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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144378

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2 (CALERIE) study showed that individuals who are nonobese were able to undergo significant calorie restriction (CR), yet the time course changes in adherence, weight, and appetite are unknown. This analysis aimed to investigate the time course changes in adherence, body weight, and appetite during the CALERIE study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Overall, 143 participants (body mass index: 21.9-28.0 kg/m2) were randomized to a CR group that aimed to achieve 25% CR for 2 years. Throughout the intervention, body weight was measured, and appetite was assessed through visual analogue scales. Algorithms were utilized with body weight measurements to calculate adherence percentile score. Participants targeted an adherence percentile score of 50, though being between 80 (lowest acceptable adherence) and 10 (highest acceptable adherence) was adequate. Polynomial regression analyses were used to assess time course changes. RESULTS: Polynomials indicated that adherence percentile score increased above 50 after approximately week 20, although adherence remained acceptable (adherence percentile score less than 80) (R2 = 0.89; P < 0.001). Weight loss occurred until approximately week 60 and then plateaued (R2 ≥ 0.92; P < 0.001). Hunger and thirst increased (R2 ≥ 0.30; P < 0.001), but the total increase in scale scores were <10 mm throughout the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals who are nonobese, adherence to 25% CR declines after 20 weeks, but 2 years of CR that stimulates a meaningful reduction in weight, promotes aging-related benefits and negligibly affects appetite is viable.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(5): 882-892, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144895

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether different measures of habitual physical activity (PA) at baseline predict weight change, weight compensation, and changes in energy intake (EI) during a 24-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention. METHODS: Data from 108 participants (78 women; 48.7 [SD: 11.6] years; BMI 31.4 [SD: 4.6] kg/m2 ), randomly assigned to either the moderate-dose exercise group (8 kcal/kg of body weight per week) or the high-dose exercise group (20 kcal/kg of body weight per week) of the Examination of Mechanisms of Exercise-induced Weight Compensation (E-MECHANIC) trial, were analyzed. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), steps per day, and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) were measured with SenseWear armbands (BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), and total activity energy expenditure and EI were estimated with doubly labeled water, all over 2 weeks, before and toward the end of the intervention. Multiple linear regression models, adjusted for sex, exercise group, and baseline value of the outcome, were used. RESULTS: Baseline habitual MVPA levels predicted weight change (ß = -0.275; P = 0.020), weight compensation (ß = -0.238; P = 0.043), and change in EI (ß = -0.318; P = 0.001). Associations between baseline PAEE and outcomes were comparable, whereas steps per day and, importantly, total activity energy expenditure (via doubly labeled water) did not significantly predict change in weight-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: While acknowledging substantial variability in the data, on average, lower baseline habitual MVPA and PAEE levels were associated with less weight loss from exercise, higher compensation, and increased EI.

3.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2095-2103, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367909

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Regular aerobic exercise can improve HRR, yet little is known regarding the dose necessary to promote increases. The aim was to assess the impact of different doses of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on HRR in individuals with overweight/obesity. METHODS: Data from 137 sedentary adults with overweight/obesity from E-MECHANIC were analyzed. Participants were randomized to either a moderate-dose exercise group (8 kcal/kg body weight/week; KKW), a high-dose exercise group (20 KKW), or a non-exercise control group. HRR was defined as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) during a graded exercise test and the HR after exactly 1 min of active recovery at 1.5 mph and level grade. RESULTS: Change in HRR did not differ significantly by exercise group; therefore, the data from both exercise groups were combined. The combined exercise group showed an improvement in HRR of 2.7 bpm (95% CI 0.1, 5.4; p = 0.04) compared to the control group. Those participants who lost more weight during the intervention (non-compensators) increased HRR by 6.2 bpm (95% CI 2.8, 9.5; p < 0.01) compared to those who lost less weight (compensators). Multiple linear regression models indicated that improvements in HRR are independently associated with increases in VO2peak (ß = 0.4; 95% CI 0.1, 0.7; p = 0.04) but also influenced by concomitant weight loss (ß = 0.6; 95% CI 0.2, 1.1; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exercise-induced improvements in 1-min HRR are likely due to increases in cardiorespiratory fitness as well as concomitant weight loss.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología
4.
Appetite ; 143: 104397, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398376

RESUMEN

Calorie restriction (CR) enhances longevity in humans who are normal weight, overweight and obese. While dietary regimens can change self-efficacy, eating behaviors, and food cravings in individuals with obesity, the responses of these measures to prolonged CR in individuals who are exclusively not obese is unknown. The aim of this analysis was to test the effects of a two-year CR intervention on self-efficacy and eating attitudes and behaviors in humans without obesity by analyzing data from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2 (CALERIE 2) study. Participants (n = 218, BMI range = 21.3-29.0 kg/m2) were randomized to a 25% CR group or an ad libitum (AL) group. Eating attitudes and behaviors and self-efficacy were assessed using validated questionnaires at baseline, month 12, and month 24. Dietary restraint and self-efficacy increased in the CR compared to the AL group (ES ≥ 0.32). Increased self-efficacy was negatively related to weight change (ρ < -0.24). In the CR group, males showed a reduction in cravings for carbohydrates and fats at month 24, whereas females did not. The CR group showed elevations in state hunger, which were transient, and disinhibited eating (ES ≥ 0.37). In individuals without obesity, dietary restraint and self-efficacy could be important in promoting long-term CR for individuals looking to use CR as a tool to improve longevity.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466276

RESUMEN

African Americans (AAs) have a higher obesity risk than Whites; however, it is unclear if appetite-related hormones and food intake are implicated. We examined differences in appetite-related hormones, appetite, and food intake between AAs (n = 53) and Whites (n = 111) with overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized into a control group or into supervised, controlled exercise groups at 8 kcal/kg of body weight/week (KKW) or 20 KKW. Participants consumed lunch and dinner at baseline and follow-up, with appetite and hormones measured before and after meals (except leptin). At baseline, AAs had lower peptide YY (PYY; p < 0.01) and a blunted elevation in PYY after lunch (p = 0.01), as well as lower ghrelin (p = 0.02) and higher leptin (p < 0.01) compared to Whites. Despite desire to eat being lower and satisfaction being higher in AAs relative to Whites (p ≤ 0.03), no racial differences in food intake were observed. Compared to Whites, leptin increased in the 8 KKW group in AAs (p = 0.01), yet no other race-by-group interactions were evident. Differences in appetite-related hormones between AAs and Whites exist; however, their influence on racial disparities in appetite, food intake, and obesity within this trial was limited.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Regulación del Apetito/etnología , Ingestión de Energía/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Obesidad/etnología , Hormonas Peptídicas/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Ghrelina/sangre , Humanos , Leptina/sangre , Louisiana/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Péptido YY/sangre , Periodo Posprandial , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 583-592, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172175

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exercise is recommended for weight management, yet exercise produces less weight loss than expected, which is called weight compensation. The mechanisms for weight compensation are unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms responsible for compensation. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial conducted at an academic research center, adults (n = 198) with overweight or obesity were randomized for 24 wk to a no-exercise control group or 1 of 2 supervised exercise groups: 8 kcal/kg of body weight/wk (KKW) or 20 KKW. Outcome assessment occurred at weeks 0 and 24. Energy intake, activity, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured with doubly labeled water (DLW; with and without adjustments for change in RMR), armband accelerometers, and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Appetite and compensatory health beliefs were measured by self-report. RESULTS: A per-protocol analysis included 171 participants (72.5% women; mean ± SD baseline body mass index: 31.5 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Significant (P < 0.01) compensation occurred in the 8 KKW (mean: 1.5 kg; 95% CI: 0.9, 2.2 kg) and 20 KKW (mean: 2.7 kg; 95% CI: 2.0, 3.5 kg) groups, and compensation differed significantly between the exercise groups (P = 0.01). Energy intake by adjusted DLW increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the 8 KKW (mean: 90.7 kcal/d; 95% CI: 35.1, 146.4 kcal/d) and 20 KKW (mean: 123.6 kcal/d; 95% CI: 64.5, 182.7 kcal/d) groups compared with control (mean: -2.3 kcal/d; 95% CI: -58.0, 53.5 kcal/d). Results were similar without DLW adjustment. RMR and physical activity (excluding structured exercise) did not differentially change among the 3 groups. Participants with higher compared with lower compensation reported increased appetite ratings and beliefs that healthy behaviors can compensate for unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, they increased craving for sweet foods, increased sleep disturbance, and had worsening bodily pain. CONCLUSIONS: Compensation resulted from increased energy intake and concomitant increases in appetite, which can be treated with dietary or pharmacological interventions. Compensation was not due to activity or metabolic changes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01264406.

7.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 51(6): 740-748, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178009

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To pilot-test a home-based parent training intervention aimed at maintaining body weight among children at risk for obesity (> the 75th body mass index percentile). METHODS: Sixteen parent-child dyads were randomized to a health education or Developing Relationships that Include Values of Eating and Exercise (DRIVE) intervention arm. The DRIVE curriculum was a structured parenting program to promote healthy weight in children by relying on behavioral principles to promote skill acquisition in the family's natural setting. Body weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and weeks 9 and 19. RESULTS: Body mass index z-score, body weight, and percent body weight increased in children in the health education arm vs DRIVE at weeks 9 and 19. Body weight, percent body weight, and waist circumference decreased in parents in DRIVE vs the health education arm at week 19, whereas no differences were shown at week 9. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The DRIVE program mitigated weight gain in a small sample of at-risk children and showed promising results in reducing weight in parents. Home-based interventions emphasizing parent-child interactions are indicated as a practical model to deliver weight management in children.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248113

RESUMEN

This study investigated associations between cardiovascular health (CVH), adiposity, and food insecurity by race, sex, and health literacy in a sample of 800 underserved patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2). CVH was assessed using American Heart Association Life's Simple 7 (LS7) and adiposity was estimated using BMI and waist circumference (WC). Mixed models including interaction terms between food insecurity and sex, race, and health literacy were analyzed for LS7, BMI, and WC. Stratified models were analyzed as indicated by significant interactions. Mean BMI and WC were 37.3 kg/m2 (4.6 SD) and 113.5 cm (12.4 SD), respectively. Among patients, 31% were food insecure and 31% had low health literacy. There were significant positive associations between food insecurity and BMI (p = 0.03) and WC (p = 0.03) in the overall sample. In sex-stratified models, women who were food insecure had higher BMI (p = 0.02) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Further, food insecure patients with better health literacy had greater BMI (p = 0.004) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Results suggest that adiposity is a greater burden in food insecure patients, which may be an important consideration for obesity treatment in underserved populations.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/etnología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etnología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Área sin Atención Médica , Obesidad/etnología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/etnología , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional/etnología , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos Pragmáticos como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Circunferencia de la Cintura
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(10): 682-690, 2019 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009939

RESUMEN

Background: Identifying reliable predictors of long-term weight loss (LTWL) could lead to improved weight management. Objective: To identify some predictors of LTWL. Design: The DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) was a randomized controlled trial that compared weight loss with metformin, intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS), or placebo. Its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) observed patients after the masked treatment phase ended. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00004992 and NCT00038727). Setting: 27 DPP and DPPOS clinics. Participants: Of the 3234 randomly assigned participants, 1066 lost at least 5% of baseline weight in the first year and were followed for 15 years. Measurements: Treatment assignment, personal characteristics, and weight. Results: After 1 year, 289 (28.5%) participants in the metformin group, 640 (62.6%) in the ILS group, and 137 (13.4%) in the placebo group had lost at least 5% of their weight. After the masked treatment phase ended, the mean weight loss relative to baseline that was maintained between years 6 and 15 was 6.2% (95% CI, 5.2% to 7.2%) in the metformin group, 3.7% (CI, 3.1% to 4.4%) in the ILS group, and 2.8% (CI, 1.3% to 4.4%) in the placebo group. Independent predictors of LTWL included greater weight loss in the first year in all groups, older age and continued metformin use in the metformin group, older age and absence of either diabetes or a family history of diabetes in the ILS group, and higher fasting plasma glucose levels at baseline in the placebo group. Limitation: Post hoc analysis; examination of nonrandomized subsets of randomized groups after year 1. Conclusion: Among persons with weight loss of at least 5% after 1 year, those originally randomly assigned to metformin had the greatest loss during years 6 to 15. Older age and the amount of weight initially lost were the most consistent predictors of LTWL maintenance. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Estilo de Vida , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(5): R472-R485, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758976

RESUMEN

The main objective of these studies was to characterize metabolic, body composition, and cardiovascular responses to a free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet in female cycling and pregnant rats. In the nonpregnant state, female Sprague-Dawley rats offered a 3-wk free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet had greater energy intake, adiposity, serum leptin, and triglyceride concentrations compared with rats fed with standard chow and developed glucose intolerance. In addition, choice-diet-fed rats had larger cardiac ventricular weights, smaller kidney and pancreas weights, and higher blood pressure than chow-fed rats, but they did not exhibit resistance artery endothelial dysfunction. When the free-choice diet continued throughout pregnancy, rats remained hyperphagic, hyperleptinemic, and obese. Choice pregnant rats exhibited uterine artery endothelial dysfunction and had smaller fetuses compared with chow pregnant rats. Pregnancy normalized mean arterial blood pressure and pancreas weights in choice rats. These studies are the first to provide a comprehensive evaluation of free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet on metabolic and cardiovascular functions in female rats, extending the previous studies in males to female cycling and pregnant rodents. Free-choice diet may provide a new model of preconceptual maternal obesity to study the role of increased energy intake, individual food components, and preexisting maternal obesity on maternal and offspring physiological responses during pregnancy and after birth.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Sacarosa en la Dieta/toxicidad , Metabolismo Energético , Ciclo Estral , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/etiología , Hiperfagia/etiología , Obesidad/etiología , Adiposidad , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Conducta Animal , Biomarcadores/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Conducta de Elección , Sacarosa en la Dieta/metabolismo , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/sangre , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/fisiopatología , Hemodinámica , Hiperfagia/sangre , Hiperfagia/fisiopatología , Hiperfagia/psicología , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Embarazo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Aumento de Peso
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577626

RESUMEN

Both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain have been associated with cardiovascular health in the offspring beyond two generations. A total of 274 daughters (aged 12⁻54) of 208 mothers who participated in the Bogalusa Heart Study were interviewed about their reproductive history. Mothers' data was taken from the original study, and cardiovascular measures at the visit prior to pregnancy were correlated with daughter's measures. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, skinfold, and waist circumference were examined as a predictor of daughters' blood pressure, lipids, and glucose, as well as a predictor of birthweight and gestational age of grandchildren. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher blood pressure and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol in the daughters. Most maternal cardiometabolic risk factors were not associated with grandchildren's birth outcomes, even though higher cholesterol and LDL was associated with lower gestational age, and higher BMI and skinfold thickness with an increased risk of preterm birth. In this pilot study, some associations were found between maternal adiposity and cardiovascular risk, daughters' cardiovascular risk, and grandchild birth outcomes. Lack of conclusive associations could be due to a true lack of effect, effects being primarily mediated through daughter's BMI, or the low power of the study.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Salud de la Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres , Núcleo Familiar , Proyectos Piloto , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26 Suppl 3: S4, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290078
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(11): 1845-1852, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Decreasing selection and consumption of sodium and added sugars in the school cafeteria setting is important to provide optimal nutrition to children. OBJECTIVE: The ofjective of this study is to determine whether Louisiana (LA) Health, a school-based obesity prevention intervention, could successfully reduce children's selection and consumption of sodium and added sugars during school lunches vs. the control group. DESIGN: Food selection, consumption, and plate waste from student lunches (3 consecutive days) in 33 public schools in rural Louisiana were collected and analyzed using the digital photography of foods method at baseline and after a 28-month obesity prevention intervention (LA Health) beginning in 4th-6th grade (87% of children received free or reduced cost lunch). Selection and consumption of energy, added sugar, and sodium was objectively measured using digital photography of foods. Mixed models, including Race and BMI, were used to determine whether change in selection and consumption differed by group. RESULTS: Sodium decreased for selection (- 233.1 ± 89.4 mg/lunch, p = 0.04) and consumption (- 206.3 ± 65.9, mg/lunch) in the intervention (vs. control) by month 18, and in consumption by month 28 (- 153.5 ± 66.9 mg/lunch, p = 0.03). Change in added sugar consumption decreased in the intervention (vs. control) at month 18 (- 3.7 ± 1.6, p = 0.05) and at month 28 (- 3.5 ± 1.6 tsp/lunch, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LA Health decreased the amount of added sugar and sodium selected and consumed, but not plate waste, by month 28. Results highlight the importance of long-term interventions and policies targeting provision and selection to improve dietary patterns in children, with less focus on plate waste.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Alimentación/estadística & datos numéricos , Almuerzo , Política Nutricional , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Sodio , Azúcares , Niño , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Femenino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Instituciones Académicas , Sodio/efectos adversos , Estudiantes , Azúcares/efectos adversos
14.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 25(5): 298-302, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048258

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide current information on interventions that alter food cravings. Specifically, dietary, physical activity, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery interventions are examined. Lastly, the effects of social determinants and current controversies on food cravings are outlined. RECENT FINDINGS: Dietary, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery weight loss interventions decrease food cravings. Physical activity interventions also decrease cravings. There is potential to see differential responses in food cravings in different demographic and socioeconomic groups, but more research is needed. SUMMARY: Food cravings influence body weight. Food craving reductions are because of reductions in the frequency of consuming craved foods, independent of energy content, but further research is warranted. Most findings continue to support the conditioning model of food cravings.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal/fisiología , Ansia/fisiología , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Cirugía Bariátrica , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Preferencias Alimentarias/fisiología , Humanos , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Obesidad/psicología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología
15.
Front Psychol ; 9: 17, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434559

RESUMEN

Food image fMRI paradigms are used widely for investigating the neural basis of ingestive behavior. However, these paradigms have not been validated in terms of ingestive behavior constructs, engagement of food-relevant neural systems, or test-retest reliability, making the generalizability of study findings unclear. Therefore, we validated the Macronutrient Picture System (MaPS) (McClernon et al., 2013), which includes food images from the six categories represented in the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ) (Geiselman et al., 1998). Twenty-five healthy young adults (n = 21 female, mean age = 20.6 ± 1.1 years, mean BMI = 22.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2) rated the MaPS images in terms of visual interest, appetitive quality, nutrition, emotional valence, liking, and frequency of consumption, and completed the FPQ. In a second study, 12 individuals (n=8 female, mean age = 25.0 ± 6.5 years, mean BMI = 28.2 ± 8.7 kg/m2) viewed MaPS and control images (vegetables and non-food) during two separate 3T BOLD fMRI scans after fasting overnight. Intuitively, high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) and high fat/high complex carbohydrate (HF/HCCHO) images achieved higher liking and appetitive ratings, and lower nutrition ratings, than low fat/low complex carbohydrate/high protein (LF/LCHO/HP) images on average. Within each food category, FPQ scores correlated strongly with MaPS image liking ratings (p < 0.001). Brain activation differences between viewing images of HF/HS and vegetables, and between HF/HCCHO and vegetables, were seen in several reward-related brain regions (e.g., putamen, insula, and medial frontal gyrus). Intra-individual, inter-scan agreement in a summary measure of brain activation differences in seven reward network regions of interest was high (ICC = 0.61), and was even higher when two distinct sets of food images with matching visual ratings were shown in the two scans (ICC = 0.74). These results suggest that the MaPS provides valid representation of food categories and reliably activates food-reward-relevant neural systems.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0191813, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444094

RESUMEN

We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Alimentación , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(4): 943-952, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437573

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Measures of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) function are associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of regular exercise on these measures is largely unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of different doses of exercise on 3 measures of HDL function in 2 randomized clinical exercise trials. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Radiolabeled and boron dipyrromethene difluoride-labeled cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) exchange were assessed before and after 6 months of exercise training in 2 cohorts: STRRIDE-PD (Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise, in individuals with Pre-Diabetes; n=106) and E-MECHANIC (Examination of Mechanisms of exercise-induced weight compensation; n=90). STRRIDE-PD participants completed 1 of 4 exercise interventions differing in amount and intensity. E-MECHANIC participants were randomized into 1 of 2 exercise groups (8 or 20 kcal/kg per week) or a control group. HDL-C significantly increased in the high-amount/vigorous-intensity group (3±5 mg/dL; P=0.02) of STRRIDE-PD, whereas no changes in HDL-C were observed in E-MECHANIC. In STRRIDE-PD, global radiolabeled efflux capacity significantly increased 6.2% (SEM, 0.06) in the high-amount/vigorous-intensity group compared with all other STRRIDE-PD groups (range, -2.4 to -8.4%; SEM, 0.06). In E-MECHANIC, non-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) radiolabeled efflux significantly increased 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2-10.2%) in the 20 kcal/kg per week group compared with the control group, with no change in the 8 kcal/kg per week group (2.6%; 95% CI, -1.4 to 6.7%). This association was attenuated when adjusting for change in HDL-C. Exercise training did not affect BODIPY-labeled cholesterol efflux capacity or HDL-apoA-I exchange in either study. CONCLUSIONS: Regular prolonged vigorous exercise improves some but not all measures of HDL function. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease are mediated in part by improving HDL function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00962962 and NCT01264406.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Terapia por Ejercicio , Obesidad/terapia , Estado Prediabético/terapia , Transportador 1 de Casete de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Estado Prediabético/sangre , Estado Prediabético/diagnóstico , Estado Prediabético/fisiopatología , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 67: 1-10, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408562

RESUMEN

Underserved and minority populations suffer from a disproportionately high prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. Effective obesity treatment programs delivered in primary care that produce significant weight loss are currently lacking. The purpose of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a pragmatic, high intensity lifestyle-based obesity treatment program delivered within primary care among an underserved population. We hypothesize that, relative to patients who receive usual care, patients who receive a high-intensity, health literacy- and culturally-appropriate lifestyle intervention will have greater percent reductions in body weight over 24 months. Eighteen clinics (N = 803 patients) serving low income populations with a high proportion of African Americans in Louisiana were randomized to the intervention or usual car. Patients in the intervention participate in a high-intensity lifestyle program delivered by health coaches employed by an academic health center and embedded in the primary care clinics. The program consists of weekly (16 in-person/6 telephone) sessions in the first six months, followed by sessions held at least monthly for the remaining 18 months. Primary care practitioners in usual care receive information on weight management and the current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reimbursement for obesity treatment. The primary outcome is percent weight loss at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include absolute 24-month changes in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipids, health-related quality of life, and weight-related quality of life. The results will provide evidence on the effectiveness of implementing high-intensity lifestyle and obesity counseling in primary care settings among underserved populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02561221.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Obesidad , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Afroamericanos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Competencia Cultural , Eficiencia Organizacional , Femenino , Humanos , Louisiana , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/psicología , Obesidad/terapia , Pobreza/psicología
19.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(2): 252-260, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637631

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The validity of using the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for measuring food intake of minority preschool children's intake is not well documented. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the validity of intake estimations made by human raters using the RFPM compared with those obtained by weighing all foods and beverages consumed by 3- to 5-year-old children (weighed method). DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: A convenience sample of 54 3- to 5-year-old Hispanic and African-American children were observed during a 12-hour period at Baylor Metabolic Research Unit between June 2013 and January 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All foods/beverages consumed by the children were provided by Baylor research coordinators who took and wirelessly transmitted before-and-after pictures of the trays to trained human raters at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center who estimated grams consumed. Energy and macronutrients were calculated using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies or food facts data provided by manufacturers. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Paired t test, mean differences, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were performed. RESULTS: Compared to the weighed method, the rater method significantly overestimated total intake by 34±71 g (P<0.0001), with a mean percent error of 2.9% (root mean square error=7.1%), and total energy intake by 75±102 kcal (P<0.0001), with a mean percent error of 7.5% (root mean square error=12.3%). The standard error for the macronutrient intakes ranged from 11.0% to 20.2%. The Bland-Altman approach demonstrated a positive slope for the rater method relative to the weighed method for total intake in grams (P=0.006), carbohydrate (P=0.01), and protein (P=0.01) (ie, magnitude of the bias increased with increasing intakes). CONCLUSIONS: The rater method overestimated total intake in grams and energy in kilocalories in minority preschool children in a well-controlled condition and needs to be further tested in a free-living environment.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos , Alimentos , Fotograbar , Afroamericanos , Bebidas , Preescolar , Ingestión de Energía , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , Evaluación Nutricional , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Drug Discov Today ; 23(2): 333-348, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154758

RESUMEN

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been known for over a decade to have the potential to greatly enhance the process of developing novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent health conditions. However, the use of fMRI in drug development continues to be relatively limited because of a variety of technical, biological, and strategic barriers that continue to limit progress. Here, we briefly review the roles that fMRI can have in the drug development process and the requirements it must meet to be useful in this setting. We then provide an update on our current understanding of the strengths and limitations of fMRI as a tool for drug developers and recommend activities to enhance its utility.


Asunto(s)
Descubrimiento de Drogas/métodos , Animales , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/química
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