean of the last 2 was used for the analysis. Summary statistics were used to describe the data. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the predictors of hypertension. Results: We screened 3080 participants with a mean age of 39.8 ± 16.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.3% among participants. Two-thirds of the hypertensives were unaware of their condition and only 49.5% of participants with a history of hypertension on medication were controlled. Predictors of hypertension in a multiple logistic regression were increasing age (OR = 1.05 (CI 1.04-1.06), P < .001) and high body mass index (OR = 1.06 (1.02-1.10), P = .005). Conclusion: The MMM initiative is highly commendable and of huge public health importance in LMICs like Ghana. Population-based health programs such as the MMM initiative is encouraged to shape appropriate public health policies to reduce the prevalence of hypertension.

JRSM Cardiovasc Dis ; 11: 20480040221075521, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35111304


OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality globally and in Ghana. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global awareness and screening campaign initiated by the International Society of Hypertension. METHODS: Participants were recruited by opportunist sampling in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The blood pressures of participants were measured three times and the mean of the last two readings was used for the analysis. Simple and multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of hypertension. RESULTS: The MMM 2018 awareness and screening campaign enrolled 5054 participants with a mean age of 39.4 ± 14.7 years. There were 2553 (50.6%) males, 987 (20.1%) of respondents had never checked their blood pressure and 676 (13.9%) had a prior history of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 37.4%. We found that 589(66.8%) of 822 respondents with high blood pressure did not have a history of hypertension. Respondents with a known history of hypertension on medication were 442 (65.9%) and 219(68.0%) of 322 respondents on medication had uncontrolled hypertension. The predictors of high blood pressure in a multiple logistic regression were increasing age (OR = 1.05 CI 1.05-1.06, p < 0.001), history of alcohol intake (OR = 1.33 CI 1.04 -1.70, p = 0.02), overweight (OR = 1.4 CI 1.14-1.76, p = 0.001) and obesity (OR = 1.32, CI 1.01-1.74, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of hypertension in the Ashanti region in Ghana. Most participants with hypertension were not aware and the majority of those with hypertension on medications were uncontrolled. This calls for more education and screening of hypertension to decrease cardiovascular mortality.

Ghana Med J ; 56(2): 86-94, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449260


Objective: To explore factors associated with late clinical presentation among Ghanaian women with cervical cancer. Design: This is a cross-sectional survey using a paper questionnaire. Setting: Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants: Participants were women presenting for cervical cancer care at KATH. Inclusion criteria were histologically diagnosed cervical cancer and age ≥18 years. The exclusion criteria was age <18. All women presenting from August 2018-August 2019 were recruited. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants presenting with late-stage cervical cancer, defined as stage II or higher. Results: Of 351 total participants, 33.6% were unemployed, 35.3% had no formal education, and 96.6% had an average monthly income of less than five hundred Ghana cedis ($86 USD). Time from symptoms to seeing a doctor ranged from fewer than two weeks (16.0%) to more than twelve months (8.6%). Participants' most common barrier in seeking healthcare was financial constraints (50.0%). Most participants presented at late-stage cervical cancer (95.2%, n=334), with only 4.8% (n=17) presenting at stage I. Of participants presenting with late-stage cervical cancer, the vast majority had never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear (99.1%) nor a recent gynecologic exam (99.3%). After adjusting for age, parity, and distance to a healthcare facility, a late-stage presentation was associated with lower income and living in a rural area. Conclusions: In Ghana, 95% of women with cervical cancer seek care at a late clinical stage, defined as stage II or greater, when the cancer is inoperable. Funding: None declared.

Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Masculino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Cuello del Útero/patología
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med ; 14: 1179548420956364, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117036


BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of publications on the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in Ghana. Knowledge of the prevalence of venous thromboembolism, which is often undetected clinically, will help save lives as appropriate interventions can be made as well as provide a general clue to clinicians on detecting venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. METHODS: The study employs a retrospective design with data extracted from the Autopsy Daybook of the Pathology unit, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, 2009 to 2016. Data on patients' demographics were retrieved to establish diagnoses and age and gender distribution. Analysis was made of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis as a cause of death recorded on death certificates using the criteria of the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. RESULTS: A total of 150 cases of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism were available for the study period and the results showed an average age of 45.3 years with a standard deviation of 19.96. The ages ranged between 3 years and 96 years with the age group 31 to 40 years being the modal age group. Males recorded the highest number of cases with 92 (59.35%) compared to females with 63 (40.65%). Respiratory disorders, of which pneumonia is the most prevalent, are the leading clinical condition that is often misdiagnosed in place of pulmonary thromboembolism. CONCLUSION: VTE is a major health problem especially among the elderly, but unfortunately the clinical diagnosis is usually missed by clinicians hence the need to maintain a high suspicion index.