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1.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e201819, jan.-maio 2020. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1135852

RESUMEN

Resumo Os fenômenos relacionados ao uso de drogas constituem um campo heterogêneo e polissêmico, a partir do qual se constroem diferentes objetos, identidades e práticas sociais. Este artigo apresenta uma pesquisa documental, baseada na teoria das representações sociais, cujo objetivo foi analisar o campo representacional das drogas em comunicações midiáticas. O material foi composto por 4.516 matérias de um jornal de ampla circulação no Brasil que tinham como tema central questões relacionadas às drogas. Com auxílio do software Iramuteq, realizou-se uma análise lexicométrica visando reconstituir classes lexicais relacionadas a dimensões específicas do campo. Oito classes foram interpretadas, categorizadas e discutidas. Os resultados permitiram identificar três eixos temáticos: regulação sociopolítica do uso, produção e circulação das drogas; uso de drogas, dependência e saúde; polícia e guerra às drogas no Brasil. A discussão evidencia dimensões que conferem sentido a processos político-legais, relações internacionais, movimentos sociais, entretenimento, práticas terapêuticas, políticas públicas, violência, criminalidade e exclusão. Além disso, os fenômenos do campo guardam relação com categorias sociais típicas (e.g., usuários e traficantes); formas de desvio (e.g., dependência e crime); e práticas sociais em saúde e segurança pública (e.g., tratamento e prisão). Compreende-se que os conteúdos difundidos nessas comunicações atuam na criação de quadros simbólicos de referência que podem influenciar a orientação de práticas sociais e tomadas de posição diante dos fenômenos relacionados ao uso de drogas.


Abstract Phenomena related to drug use constitute a heterogeneous and polysemic field, from which different objects, identities and social practices are constructed. This paper presents a documentary research based on Social Representations Theory, whose objective was to analyze the representational field of drugs in media. We analyzed 4516 articles from a newspaper with wide circulation in Brazil that had as its central theme issues related to drugs. Lexicometric analysis was carried out utilizing Iramuteq to reconstruct lexical classes related to specific field dimensions. Eight classes were interpreted, categorized and discussed. The results allowed to identify three thematic axes: socio-political regulation of the use, production and circulation of drugs; drug use, addiction and health; police and drug war in Brazil. The discussion highlights dimensions that give meaning to political-legal processes, international relations, social movements, entertainment, therapeutic practices, public policies, violence, crime and exclusion. Additionally, the phenomena of the field are linked to typical social categories (e.g., drug users and drug dealers); forms of deviance (e.g., addiction and crime); and social practices in public health and public security (e.g., treatment and imprisonment). The contents disseminated by these sorts of communication have a role in the creation of symbolic frames of reference that influence the orientation of social practices and attitudes towards phenomena related to drug use.


Resumen Los fenómenos relacionados con el consumo de drogas constituyen un campo heterogéneo y polisémico, a partir del cual se construyen diferentes objetos, identidades y prácticas sociales. Este artículo presenta una investigación documental basada en la teoría de las representaciones sociales con el objetivo de analizar el campo representativo de las drogas en comunicaciones mediáticas. El material se compuso por 4516 artículos de un periódico de amplia circulación en Brasil que tenían como tema central cuestiones relacionadas con las drogas. Con el apoyo del software Iramuteq, se llevó a cabo un análisis lexicométrico para reconstruir clases léxicas relacionadas con dimensiones específicas del campo. Ocho clases fueron interpretadas, categorizadas y discutidas. Los resultados permitieron identificar tres ejes temáticos: la regulación sociopolítica del uso, producción y circulación de drogas; el uso de drogas, adicción y salud; la policía y la guerra a las drogas en Brasil. La discusión resalta las dimensiones que dan sentido a los procesos político-legales, las relaciones internacionales, los movimientos sociales, el entretenimiento, las prácticas terapéuticas, las políticas públicas, la violencia, el crimen y la exclusión. Además, los fenómenos del campo están vinculados a categorías sociales típicas (por ejemplo, usuarios de drogas y traficantes de drogas); formas de desviación (por ejemplo, adicción y crimen); y prácticas sociales en salud pública y seguridad pública (por ejemplo, tratamiento y encarcelamiento). Se entiende que los contenidos diseminados en estas comunicaciones actúan en la creación de marcos de referencia simbólicos que pueden influir en la orientación de las prácticas y actitudes sociales frente a los fenómenos relacionados con el consumo de drogas.

2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e201819, jan.-maio 2020. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1140873

RESUMEN

Os fenômenos relacionados ao uso de drogas constituem um campo heterogêneo e polissêmico, a partir do qual se constroem diferentes objetos, identidades e práticas sociais. Este artigo apresenta uma pesquisa documental, baseada na teoria das representações sociais, cujo objetivo foi analisar o campo representacional das drogas em comunicações midiáticas. O material foi composto por 4.516 matérias de um jornal de ampla circulação no Brasil que tinham como tema central questões relacionadas às drogas. Com auxílio do software Iramuteq, realizou-se uma análise lexicométrica visando reconstituir classes lexicais relacionadas a dimensões específicas do campo. Oito classes foram interpretadas, categorizadas e discutidas. Os resultados permitiram identificar três eixos temáticos: regulação sociopolítica do uso, produção e circulação das drogas; uso de drogas, dependência e saúde; polícia e guerra às drogas no Brasil. A discussão evidencia dimensões que conferem sentido a processos político-legais, relações internacionais, movimentos sociais, entretenimento, práticas terapêuticas, políticas públicas, violência, criminalidade e exclusão. Além disso, os fenômenos do campo guardam relação com categorias sociais típicas (e.g., usuários e traficantes); formas de desvio (e.g., dependência e crime); e práticas sociais em saúde e segurança pública (e.g., tratamento e prisão). Compreende-se que os conteúdos difundidos nessas comunicações atuam na criação de quadros simbólicos de referência que podem influenciar a orientação de práticas sociais e tomadas de posição diante dos fenômenos relacionados ao uso de drogas...(AU)


Phenomena related to drug use constitute a heterogeneous and polysemic field, from which different objects, identities and social practices are constructed. This paper presents a documentary research based on Social Representations Theory, whose objective was to analyze the representational field of drugs in media. We analyzed 4516 articles from a newspaper with wide circulation in Brazil that had as its central theme issues related to drugs. Lexicometric analysis was carried out utilizing Iramuteq to reconstruct lexical classes related to specific field dimensions. Eight classes were interpreted, categorized and discussed. The results allowed to identify three thematic axes: socio-political regulation of the use, production and circulation of drugs; drug use, addiction and health; police and drug war in Brazil. The discussion highlights dimensions that give meaning to political-legal processes, international relations, social movements, entertainment, therapeutic practices, public policies, violence, crime and exclusion. Additionally, the phenomena of the field are linked to typical social categories (e.g., drug users and drug dealers); forms of deviance (e.g., addiction and crime); and social practices in public health and public security (e.g., treatment and imprisonment). The contents disseminated by these sorts of communication have a role in the creation of symbolic frames of reference that influence the orientation of social practices and attitudes towards phenomena related to drug use...(AU)


Los fenómenos relacionados con el consumo de drogas constituyen un campo heterogéneo y polisémico, a partir del cual se construyen diferentes objetos, identidades y prácticas sociales. Este artículo presenta una investigación documental basada en la teoría de las representaciones sociales con el objetivo de analizar el campo representativo de las drogas en comunicaciones mediáticas. El material se compuso por 4516 artículos de un periódico de amplia circulación en Brasil que tenían como tema central cuestiones relacionadas con las drogas. Con el apoyo del software Iramuteq, se llevó a cabo un análisis lexicométrico para reconstruir clases léxicas relacionadas con dimensiones específicas del campo. Ocho clases fueron interpretadas, categorizadas y discutidas. Los resultados permitieron identificar tres ejes temáticos: la regulación sociopolítica del uso, producción y circulación de drogas; el uso de drogas, adicción y salud; la policía y la guerra a las drogas en Brasil. La discusión resalta las dimensiones que dan sentido a los procesos político-legales, las relaciones internacionales, los movimientos sociales, el entretenimiento, las prácticas terapéuticas, las políticas públicas, la violencia, el crimen y la exclusión. Además, los fenómenos del campo están vinculados a categorías sociales típicas (por ejemplo, usuarios de drogas y traficantes de drogas); formas de desviación (por ejemplo, adicción y crimen); y prácticas sociales en salud pública y seguridad pública (por ejemplo, tratamiento y encarcelamiento). Se entiende que los contenidos diseminados en estas comunicaciones actúan en la creación de marcos de referencia simbólicos que pueden influir en la orientación de las prácticas y actitudes sociales frente a los fenómenos relacionados con el consumo de drogas...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Social , Consumidores de Drogas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Orientación , Política Pública , Terapéutica , Violencia , Salud , Salud Pública , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Crimen , Medios de Comunicación de Masas
3.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(6): 756-766, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505944

RESUMEN

The disclosure of genetic information is an important issue in cancer prevention. This study based on a French national cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (GENEPSO-PS cohort, N=233) aimed to assess the prevalence of parental disclosure of genetic information to children 10 years after genetic testing, with a focus on gender differences. Most participants (n = 193, 131 women) reported having children. A total of 72.0% of offspring had received genetic information (88.8% for adult offspring, p < .001), with no differences according to the gender of the mutation-carrying parent. While female carriers disclosed genetic information more often than male carriers (54.1% versus 38.3%, p = .029), they did so irrespective of the gender of their offspring. Moreover, female carriers who had developed incident cancer after genetic testing disclosed genetic information more frequently than unaffected female carriers (70.7% versus 48.5%, p = .005). A multivariate analysis confirmed the effects of both gender and cancer on disclosure to offspring. The same results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to adult offspring. This study reveals high rates of disclosure of positive BRCA1/2 mutation status to children 10 years after genetic testing, irrespective of the gender of the carrier/offspring. However, female carriers disclosed genetic information more frequently than male carriers.

4.
J Health Psychol ; 25(10-11): 1396-1409, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417840

RESUMEN

The aim of this qualitative study based on a Social Representations approach was to explore experienced oncologists' representations of difficult decision-making situations. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews with oncologists were conducted and analysed by performing a thematic content analysis. The thematic content analysis brought to light the main medical problem involved such as uncertainty, the lethal nature of cancer and physicians' specialties, as well as the psychosocial ones, such as patients' non-medical characteristics and the patient-physician relationships. This analysis also showed the painful tensions experienced by specialists in the context of decision-making situations when the medical arguments conflict with the psychosocial ones. These findings suggest that in order to understand more clearly the complex processes involved in difficult medical decision-making situations, studies on physicians' expertise should include the socio-affective climate involved in each patient-physician relationship.

5.
Psychooncology ; 28(9): 1894-1900, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276266

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Genetic counseling in at-risk families is known to improve cancer prevention. Our study aimed to determine the rate of uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and to identify the potential psychosocial factors associated with uptake of genetic counseling. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was mailed to 328 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers 10 years after BRCA1/2 test disclosure. Of the 233 carriers who returned the questionnaire (response rate = 71%), 135 reported having children over age 18 years and were therefore included in the analysis. Generalized estimating equations models were used to identify the factors associated with uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of mutation carriers. RESULTS: Data were gathered for a total of 296 children (46% male, 54% female). The vast majority were informed about the familial mutation (90.9%) and 113 (38%; 95% CI, 32%-44%) underwent genetic counseling. This percentage exceeded 80% in women over 40 years. In the multivariate model, female sex, advanced age, mutation in the father, diagnosis of cancer in the mutation-carrying parent after genetic testing, and good family relationships were all factors associated with higher uptake of genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: Adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in France do not undergo genetic counseling sufficiently often. Further studies should be conducted on the psychosocial factors that hinder the uptake of genetic counseling among adult children of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Asunto(s)
Niños Adultos/psicología , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Asesoramiento Genético/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niños Adultos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Francia , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 230: 184-193, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030009

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Although greater attention has been recently given to the ecological determinants of health behaviours, we still do not know much about the behavioural changes induced by the spread of infectiousdiseases. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we took advantage of a large epidemic of chikungunya, an emerging mosquito-borne disease, in French Guiana to examine the dynamic interaction between risk-related perceptions and behaviours that occurs in response to a disease outbreak. In particular, we tested empirically the assumption that both risk perceptions and health behaviours were elastic with respect to prevalence of chikungunya. METHODS: A representative sample of French Guianan (N=434) was interviewed in January 2015 just after the peak of the epidemic, and again 2 months later. Participants were asked about their perceptions of the threat, as well as their engagement in a range of protective behaviours promoted by the regional health authorities to control the spread of the disease. RESULTS: The surveys showed that (1) the frequency of some health behaviours - those related to visible control methods - significantly increased with the subjective and objective prevalence of the disease, (2) perceived risk of infection for oneself tended to decrease considerably over time, and (3) the risk reappraisal hypothesis failed to account for this paradoxical trend in the people's response to the risk of contracting the disease. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that people may fail to adjust their risk perceptions, and to a lesser extent their health protective behaviours, to the course of an epidemic. Notably, the prevalence elasticity of preventive action found in previous studies of behavioural response to infectious diseases differed substantially according to the type of intervention (personal versus environmental methods). This paradoxical trend may be attributed to risk habituation effects, which seem to vary significantly according to the social visibility of thepreventive actions.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Epidemias , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Mosquitos Vectores , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Fiebre Chikungunya/prevención & control , Femenino , Guyana Francesa/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 595-601, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616129

RESUMEN

We explored the representations that individuals associate with schizophrenia in the French context, as well as the relationships between their own representations and the representations they attribute to other French people. Data were collected from individuals in the general population (N = 98) and those with schizophrenia (N = 59). Using a verbal association technique, participants produced words spontaneously based on the inductor word "schizophrenia". The instruction invited them to respond on their own behalf, but also "as the French would in general". Prototypical and similarity analyses were carried out. Results indicated that the representations of participants from the general population were associated with a vocabulary relative to schizophrenia as an illness and with stigmatizing stereotypes, such as madness, dangerousness and split personality when they expressed themselves on their own behalf, as well as psychopathy and confinement when they imagined how French people express themselves regarding schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia who had a clear view of the general population's stereotypes mostly referred to negative experiences and emotions such as loneliness, suffering and fear. These findings underline the value of considering the representations associated with schizophrenia in designing awareness campaigns, but also in clinical care for people with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Estigma Social , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Peligrosa , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Aleatoria , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
8.
J Health Psychol ; 24(14): 1976-1992, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810470

RESUMEN

We explore representations of well-being in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in order to better understand their expectations and needs in therapeutic patient education. In total, 28 interviews were performed and then submitted to thematic content analysis and lexicometric analysis. Results show the intervention of psychosocial processes in the relationship that adolescents maintain with well-being and self-management. More specifically, we observed that well-being is impacted by areas of tension between the expectations of adolescents and the therapeutic objectives expressed by health professionals. These tensions should be taken into account in the conception, implementation, and evaluation of therapeutic education programs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Automanejo/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa , Autoimagen
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 26: e20787, jan.-dez. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1004070

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar os aspectos identitários presentes nas representações sociais de enfermeiras sobre as práticas de cuidar do cliente hospitalizado na terapia intensiva. Método: estudo de campo, qualitativo, descritivo-explicativo, apoiado na teoria das representações sociais e no conceito de identidade social. Após aprovação do projeto pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, realizaram-se entrevistas com 21 enfermeiros atuantes na assistência de uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital federal, com uso de um roteiro semiestruturado de questões, cujos dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: evidenciam-se aspectos de identificação social e valorização do endogrupo, e de comparação social e estereotipização do exogrupo, quais sejam: os modos de usar as tecnologias, o delineamento da figura típica do paciente, bem como os atributos do enfermeiro ideal, o sentido do trabalho, o relacionamento intra e interequipes. Conclusão: recomenda-se reorganizar o campo da representação social a partir de intervenções sob elementos da identidade.


Objective: to recognize the identity aspects present in the social representation of nurses about the care practices for the client hospitalized in intensive therapy. Method: field study, qualitative, descriptive and explanatory, based on the theory of social representations and on the social identity concept. After approval by the Research Ethics Committee, interviews were carried out with 21 nurses working in the assistance of an intensive care unit in a federal hospital, using a semi-structured guide. Data were submitted to the content analysis. Results: social identification and enhancement of the group itself, and social comparison and stereotyping of the outside group are evidenced, which are: the ways of using the technologies, the delineation of the typical patient figure, as well as the attributes of the ideal nurse, the sense of work, the intra and intercompany relationship. Conclusion: it is recommended the reorganization of the field of social representation from interventions under identity elements.


Objetivo: reconocer los aspectos de identidad presentes en la representación social de las enfermeras sobre las prácticas de cuidado para el cliente hospitalizado en terapia intensiva. Método: estudio de campo, cualitativo, descriptivo y explicativo, basado en la teoría de las representaciones sociales y en el concepto de identidad social. Después de la aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación, se realizaron entrevistas con 21 enfermeras que trabajaban en la asistencia de una unidad de cuidados intensivos en un hospital federal, utilizando una guía semiestructurada. Los datos fueron sometidos al análisis de contenido. Resultados: se evidencia la identificación social y la mejora del grupo en sí, y la comparación social y los estereotipos del grupo externo, que son: las formas de usar las tecnologías, la delineación de la figura típica del paciente, así como los atributos de la enfermera ideal. el sentido del trabajo, la relación intra e intercompañía. Conclusión: se recomienda la reorganización del campo de la representación social a partir de intervenciones bajo elementos de identidad.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología Social , Identificación Social , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Atención de Enfermería , Investigación Metodológica en Enfermería , Cuidados Críticos
10.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318809861, 2018 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426776

RESUMEN

A total of 10 focus groups were held with adolescents living with diabetes, their parents and health professionals in order to explore their needs in therapeutic education. The analysis showed that the relationship of trust was a central concern for a number of participants. Several adults were divided between a feeling of confidence inspired by the need to empower adolescents to cope with the chronic condition and a sense of distrust inspired by the idea of carelessness and irresponsibility thought to characterize adolescence. Adolescents, for their part, seemed relatively clear-sighted about how they can be perceived, and blamed adults for not trusting them. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the representations at stake in the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship in order to better understand the construction of the relational climate.

11.
Span J Psychol ; 21: E37, 2018 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355367

RESUMEN

Medicalizing beliefs about schizophrenia (biogenetic causes and psychiatric labels) are connected to the belief that people with schizophrenia are dangerous and to discriminating intentions towards them. In this research, we draw on the Social Dominance theory and we examine these beliefs as legitimizing myths that are connected to the individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) and that legitimize discrimination. In total, 238 Humanities students participated in the current research (Mage = 20.4; SD = 3.03; 107 male and 131 female). A vignette presenting a person with schizophrenia symptoms that offered no labels or explanations about the depicted person's condition was presented to research participants. A structural equation modeling analysis was carried out, in order to confirm our hypotheses in accordance with social dominance theory. Participants' social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with higher endorsement of medicalizing (ß = .16, p < .01) and dangerousness beliefs (ß = .22, p < .001). In turn, medicalizing beliefs were connected to dangerousness (ß = .21, p < .001) and higher discriminating intentions, both for desired social distance (ß = .15, p < .05) and for deprivation of sociopolitical rights (ß = .14, p < .05). Dangerousness was highly associated with both these measures (ß = .28, p < .001 and ß = 43, p < .001 respectively) while SDO was not significantly associated with discriminating intentions. Our model showed good fit to the data. This study confirms the role of SDO in schizophrenia stigma and the fact that ideological and power factors underpin the stigma of schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Esquizofrenia , Discriminación Social , Predominio Social , Estigma Social , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoría Psicológica , Discriminación Social/psicología , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190565, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: French general practitioners (GPs) refer their patients with major depression to psychiatrists or for psychotherapy at particularly low rates. OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study aims to explore general practitioners' (GP) opinions about psychotherapy, their relationships with mental health professionals, their perceptions of their role and that of psychiatrists in treating depression, and the relations between these factors and the GPs' strategies for managing depression. METHODS: In 2011, in-depth interviews based on a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with 32 GPs practicing in southeastern France. Verbatim transcripts were examined by analyzing their thematic content. RESULTS: We identified three profiles of physicians according to their opinions and practices about treatment strategies for depression: pro-pharmacological treatment, pro-psychotherapy and those with mixed practices. Most participants considered their relationships with psychiatrists unsatisfactory, would like more and better collaboration with them and shared the same concept of management in general practice. This concept was based both on the values and principles of practice shared by GPs and on their strong differentiation of their management practices from those of psychiatrists. CONCLUSION: Several attitudes and values common to GPs might contribute to their low rate of referrals for psychotherapy in France: strong occupational identity, substantial variations in GPs' attitudes and practices regarding depression treatment strategies, representations sometimes unfavorable toward psychiatrists. Actions to develop a common culture and improve cooperation between GPs and psychiatrists are essential. They include systems of collaborative care and the development of interdisciplinary training common to GPs and psychiatrists practicing in the same area.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/terapia , Médicos Generales/psicología , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Span. j. psychol ; 21: e37.1-e37.6, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189119

RESUMEN

Medicalizing beliefs about schizophrenia (biogenetic causes and psychiatric labels) are connected to the belief that people with schizophrenia are dangerous and to discriminating intentions towards them. In this research, we draw on the Social Dominance theory and we examine these beliefs as legitimizing myths that are connected to the individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) and that legitimize discrimination. In total, 238 Humanities students participated in the current research (Mage = 20.4; SD = 3.03; 107 male and 131 female). A vignette presenting a person with schizophrenia symptoms that offered no labels or explanations about the depicted person's condition was presented to research participants. A structural equation modeling analysis was carried out, in order to confirm our hypotheses in accordance with social dominance theory. Participants' social dominance orientation (SDO) was associated with higher endorsement of medicalizing (β = .16, p < .01) and dangerousness beliefs (β = .22, p < .001). In turn, medicalizing beliefs were connected to dangerousness (β = .21, p < .001) and higher discriminating intentions, both for desired social distance (β = .15, p < .05) and for deprivation of sociopolitical rights (β = .14, p < .05). Dangerousness was highly associated with both these measures (β = .28, p < .001 and β = 43, p < .001 respectively) while SDO was not significantly associated with discriminating intentions. Our model showed good fit to the data. This study confirms the role of SDO in schizophrenia stigma and the fact that ideological and power factors underpin the stigma of schizophrenia


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Esquizofrenia , Discriminación Social/psicología , Predominio Social , Estigma Social , Teoría Psicológica
14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 52(12): 1541-1547, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101446

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the stigmatizing presentation of people with schizophrenia by newspapers is an example of structural stigma. In this study, we explore how French newspapers contribute to the stigma of people with schizophrenia. METHODS: All the articles of eight major newspapers (four national and four regional) that include the term schizophr* and that were published in 2015 were therefore analyzed using a coding scheme that we developed inductively. RESULTS: This analysis showed that among the identified themes, 40.4% of the articles used the term schizophrenia metaphorically and 28.3% referred to dangerousness. The first concerned mostly national newspapers, while the second were mostly published by regional newspapers. A more selective analysis was also carried out on these major themes in order to investigate how the "us" against "them" distinction is created and how negative stereotypes are associated with this distinction. In the case of the metaphorical use of the term, schizophrenia was presented as a "split personality" disorder and the label used in order to devalue the political opposition. Schizophrenia was presented either as a deterministic cause of dangerousness or as a potential cause of crime. In either case, the question of control was clearly present in these articles. CONCLUSIONS: These results are discussed in terms of the "us" against "them" distinction as a double process of stigmatization of people with schizophrenia and of reinforcement of one's own identity and security.


Asunto(s)
Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquizofrenia , Estigma Social , Francia , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154969, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The contribution of patients' non-medical characteristics to individual physicians' decision-making has attracted considerable attention, but little information is available on this topic in the context of collective decision-making. Medical decision-making at cancer centres is currently carried out using a collective approach, at MultiDisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings. The aim of this study was to determine how patients' non-medical characteristics are presented at MDT meetings and how this information may affect the team's final medical decisions. DESIGN: Observations were conducted at a French Cancer Centre during MDT meetings at which non-standard cases involving some uncertainty were discussed from March to May 2014. Physicians' verbal statements and predefined contextual parameters were collected with a non-participant observational approach. Non numerical data collected in the form of open notes were then coded for quantitative analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: In the final sample of patients' records included and discussed (N = 290), non-medical characteristics were mentioned in 32.8% (n = 95) of the cases. These characteristics corresponded to demographics in 22.8% (n = 66) of the cases, psychological data in 11.7% (n = 34), and relational data in 6.2% (n = 18). The patient's age and his/her "likeability" were the most frequently mentioned characteristics. In 17.9% of the cases discussed, the final decision was deferred: this outcome was positively associated with the patients' non-medical characteristics and with uncertainty about the outcome of the therapeutic options available. LIMITATIONS: The design of the study made it difficult to draw definite cause-and-effect conclusions. CONCLUSION: The Social Representations approach suggests that patients' non-medical characteristics constitute a kind of tacit professional knowledge that may be frequently mobilised in physicians' everyday professional practice. The links observed between patients' attributes and the medical decisions made at these meetings show that these attributes should be taken into account in order to understand how medical decisions are reached in difficult situations of this kind.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Conducta Cooperativa , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Oncología Médica , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análisis Multivariante
16.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 34: 43-50, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832967

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the social representations of nurses about intensive care practices comparing the variables 1) time since graduation and 2) shift worked. METHOD: Qualitative field research using social representation theory. Individual interviews were conducted and lexical analysis was applied. STUDY SETTING: Intensive Care Unit of a federal hospital with 21 clinical nurses. FINDINGS: Day shift nurses are more pragmatic and operationally oriented because they deal directly with the general functioning of the unit. Less experienced nurses face difficulties dealing with intensive care contexts, but have a critical view of their practices, while more experienced nurses apply practical knowledge in their decision-making and actions. CONCLUSION: The relationship of proximity or distance from patients, mediated by technology, is related to the domains of knowledge that are required to manage technology and to the role technology plays in intensive care.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica/normas , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/organización & administración , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Recursos Humanos
17.
Psychol Health Med ; 21(3): 295-308, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26153853

RESUMEN

Time perspective (TP) is a fundamental dimension of the psychological construction of time. It refers to a subjective experience and can be defined as the relationship that individuals and groups have with the present, past, and future. Studies have shown that it is interesting to take into account TP in the field of health, especially for the study of the psychological distress (PD) of individuals faced with aversive situations. We conducted a research, which aimed to explore the relationship between TP and PD in patients with chronic pain. A total of 264 first-time patients (72.3% women; mean age = 49 years) at CHU Timone (Marseille) pain center answered a questionnaire included TP, socioeconomic status, pain beliefs (PB), pain characteristics, and sociodemographic characteristics. Using hierarchical regression analyses adjusted to the characteristics of pain, sociodemographic characteristics, and PB, we can observe significant relationships between different components of TP, socioeconomic status, and PD. These results emphasize the importance of TP as psychosocial variable in the analysis of PD in patients with chronic pain. These results also lead us to point out the role of the socioeconomic status that predicts levels of PD.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/psicología , Clase Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Percepción del Tiempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Análisis de Regresión , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 20(4): e20160095, 2016.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-953433

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Identificar e analisar as práticas de cuidar da enfermagem que comprometam os valores ético-profissionais na terapia intensiva. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa e descritiva, realizada em 2011 com 21 enfermeiros da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital público do município do Rio de Janeiro. O referencial é o da ética da responsabilidade de Hans Jonas. Realizou-se 150 horas de observação das práticas, seguidas de descrição densa, e 21 entrevistas individuais nas quais se aplicou a análise de conteúdo temática. Resultados: Evidenciou-se afastamento do enfermeiro no cuidado direto e preferências por cuidar de clientes sedados, por sua baixa demanda de atenção e presença. Conclusão: O afastamento do cliente e do cuidado direto compromete o agir ético-responsável do enfermeiro e os valores ético-profissionais, havendo negligência ao conceito de pessoa que forma o metaparadigma da enfermagem.


Objetivos: Identificar y analizar las prácticas de cuidar de enfermería que comprometan los valores ético-profesionales en terapia intensiva. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva, realizada en 2011 con 21 enfermeros de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva de hospital público del municipio de Rio de Janeiro. Referencia de la ética de la responsabilidad, de Hans Jonas. Se efectuaron 150 horas de observación de prácticas, seguidas de su descripción densa, y 21 entrevistas individuales aplicándose análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Se evidenció alejamiento del enfermero en cuidados directos y preferencia por cuidar pacientes sedados, por su baja demanda de atención y presencia. Conclusión: El alejamiento del paciente y del cuidado directo compromete la actuación ético-responsable del enfermero y los valores ético-profesionales, existiendo negligencia sobre el concepto de persona, que integra el metaparadigma de la enfermería.


Objectives: To identify and analyze nursing care practices that affect ethical and professional values in intensive care. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive study was conducted in 2011 with 21 nurses from the Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on the Hans Jonas's ethic of responsibility framework. The observation of practices was carried out during 150 hours, followed by extensive description, and 21 individual interviews, in which thematic content analysis was applied. Results: The distancing of nurses from direct care and their preference for providing care to sedated patients due to their low demand for attention and presence were found. Conclusion: The distancing from patients and direct care affects the ethical and responsible behavior of nurses and their ethical and professional values, resulting in negligence of the concept of person that forms the basis of the nursing metaparadigm.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Ética en Enfermería , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Atención de Enfermería , Hospitales Públicos
19.
Span. j. psychol ; 17: e87.1-e87.9, ene.-dic. 2014. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-130498

RESUMEN

Distance to the object is a new approach that highlights the complex nature of the link between groups and social representations. It is composed of three elements: knowledge, involvement, and level of practices associated with the social object. This study aims to replicate a previous study that has demonstrated the validity of distance to the object in order to explore social representations of cannabis. We carried out a research on the social representations of cocaine. Respondents (n = 200) completed a questionnaire including opinions related to cocaine and constitutive elements of the distance to cocaine. The regression analysis on the representational dimensions revealed a significant effect of the distance variable on two dimensions (social facilitator, addiction and social dangerousness). The groups that were «distant» from the object showed stronger adherence to the normative component than to the functional component of SR, in opposition to those who were «close» to the object. The concept of distance to the object is thus heuristic as it offers an integrative grid of reading that permits to understand and highlight the link individuals maintain with a social representation (AU)


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Conducta Social , Indicadores Sociales , Objetivos , Grupo Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Cocaína , Validez Social de la Investigación/métodos , Validez Social de la Investigación/normas , Modelos Lineales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Análisis Factorial
20.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 13(4): 782-787, 2014-12-15.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1122840

RESUMEN

In recent times, the need for qualified education at PhD level has called attention to the indicators of knowledge internationalization. The goal is to discuss, through an experience report, sandwich doctorate programs as a strategy for the internationalization of nursing knowledge. The gains deriving from the internationalization process based on this experience comprise the advancement of knowledge in terms of the research methods, the social representations theory and scientific knowledge production itself. In addition, the reality experienced permitted a critical analysis of the structural characteristics of post-graduate studies in Brazil, as well as the tracking of related study domains in which international bi-center research agreements and academic mobility programs can be established. In conclusion, the sandwich doctorate is a fruitful strategy of knowledge internationalization and educational enhancement. It is up to the institutions to attract and stimulate the young talents who have the profile and the research potential to invest inits accomplishment.


A necessidade de formação qualificada do doutor na atualidade vem exigindo atenção aos indicadores de internacionalização do conhecimento. Objetiva-se discutir, através de um relato de experiência, o estágio doutorado sanduíche como estratégia de internacionalização do conhecimento da enfermagem. Os ganhos advindos do processo de internacionalização a partir desta experiência de estágio abarcam o avanço do conhecimento no que tange aos métodos de pesquisa, a teoria das representações sociais e a própria produção do conhecimento científico. Além disso, a realidade vivenciada oportunizou uma análise crítica das características estruturais da pós-graduação no Brasil, e permitiu rastrear domínios de estudos afins dentro dos quais podem ser estabelecidos convênios de pesquisa internacional bicêntricos e programas de mobilidade acadêmica. Conclui-se que o doutorado sanduíche configura-se como uma estratégia profícua de internacionalização do conhecimento e incremento à formação, cabendo às instituições atrair e estimular os jovens talentos com perfil e potencial para pesquisa a investirem na sua realização


Asunto(s)
Intercambio Educacional Internacional , Aptitud , Apoyo a la Formación Profesional , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Conocimiento , Habilitación Profesional , Difusión de la Información , Internacionalidad , Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería
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