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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906845

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although cash transfer programmes are not explicitly designed to improve mental health, by reducing poverty and improving the life chances of children and young people, they may also improve their mental health. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the evidence on the effectiveness of cash transfers to improve the mental health of children and young people in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Scientific Electronic Library Online, ISI Web of Science and Social Sciences Citation Index and grey literature (from January 2000 to July 2020) for studies which quantitatively assessed the impact of cash transfers on mental health in young people (aged 0-24 years), using a design that incorporated a control group. We extracted Cohen's d effects size and used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis on studies that measured depressive symptoms, I2 statistic and assessment of study quality. RESULTS: We identified 12 116 articles for screening, of which 12 were included in the systematic review (covering 13 interventions) and seven in the meta-analysis assessing impact on depressive symptoms specifically. There was high heterogeneity (I2=95.2) and a high risk of bias (0.38, 95% CIs: -5.08 to 5.85; p=0.86) across studies. Eleven interventions (85%) showed a significant positive impact of cash transfers on at least one mental health outcome in children and young people. However, no study found a positive effect on all mental health outcomes examined, and the meta-analysis showed no impact of cash transfers on depressive symptoms (0.02, 95% CIs: -0.19 to 0.23; p=0.85). CONCLUSION: Cash transfers may have positive effects on some mental health outcomes for young people, with no negative effects identified. However, there is high heterogeneity across studies, with some interventions showing no effects. Our review highlights how the effect of cash transfers may vary by social and economic context, culture, design, conditionality and mental health outcome.

2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 340-346, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549174

RESUMEN

Social protection measures can play an important part in securing livelihoods and in mitigating short-term and long-term economic, social, and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, cash transfer programmes are currently being adapted or expanded in various low-income and middle-income countries to support individuals and families during the pandemic. We argue that the current crisis offers an opportunity for these programmes to focus on susceptible young people (aged 15-24 years), including those with mental health conditions. Young people living in poverty and with mental health problems are at particular risk of experiencing adverse health, wellbeing, and employment outcomes with long-term consequences. They are also at risk of developing mental health conditions during this pandemic. To support this population, cash transfer programmes should not only address urgent needs around food security and survival but expand their focus to address longer-term mental health impacts of pandemics and economic crises. Such an approach could help support young people's future life chances and break the vicious cycle between mental illness and poverty that spirals many young people into both socioeconomic and mental health disadvantage.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Salud Mental , Política Pública , Adolescente , Países en Desarrollo , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/economía , Pobreza , Asistencia Pública/economía , Adulto Joven
3.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 16, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Task-shifting and technology in psychological interventions are two solutions to increasing access to mental health intervention and overcoming the treatment gap in low and middle-income countries. The CONEMO intervention combines a smartphone app with support from non-specialized professionals, aiming to treat depression in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of recruitment, training and supervision of the non-specialized professionals who participated in the CONEMO task-shifting intervention in Brazil and Peru. METHODS: We described and analyzed data related to the recruitment, training and supervision of 62 nurse assistants from the health system in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and three hired nurses in Lima, Peru. The data were collected from information provided by nurses and nurse assistants, supervisor records from supervision meetings and the CONEMO platform database. RESULTS: We found that task-shifting was feasible using existing resources in Sao Paulo and additional human resources in Lima. Training and supervision were found to be crucial and well received by the staff; however, time was a limitation when using existing human resources. Ensuring technological competence prior to the start of the intervention was essential. Group supervision meetings allowed non-specialized professionals to learn from each other's experiences. CONCLUSION: Carefully considering recruitment, training and supervision of non-specialized professionals is important for effective task-shifting when delivering an mHealth intervention for depression. Opportunities and challenges of working in different health systems are described, which should be considered in future implementation, either for research or real settings. Trial registration NCT028406662 (Sao Paulo), NCT03026426 (Peru).

4.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 52-60, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154721

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were twofold. First, to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) among adolescents in Chile; and second, to examine the relationship between the health-promoting behaviors measured by this scale and several demographic variables. Methods: Cross-sectional survey. Students attending grades 9 through 12 from schools representing low-, middle-, and high-income families were included. All schools were in the city of San Felipe, Chile. Students completed the ALP-R2, a fourty-four-item scale aiming to assess health-promoting behaviors. To evaluate validity and reliability, confirmatory factor analysis and omega coefficient calculation were conducted, respectively. Results: The sample size was 572 students (82.5% of the eligible population). More males (56.6%) than females (43.4%) participated in the study, and the mean age was 16.4 (SD, 1.3) years. The ALP-R2 had adequate adjustment indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis, which means that the data supports the original theoretical model (seven subscales). The highest internal consistency was obtained for the total scale (Ω = 0.87); and (among the subscales), physical activity (Ω = 0.85) and spiritual health (Ω = 0.78) had the highest reliability. Conclusions: The ALP-R2 appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-promoting behaviors among adolescents attending secondary schools.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 223-246, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360867

RESUMEN

In low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), emerging digital mental health interventions should be accompanied by regular and comprehensive assessment of available scientific evidence. This review aims to support efforts to monitor progress in digital mental health research, ensuring new evidence can guide researchers, clinicians, policymakers and program managers positioned to adopt and implement these digitally-enabled treatments. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, an electronic database search from 2016 to 2020 yielded 37 digital intervention studies for detection, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and/or management of a broad range of mental disorders in 13 LMICs. This date range was selected to update previous reviews. Most studies involved online interventions and many reported feasibility and acceptability, reflected by participant satisfaction or program adherence. About half the studies (N = 23) reported clinical benefits based on changes in mental health. For depression and mood disorders, some digital interventions showed improvements in depressive symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and recovery. However, sample sizes were small and studies focused primarily on adults. Further limiting generalizability was the lack of consistency in clinical assessment and measurement tools between studies. No studies reported worsening symptoms, negative acceptability or dissatisfaction with digital interventions, suggesting possible publication bias. While digital interventions show promise, it remains difficult to conclude that digital interventions are effective from these studies, as it is prudent to exercise caution before drawing conclusions about clinical effectiveness. This review reflects continued growth in digital mental health research in LMICs and further highlights the need for rigorous evaluation of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 914, 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The elderly population has been growing in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and depression is a common condition among these populations. The lack of integration between mental health and primary healthcare services and the shortage of mental health specialists in the public health system contribute to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression. One of the strategies to reduce this gap is task shifting and collaborative care treatments. This study therefore aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care psychosocial intervention to improve the clinical management of depression among elderly people in poor neighbourhoods in Guarulhos, Brazil. METHODS: Two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial with Basic Health Units as the clusters and a 1:1 allocation ratio. Twenty Basic Health Units have been randomly selected and randomised to control or intervention arms. We aim to recruit 1440 adults (72 per cluster) aged 60 years or over identified with depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10). The control arm participants will receive an enhanced usual care, while the intervention arm participants will receive an enhanced usual care and a 17-week psychosocial intervention programme delivered at home by community health workers with the help of an application installed on tablet computers. The primary outcome is the proportion with depression recovery (PHQ-9 < 10) at 8 months' follow-up. We will also assess the maintenance of any earlier clinical gains and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 12 months. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomised trial to investigate a collaborative care intervention to treat depression among poor elderly in LMIC/Latin America. This is a major public health problem worldwide, but in these countries, there are no locally tested, evidence-based interventions available to date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN57805470 . Registered on 25 April 2019.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138872

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) are widely used in the evaluation of interventions for depression and anxiety. The smallest reduction in depressive symptoms that matter to patients is known as the Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID). Little empirical study of the MCID for these scales exists. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 400 patients in UK primary care were interviewed on four occasions, 2 weeks apart. At each time point, participants completed all three questionnaires and a 'global rating of change' scale (GRS). MCID estimation relied on estimated changes in symptoms according to reported improvement on the GRS scale, stratified by baseline severity on the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). RESULTS: For moderate baseline severity, those who reported improvement on the GRS had a reduction of 21% (95% confidence interval (CI) -26.7 to -14.9) on the PHQ-9; 23% (95% CI -27.8 to -18.0) on the BDI-II and 26.8% (95% CI -33.5 to -20.1) on the GAD-7. The corresponding threshold scores below which participants were more likely to report improvement were -1.7, -3.5 and -1.5 points on the PHQ-9, BDI-II and GAD-7, respectively. Patients with milder symptoms require much larger reductions as percentage of their baseline to endorse improvement. CONCLUSIONS: An MCID representing 20% reduction of scores in these scales, is a useful guide for patients with moderately severe symptoms. If treatment had the same effect on patients irrespective of baseline severity, those with low symptoms are unlikely to notice a benefit. FUNDING: Funding. National Institute for Health Research.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098159

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test if a behavioural activation (BA) programme was more effective than usual care at reducing the risk of conversion to major depression over 52 weeks among adults aged 65 years or older living in rural Western Australia. Secondary aims were to test if participants assigned to the BA intervention experienced greater decline in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms than older adults treated with usual care over 26 and 52 weeks, as well as greater improvement in physical and mental health-related quality of life. METHODS: Randomised controlled clinical trial that started recruitment in February 2016 in rural Western Australia. We used the electoral roll to invite adults aged 65 years or over living in suitable regions of Western Australia to take part in the study. We recruited those who consented and screened positive to at least one of the two Whooley questions: feeling down/depressed/hopeless or little interest or pleasure over the past month. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care or usual care plus a phone-delivered BA program (1:1). The intervention consisted of a self-managed BA program supported by three 45-min phone sessions delivered by a BA therapist over a period of 8 weeks. We used the DSM-5 criteria to establish the presence of a major depressive episode, and Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale and SF-36 to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the 309 older adults randomised, 307 started the trial: 153 usual care and 154 BA (computer-generated random permuted even blocks ranging in size from 8 to 20). Six participants developed a major depressive episode during follow-up, four of them in the usual care group (odds ratio of depression associated with the intervention = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.04, 3.49-blind assessment). Seventy-three (23.8%) participants were lost over 52 weeks-there were no differences between usual care and intervention group. Intention-to-treat analyses using mixed regression models found modest non-significant effects of the BA intervention, while complete-case analyses showed that participants treated with BA compared with usual care experienced significant improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over 52 weeks, as well as improved mental health quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Few participants developed a major depressive episode during follow-up. The BA intervention was associated with improved symptoms of depression and anxiety, although the clinical significance of these benefits remains unclear.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036299, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967872

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine and adapt a conceptual framework of the working alliance (WA) in the context of a low-intensity blended (psychological well-being practitioner (PWP) plus computerised program) cognitive behavioural therapy intervention (b-CBT) for depression. DESIGN: Patient involvement was enlisted to collaboratively shape the design of the project from the onset, before data collection. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with participants who experienced b-CBT as part of the E-compared trial. A thematic analysis was conducted using a constant comparative method informed by grounded theory. SETTING: Recruitment was carried out in four psychological primary care services across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen trial participants with major depressive disorder who completed at least one computerised program and face-to-face session with a PWP in the b-CBT arm were recruited to the study. RESULTS: Qualitative interviews that were guided by WA theory and patient involvement, revealed four themes: (1) a healthcare provider (PWP and computerised program) with good interpersonal competencies for building a working relationship with the client ('bond'); (2) collaborative efforts between the client and the provider to appropriately identify what the client hopes to achieve through therapy ('goals'); (3) the selection of acceptable therapeutic activities that address client goals and the availability of responsive support ('task') and (4) the promotion of active engagement and autonomous problem solving ('usability heuristics'). Participants described how the PWP and computerised program uniquely and collectively contributed to different WA needs. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to offer a preliminary conceptual framework of WA in b-CBT for depression, and how such demands can be addressed through blended PWP-computerised program delivery. These findings can be used to promote WA in technological design and clinical practice, thereby promoting engagement to b-CBT interventions and effective deployment of practitioner and program resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12388725.

10.
Fam Pract ; 37(6): 731-737, 2020 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766705

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Computerized Clinical Decision Support Systems (CCDSS) are information technology tools, designed to improve clinical decision-making. Telemedicine is a health care service delivery using videoconferencing, telephone or messaging technologies. OBJECTIVES: Our project aimed at testing the effectiveness of a composite CCDSS and telemedicine approach designed to treat depression in primary care. METHODS: This cluster randomized trial involved four GP clinics located in Northern Italy. Two clinics were assigned to the experimental protocol, and two served as controls. The study compared the telemedicine group (TG), in which GPs had access to a CCDSS platform, with the control group (CG) in which GPs provided treatment as usual (TAU). Patients scoring ≥11 on Patient Heath Questionnaire and ≥26 on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report were eligible for participation. Patients were also administered the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF to assess quality of life and Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale 21 to assess satisfaction with the medical interview. RESULTS: Overall, 2810 patients were screened and 66 in the experimental group and 32 in the CG passed the screening stages and met inclusion criteria. The percentage of remitters at 6 months was significantly higher in the TG than in the CG group (24.1% versus 3.1%, χ 2 = 6.6, P = 0.01). This difference remained significant after adjusting for baseline confounders. Physical and psychological quality of life improved significantly from baseline in both groups. Patients reported, on average, good satisfaction with the medical interview. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that a combined CCDSS and telemedicine approach may be more effective than the TAU offered by GPs to patients with depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on https://clinicaltrials.gov/ on 5 October 2012 with identifier: NCT01701791. The first participant was enrolled on 5 May 2014 and the study was completed on May 2016.

11.
Lancet ; 396(10251): 612-622, 2020 08 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Traditional and faith healers (TFH) provide care to a large number of people with psychosis in many sub-Saharan African countries but they practise outside the formal mental health system. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a collaborative shared care model for psychosis delivered by TFH and primary health-care providers (PHCW). METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial in Kumasi, Ghana and Ibadan, Nigeria, we randomly allocated clusters (a primary care clinic and neighbouring TFH facilities) 1:1, stratified by size and country, to an intervention group or enhanced care as usual. The intervention included a manualised collaborative shared care delivered by trained TFH and PHCW. Eligible participants were adults (aged ≥18 years) newly admitted to TFH facilities with active psychotic symptoms (positive and negative syndrome scale [PANSS] score ≥60). The primary outcome, by masked assessments at 6 months, was the difference in psychotic symptom improvement as measured with the PANSS in patients in follow-up at 3 and 6 months. Patients exposure to harmful treatment practices, such as shackling, were also assessed at 3 and 6 months. Care costs were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up, and for the entire 6 months of follow-up. This trial was registered with the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial registry, NCT02895269. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2016, and May 3, 2017, 51 clusters were randomly allocated (26 intervention, 25 control) with 307 patients enrolled (166 [54%] in the intervention group and 141 [46%] in the control group). 190 (62%) of participants were men. Baseline mean PANSS score was 107·3 (SD 17·5) for the intervention group and 108·9 (18·3) for the control group. 286 (93%) completed the 6-month follow-up at which the mean total PANSS score for intervention group was 53·4 (19·9) compared with 67·6 (23·3) for the control group (adjusted mean difference -15·01 (95% CI -21·17 to -8·84; 0·0001). Harmful practices decreased from 94 (57%) of 166 patients at baseline to 13 (9%) of 152 at 6 months in the intervention group (-0·48 [-0·60 to -0·37] p<0·001) and from 59 (42%) of 141 patients to 13 (10%) of 134 in the control group (-0·33 [-0·45 to -0·21] p<0·001), with no significant difference between the two groups. Greater reductions in overall care costs were seen in the intervention group than in the control group. At the 6 month assessment, greater reductions in total health service and time costs were seen in the intervention group; however, cumulative costs over this period were higher (US $627 per patient vs $526 in the control group). Five patients in the intervention group had mild extrapyramidal side effects. INTERPRETATION: A collaborative shared care delivered by TFH and conventional health-care providers for people with psychosis was effective and cost-effective. The model of care offers the prospect of scaling up improved care to this vulnerable population in settings with low resources. FUNDING: US National Institute of Mental Health.


Asunto(s)
Curación por la Fe/organización & administración , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
Trials ; 21(1): 745, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Improving children and young people's provision for mental health is a current health priority in England. Secondary school teachers have worse mental health outcomes than the general working population, which the Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) cluster randomised controlled trial aimed to improve. The WISE intervention comprised a Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training package delivered to at least 16% of staff, a short mental health awareness session to all teachers and development of a staff peer support service. Twenty-five schools were randomised to intervention or control arms. This paper reports findings regarding the extent of uptake and fidelity of the intervention. METHODS: Mixed methods data collection comprised researcher observations of training delivery, training participant evaluation forms, trainer and peer supporter interviews, peer supporter feedback meetings, logs of support provided, and teacher questionnaires. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively, while thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. RESULTS: In the 12 schools assigned to the intervention arm, 113 (8.6%) staff completed the 2-day standard MHFA training course, and a further 146 (11.1%) staff completed the 1-day MHFA for schools and colleges training. In seven (58.3%) schools, the required 8% of staff completed the MHFA training packages. A 1-h mental health awareness-raising session was attended by 666 (54.5%) staff. Delivery of the MHFA training package was achieved with high levels of fidelity and quality across schools. All schools set up the peer support service following training, with a majority adhering to most of the operational guidelines developed from the pilot study at the outset. Teachers reported limited use of the peer support service during follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, only three (25.0%) schools indicated they had re-advertised the service and there was evidence of a reduction in support from senior leadership. CONCLUSION: The MHFA training package was delivered with reasonably high fidelity, and a staff peer support service was established with general, but not complete, adherence to guidelines. In some schools, insufficient staff received MHFA training and levels of delivery of the peer support service compromised intervention dose and reach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 95909211 . Registered on 15 January 2016.

13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346483

RESUMEN

Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a leading, but neglected, cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment gap for MNS is vast with only 10% of people with MNS disorders in low-income countries accessing evidence-based treatments. Reasons for this include low awareness of the burden of MNS disorders and limited evidence to support development, adaptation and implementation of effective and feasible treatments. The overall goal of the African Mental Health Research Initiative (AMARI) is to build an African-led network of MNS researchers in Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe, who are equipped to lead high quality mental health research programs that meet the needs of their countries, and to establish a sustainable career pipeline for these researchers with an emphasis on integrating MNS research into existing programs such as HIV/AIDS. This paper describes the process leading to the development of AMARI's objectives through a theory of change workshop, successes and challenges that have been faced by the consortium in the last 4 years, and the future role that AMARI could play in further building MNS research capacity by brining on board more institutions from low- and middle-income countries with an emphasis on developing an evidence-based training curriculum and a research-driven care service.

15.
AIDS Behav ; 24(9): 2588-2596, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078708

RESUMEN

Incidence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents with HIV (CA-HIV) in Uganda is described. 1339 CA-HIV attending care were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. MDD was assessed using the DSM-5 referenced Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5), with a prevalence for MDD at baseline of 5% (95% CI 3.3-7.3). Kaplan-Meir method was used to estimate incidence of MDD and Cox models were fitted to investigate predictors of incident MDD. Cumulative incidence of MDD over 12 months was 7.6 per 100 person-years 95% CI (6.2-9.4) and a rate of persistent MDD of 10/105 (9.5% CI 3.9-15.1). Significant independent predictors of incident MDD were: highest educational level of CA-HIV (protective), increasing depressive scores and decreasing CD4 Nadir. These finding have implications for what should constitute components of a mental health integration model in HIV youth services and for the future development of individualised mental health care.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidencia , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prevalencia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiología
16.
Psychother Res ; 30(8): 998-1010, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024447

RESUMEN

Objectives: Numerous studies and reviews have explored the value of adding therapist support to internet self-help for improving client adherence and outcomes. This study is different as it explores the value of adding internet self-help to face-to-face therapy, from the perspective of practitioners who used both. This study explores practitioners' experiences of whether-and how-internet self-help blended with face-to-face therapy may confer an added value or become an added burden to their routine practice. Methods: Using a structured topic guide, we collected narrative data via 3 focus groups and 1 telephone interview from 11 practitioners across two sites in England. We carried out a thematic analysis within two domains, "value vs. burden". Results: Practitioners reported that internet self-help can confer added value to face-to-face therapy by: fostering client engagement with face-to-face sessions; making therapy ubiquitous beyond sessions; and preventing therapeutic drift between sessions. Conversely, internet self-help can add burden to face-to-face therapy when it is experienced as disruptive, overwhelming and time-consuming. Conclusions: Recognizing and mitigating factors that can turn internet self-help from an added value to an added burden will help practitioners adopt and make the most out of blended therapy.

17.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084438

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were twofold. First, to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) among adolescents in Chile; and second, to examine the relationship between the health-promoting behaviors measured by this scale and several demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. Students attending grades 9 through 12 from schools representing low-, middle-, and high-income families were included. All schools were in the city of San Felipe, Chile. Students completed the ALP-R2, a fourty-four-item scale aiming to assess health-promoting behaviors. To evaluate validity and reliability, confirmatory factor analysis and omega coefficient calculation were conducted, respectively. RESULTS: The sample size was 572 students (82.5% of the eligible population). More males (56.6%) than females (43.4%) participated in the study, and the mean age was 16.4 (SD, 1.3) years. The ALP-R2 had adequate adjustment indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis, which means that the data supports the original theoretical model (seven subscales). The highest internal consistency was obtained for the total scale (Ω=0.87); and (among the subscales), physical activity (Ω=0.85) and spiritual health (Ω=0.78) had the highest reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The ALP-R2 appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-promoting behaviors among adolescents attending secondary schools.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 80, 2020 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Perinatal women accessing prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services are at an increased risk of depression; however, in Tanzania there is limited access to services provided by mental health professionals. This paper presents a protocol and baseline characteristics for a study evaluating a psychosocial support group intervention facilitated by lay community-based health workers (CBHWs) for perinatal women living with HIV and depression in Dar es Salaam. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) is conducted comparing: 1) a psychosocial support group intervention; and 2) improved standard of mental health care. The study is implemented in reproductive and child health (RCH) centers providing PMTCT services. Baseline characteristics are presented by comparing sociodemographic characteristics and primary as well as secondary outcomes for the trial for intervention and control groups. The trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02039973). RESULTS: Among 742 women enrolled, baseline characteristics were comparable for intervention and control groups, although more women in the control group had completed secondary school (25.2% versus 18.2%). Overall, findings suggest that the population is highly vulnerable with over 45% demonstrating food insecurity and 17% reporting intimate partner violence in the past 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline characteristics for the cluster RCT were comparable for intervention and control groups. The trial will examine the effectiveness of a psychosocial support group intervention for the treatment of depression among women living with HIV accessing PMTCT services. A reduction in the burden of depression in this vulnerable population has implications in the short-term for improved HIV-related outcomes and for potential long-term effects on child growth and development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02039973). Retrospectively registered on January 20, 2014.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Atención Perinatal , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Adolescente , Adulto , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e264-e275, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924539

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV face challenges to their wellbeing and antiretroviral therapy adherence and have poor treatment outcomes. We aimed to evaluate a peer-led differentiated service delivery intervention on HIV clinical and psychosocial outcomes among adolescents with HIV in Zimbabwe. METHODS: 16 public primary care facilities (clusters) in two rural districts in Zimbabwe (Bindura and Shamva) were randomly assigned (1:1) to provide enhanced HIV care support (the Zvandiri intervention group) or standard HIV care (the control group) to adolescents (aged 13-19 years) with HIV. Eligible clinics had at least 20 adolescents in pre-ART or ART registers and were geographically separated by at least 10 km to minimise contamination. Adolescents were eligible for inclusion if they were living with HIV, registered for HIV care at one of the trial clinics, and either starting or already on ART. Exclusion criteria were being too physically unwell to attend clinic (bedridden), psychotic, or unable to give informed assent or consent. Adolescents with HIV at all clinics received adherence support through adult counsellors. At intervention clinics, adolescents with HIV were assigned a community adolescent treatment supporter, attended a monthly support group, and received text messages, calls, home visits, and clinic-based counselling. Implementation intensity was differentiated according to each adolescent's HIV vulnerability, which was reassessed every 3 months. Caregivers were invited to a support group. The primary outcome was the proportion of adolescents who had died or had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL after 96 weeks. In-depth qualitative data were collected and analysed thematically. The trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201609001767322. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2016, and March 31, 2017, 500 adolescents with HIV were enrolled, of whom four were excluded after group assignment owing to testing HIV negative. Of the remaining 496 adolescents, 212 were recruited at Zvandiri intervention sites and 284 at control sites. At enrolment, the median age was 15 years (IQR 14-17), 52% of adolescents were female, 81% were orphans, and 47% had a viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL. 479 (97%) had primary outcome data at endline, including 28 who died. At 96 weeks, 52 (25%) of 209 adolescents in the Zvandiri intervention group and 97 (36%) of 270 adolescents in the control group had an HIV viral load of at least 1000 copies per µL or had died (adjusted prevalence ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·36-0·94; p=0·03). Qualitative data suggested that the multiple intervention components acted synergistically to improve the relational context in which adolescents with HIV live, supporting their improved adherence. No adverse events were judged to be related to study procedures. Severe adverse events were 28 deaths (17 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 11 in the control group) and 57 admissions to hospital (20 in the Zvandiri intervention group, 37 in the control group). INTERPRETATION: Peer-supported community-based differentiated service delivery can substantially improve HIV virological suppression in adolescents with HIV and should be scaled up to reduce their high rates of morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Positive Action for Adolescents Program, ViiV Healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga Viral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
20.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 4(3): 427-438, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777008

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly prescribed for depression, but it is unclear whether treatment efficacy depends on severity and duration of symptoms and how prescribing might be targeted cost-effectively. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cost-effectiveness of the antidepressant sertraline compared with placebo in subgroups defined by severity and duration of depressive symptoms. METHODS: We undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the NHS and Personal and Social Services (PSS) in the UK alongside the PANDA (What are the indications for Prescribing ANtiDepressants that will leAd to a clinical benefit?) randomised controlled trial (RCT), which compared sertraline with placebo over a 12-week period. Quality of life data were collected at baseline and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks post-randomisation using EQ-5D-5L, from which we calculated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs (in 2017/18£) were collected using patient records and from resource use questionnaires administered at each follow-up interval. Differences in mean costs and mean QALYs and net monetary benefits were estimated. Our primary analysis used net monetary benefit regressions to identify any interaction between the cost-effectiveness of sertraline and subgroups defined by baseline symptom severity (0-11; 12-19; 20+ on the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised) and, separately, duration of symptoms (greater or less than 2 years duration). A secondary analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of sertraline versus placebo, irrespective of duration or severity. RESULTS: There was no evidence of an association between the baseline severity of depressive symptoms and the cost-effectiveness of sertraline. Compared to patients with low symptom severity, the expected net benefits in patients with moderate symptoms were £24 (95% CI - £280 to £328; p value 0.876) and the expected net benefits in patients with high symptom severity were £37 (95% CI - £221 to £296; p value 0.776). Patients who had a longer history of depressive symptoms at baseline had lower expected net benefits from sertraline than those with a shorter history; however, the difference was uncertain (- £27 [95% CI - £258 to £204]; p value 0.817). In the secondary analysis, patients treated with sertraline had higher expected net benefits (£122 [95% CI £18 to £226]; p value 0.101) than those in the placebo group. Sertraline had a high probability (> 95%) of being cost-effective if the health system was willing to pay at least £20,000 per QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence of a prespecified threshold based on severity or symptom duration that GPs could use to target prescribing to a subgroup of patients where sertraline is most cost-effective. Sertraline is probably a cost-effective treatment for depressive symptoms in UK primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled Trials ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN84544741.

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