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1.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002723

RESUMEN

Routine diagnostics for colorectal cancer patients suspected of having Lynch-Syndrome (LS) currently uses Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) of targeted regions within the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. This analysis can reliably detect nucleotide alterations and copy-number variations (CNVs); however, CNV-neutral rearrangements comprising gene inversions or large intronic insertions remain undetected because their breakpoints are usually not covered. As several founder mutations exist for LS, we established PCR-based screening methods for five known rearrangements in MLH1, MSH2, or PMS2, and investigated their prevalence in 98 German patients with suspicion of LS without a causative germline variant or CNV detectable in the four MMR genes. We found no recurrence of CNV-neutral structural rearrangements previously described: Neither for two inversions in MLH1 (exon 1 and exon 16-19) within 33 MLH1-deficient patients, nor for two inversions in MSH2 (exon 1-7 and exon 2-6) within 48 MSH2-deficient patients. The PMS2 insertion in intron 7 was detected in one of 17 PMS2-deficient patients. None of the four genomic inversions constitutes a founder event within the German population, but we advise to test the rare cases with unsolved PMS2-deficiency upon the known insertion. As a next diagnostic step, tumour tissue of the unsolved patients should be sequenced for somatic variants, and germline analysis of additional genes with an overlapping clinical phenotype should be considered. Alternatively, full-length cDNA analyses may detect concealed MMR-defects in cases with family history.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome is caused by variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In patients with Lynch syndrome, CRCs can develop via different pathways. We studied associations between Lynch syndrome-associated variants in MMR genes and risks of adenoma and CRC and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in tumors in an international cohort of patients. METHODS: We combined clinical and molecular data from 3 studies. We obtained clinical data from 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome associated with variants in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 from Germany, the Netherlands, and Finland who received at least 2 surveillance colonoscopies and were followed for a median time of 7.8 years for development of adenomas or CRC. We performed DNA sequence analyses of 48 colorectal tumors (from 16 patients with mutations in MLH1, 29 patients with mutations in MSH2, and 3 with mutations in MSH6) for somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1. RESULTS: Risk of advanced adenoma in 10 y was 17.8% in patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 7.7% in MLH1 (P<.001). Higher proportions of patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 or MSH2 developed CRC in 10 y (11.3% and 11.4%) than patients with pathogenic variants in MSH6 (4.7%) (P=.001 and P=.003 for MLH1 and MSH2 vs MSH6, respectively). Somatic mutations in APC were found in 75% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MSH2 vs 11% in MLH1 (P=.015). Somatic mutations in CTNNB1 were found in 50% of tumors from patients with pathogenic variants in MLH1 vs 7% in MSH2 (P=.002). None of the 3 tumors with pathogenic variants in MSH6 had a mutation in CTNNB1, but all had mutations in APC. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of clinical and DNA sequence data from patients with Lynch syndrome from 3 countries, we associated pathogenic variants in MMR genes with risk of adenoma and CRC, and somatic mutations in APC and CTNNB1 in colorectal tumors. If these findings are confirmed, surveillance guidelines might be adjusted based on MMR gene variants.

3.
Genet Med ; 22(1): 15-25, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1024, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Research shows disparities in cancer outcomes by ethnicity or socio-economic status. Therefore, it is the aim of our study to perform a matched-pair analysis which compares the outcome of German and non-German (in the following described as 'foreign') cancer patients being treated at the Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO) Köln Bonn at the University Hospital of Bonn between January 2010 and June 2016. METHODS: During this time, 6314 well-documented patients received a diagnosis of cancer. Out of these patients, 219 patients with foreign nationality could be matched to German patients based on diagnostic and demographic criteria and were included in the study. All of these 438 patients were well characterized concerning survival data (Overall survival, Progression-free survival and Time to progression) and response to treatment. RESULTS: No significant differences regarding the patients' survival and response rates were seen when all German and foreign patients were compared. A subgroup analysis of German and foreign patients with head and neck cancer revealed a significantly longer progression-free survival for the German patients. Differences in response to treatment could not be found in this subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, no major differences in survival and response rates of German and foreign cancer patients were revealed in this study. Nevertheless, the differences in progression-free survival, which could be found in the subgroup analysis of patients with head and neck cancer, should lead to further research, especially evaluating the role of infectious diseases like human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on carcinogenesis and disease progression.

5.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1309-1320, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739377

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome and accounts for ~3 % of all CRCs. This autosomal dominant disorder is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM). One in 300 individuals of the general population are considered to be mutation carriers (300 000 individuals/Germany). Mutation carriers are at a high CRC risk of 15-46 % till the age of 75 years. LS also includes a variety of extracolonic malignancies such as endometrial, small bowel, gastric, urothelial, and other cancers. METHODS: The German Consortium for Familial Intestinal Cancer consists of 14 university centers in Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and evaluate surveillance programs and to further translate the results in clinical care. We have revisited and updated the clinical management guidelines for LS patients in Germany. RESULTS: A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed every 12-24 months starting at the age of 25 years. At diagnosis of first colorectal cancer, an oncological resection is advised, an extended resection (colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis) has to be discussed with the patient. The lifetime risk for gastric cancer is 0.2-13 %. Gastric cancers detected during surveillance have a lower tumor stage compared to symptom-driven detection. The lifetime risk for small bowel cancer is 4-8 %. About half of small bowel cancer is located in the duodenum and occurs before the age of 35 years in 10 % of all cases. Accordingly, patients are advised to undergo an esophagogastroduodenoscopy every 12-36 months starting by the age of 25 years. CONCLUSION: LS colonic and extracolonic clinical management, surveillance and therapy are complex and several aspects remain unclear. In the future, surveillance and clinical management need to be more tailored to gene and gender. Future prospective trials are needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/patología , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN , Endoscopía del Sistema Digestivo/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/genética , Alemania , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1010-1014, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824524

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome is characterized by a relatively low colorectal cancer penetrance compared with other Lynch syndromes. However, age at colorectal cancer diagnosis varies widely, and a strong genetic anticipation effect has been suggested for PMS2 families. In this study, we examined proposed genetic anticipation in a sample of 152 European PMS2 families. METHODS: The 152 families (637 family members) that were eligible for analysis were mainly clinically ascertained via clinical genetics centers. We used weighted Cox-type random effects model, adjusted by birth cohort and sex, to estimate the generational effect on the age of onset of colorectal cancer. Probands and young birth cohorts were excluded from the analyses. Weights represented mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients, thus avoiding testing bias. RESULTS: Family data across three generations, including 123 colorectal cancers, were analyzed. When compared with the first generation, the crude HR for anticipation was 2.242 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162-4.328] for the second generation and 2.644 (95% CI, 1.082-6.464) for the third generation. However, after correction for birth cohort and sex, the effect vanished [HR = 1.302 (95% CI, 0.648-2.619) and HR = 1.074 (95% CI, 0.406-2.842) for second and third generations, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not confirm previous reports of genetic anticipation in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Birth-cohort effect seems the most likely explanation for observed younger colorectal cancer diagnosis in subsequent generations, particularly because there is currently no commonly accepted biological mechanism that could explain genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome. IMPACT: This new model for studying genetic anticipation provides a standard for rigorous analysis of families with dominantly inherited cancer predisposition.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858900

RESUMEN

Background: Recent epidemiological evidence shows that colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to occur in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair (path_MMR) variants despite frequent colonoscopy surveillance in expert centres. This observation conflicts with the paradigm that removal of all visible polyps should prevent the vast majority of CRC in path_MMR carriers, provided the screening interval is sufficiently short and colonoscopic practice is optimal. Methods: To inform the debate, we examined, in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), whether the time since last colonoscopy was associated with the pathological stage at which CRC was diagnosed during prospective surveillance. Path_MMR carriers were recruited for prospective surveillance by colonoscopy. Only variants scored by the InSiGHT Variant Interpretation Committee as class 4 and 5 (clinically actionable) were included. CRCs detected at the first planned colonoscopy, or within one year of this, were excluded as prevalent cancers. Results: Stage at diagnosis and interval between last prospective surveillance colonoscopy and diagnosis were available for 209 patients with 218 CRCs, including 162 path_MLH1, 45 path_MSH2, 10 path_MSH6 and 1 path_PMS2 carriers. The numbers of cancers detected within < 1.5, 1.5-2.5, 2.5-3.5 and at > 3.5 years since last colonoscopy were 36, 93, 56 and 33, respectively. Among these, 16.7, 19.4, 9.9 and 15.1% were stage III-IV, respectively (p = 0.34). The cancers detected more than 2.5 years after the last colonoscopy were not more advanced than those diagnosed earlier (p = 0.14). Conclusions: The CRC stage and interval since last colonoscopy were not correlated, which is in conflict with the accelerated adenoma-carcinoma paradigm. We have previously reported that more frequent colonoscopy is not associated with lower incidence of CRC in path_MMR carriers as was expected. In contrast, point estimates showed a higher incidence with shorter intervals between examinations, a situation that may parallel to over-diagnosis in breast cancer screening. Our findings raise the possibility that some CRCs in path_MMR carriers may spontaneously disappear: the host immune response may not only remove CRC precursor lesions in path_MMR carriers, but may remove infiltrating cancers as well. If confirmed, our suggested interpretation will have a bearing on surveillance policy for path_MMR carriers.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 649-655, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740824

RESUMEN

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in both alleles of a mismatch repair gene. Patients have an exceptionally high risk of numerous pediatric malignancies and benefit from surveillance and adjusted treatment. The diversity of its manifestation, and ambiguous genotyping results, particularly from PMS2, can complicate diagnosis and preclude timely patient management. Assessment of low-level microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic tissues can detect CMMRD, but current techniques are laborious or of limited sensitivity. Here, we present a simple, scalable CMMRD diagnostic assay. It uses sequencing and molecular barcodes to detect low-frequency microsatellite variants in peripheral blood leukocytes and classifies samples using variant frequencies. We tested 30 samples from 26 genetically-confirmed CMMRD patients, and samples from 94 controls and 40 Lynch syndrome patients. All samples were correctly classified, except one from a CMMRD patient recovering from aplasia. However, additional samples from this same patient tested positive for CMMRD. The assay also confirmed CMMRD in six suspected patients. The assay is suitable for both rapid CMMRD diagnosis within clinical decision windows and scalable screening of at-risk populations. Its deployment will improve patient care, and better define the prevalence and phenotype of this likely underreported cancer syndrome.

10.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMEN

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Desoxirribonucleasa (Dímero de Pirimidina)/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Mutación de Línea Germinal , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor/deficiencia , Reparación del ADN/genética , Desoxirribonucleasa (Dímero de Pirimidina)/deficiencia , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Herencia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios/enzimología , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios/patología , Linaje , Fenotipo , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680046

RESUMEN

Background: In a considerable number of patients with a suspected hereditary tumor syndrome (HTS), no underlying germline mutation is detected in the most likely affected genes. The present study aimed to establish and validate a large gene panel for HTS, and determine its diagnostic yield and clinical utility. Methods: The study cohort comprised 173 patients with suspected, but unexplained, HTS (group U) and 64 HTS patients with a broad spectrum of known germline mutations (group K). All patients in group U presented with early age at onset, multiple tumors, and/or a familial clustering of various tumor types; no germline mutation had been identified during routine diagnostics. Sequencing of leukocyte DNA was performed for the 94 HTS genes of the Illumina TruSight™Cancer Panel and 54 additional HTS genes. Results: The sensitivity of the panel to identify known germline variants was 99.6%. In addition to known mutations, a total of 192 rare, potentially pathogenic germline variants in 86 genes were identified. Neither the proportion of rare variants per patient (group K: 0.9 variants; group U: 0.8 variants) nor the proportion of variants in the most frequently mutated, moderately penetrant genes CHEK2 and ATM showed significant inter-group difference. Four of the five patients from group U with a truncating CHEK2 mutation had thyroid cancer, pointing to a broader tumor spectrum in patients with pathogenic CHEK2 variants. In 22% of patients from group K, a further potential causative variant was identified. Here, the most interesting finding was an NF1 nonsense mutation in a child with a known TP53 frameshift mutation. In 17% of patients from group U, potential causative variants were identified. In three of these patients (2%), mutations in PMS2, PTEN, or POLD1 were considered to be causative. In both groups, incidental findings with presumptive predictive value were generated. Conclusions: The gene panel identified the genetic cause in some prescreened, unexplained HTS patients and generated incidental findings. Some patients harbored predicted pathogenic mutations in more than one established HTS gene, rendering interpretation of the respective alterations challenging. Established moderate risk genes showed an almost equal distribution among patients with known and unexplained disease.

12.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(6): 357-364, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578689

RESUMEN

Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have been recently included into the spectrum of BAP1-tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS). Uveal melanoma (UM) is also a tumor often observed in patients with this hereditary tumor syndrome, in particular bilateral UM is highly suspicious for BAP1-TPDS although no patient has been reported yet. Based on our index patient with BAP1-TPDS with bilateral UM (choroid OD, oculus dexter; iris OS, oculus sinister), several BCCs and thyroid cancer as well as a family history for cancer, this paper analyzes hints and pitfalls to diagnose this syndrome clinically and histologically. A previously undescribed germline variant, namely a heterozygous deletion of a single nucleotide on position 2001 (c.2001delG;p.[Thr668Profs*24] in exon 16 of the BAP1 gene), was identified. Structural changes in the C-terminal of the BAP1 protein were observed by in silico analysis. While the excised iris melanoma showed loss of BAP1 nuclear staining by immunohistochemical staining, the BCCs of our patient (and in the control group, n = 13) were BAP1 positive. Genetic analysis of the BCC of the ocular adnexae confirmed a remaining intact BAP1 copy. The constellation of (bilateral) UM in combination with BCC should raise suspicion for a BAP1-TPDS. As our BCCs probably developed independently from the BAP1-TPDS and UMs frequently show loss of nuclear BAP1 staining, genetic analysis is mandatory to diagnose this syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterasa/genética , Neoplasias de la Úvea/genética , Anciano , Carcinoma Basocelular/patología , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Mutación de Línea Germinal , Humanos , Melanoma/patología , Dominios Proteicos , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/química , Ubiquitina Tiolesterasa/química , Neoplasias de la Úvea/patología
13.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(11): 1089-1109, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581199

RESUMEN

Summary The first German interdisciplinary S3-guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer was published in April 2018. Funded by German Cancer Aid as part of an Oncology Guidelines Program, the lead coordinators of the guideline were the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG). Purpose Using evidence-based, risk-adapted therapy to treat low-risk women with endometrial cancer avoids unnecessarily radical surgery and non-useful adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This can significantly reduce therapy-induced morbidity and improve the patient's quality of life as well as avoiding unnecessary costs. For women with endometrial cancer and a high risk of recurrence, the guideline defines the optimal extent of surgical radicality together with the appropriate chemotherapy and/or adjuvant radiotherapy if required. An evidence-based optimal use of different therapeutic modalities should improve the survival rates and quality of life of these patients. This S3-guideline on endometrial cancer is intended as a basis for certified gynecological cancer centers. The aim is that the quality indicators established in this guideline will be incorporated in the certification processes of these centers. Methods The guideline was compiled in accordance with the requirements for S3-level guidelines. This includes, in the first instance, the adaptation of source guidelines selected using the DELBI instrument for appraising guidelines. Other consulted sources included reviews of evidence, which were compiled from literature selected during systematic searches of literature databases using the PICO scheme. In addition, an external biostatistics institute was commissioned to carry out a systematic search and assessment of the literature for one part of the guideline. Identified materials were used by the interdisciplinary working groups to develop suggestions for Recommendations and Statements, which were then subsequently modified during structured consensus conferences and/or additionally amended online using the DELPHI method, with consent between members achieved online. The guideline report is freely available online. Recommendations Part 2 of this short version of the guideline presents recommendations for the therapy of endometrial cancer including precancers and early endometrial cancer as well as recommendations on palliative medicine, psycho-oncology, rehabilitation, patient information and healthcare facilities to treat endometrial cancer. The management of precancers of early endometrial precancerous conditions including fertility-preserving strategies is presented. The concept used for surgical primary therapy of endometrial cancer is described. Radiotherapy and adjuvant medical therapy to treat endometrial cancer and uterine carcinosarcomas are described. Recommendations are given for the follow-up care of endometrial cancer, recurrence and metastasis. Palliative medicine, psycho-oncology including psychosocial care, and patient information and rehabilitation are presented. Finally, the care algorithm and quality assurance steps for the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer are outlined.

14.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 78(10): 949-971, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364388

RESUMEN

Summary The first German interdisciplinary S3-guideline on the diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer was published in April 2018. Funded by German Cancer Aid as part of an Oncology Guidelines Program, the lead coordinators of the guideline were the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) and the Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG). Purpose The use of evidence-based, risk-adapted therapy to treat low-risk women with endometrial cancer avoids unnecessarily radical surgery and non-useful adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This can significantly reduce therapy-induced morbidity and improve the patient's quality of life as well as avoiding unnecessary costs. For women with endometrial cancer and a high risk of recurrence, the guideline defines the optimal surgical radicality together with the appropriate chemotherapy and/or adjuvant radiotherapy where required. The evidence-based optimal use of different therapeutic modalities should improve survival rates and the quality of life of these patients. The S3-guideline on endometrial cancer is intended as a basis for certified gynecological cancer centers. The aim is that the quality indicators established in this guideline will be incorporated in the certification processes of these centers. Methods The guideline was compiled in accordance with the requirements for S3-level guidelines. This includes, in the first instance, the adaptation of source guidelines selected using the DELBI instrument for appraising guidelines. Other consulted sources include reviews of evidence which were compiled from literature selected during systematic searches of literature databases using the PICO scheme. In addition, an external biostatistics institute was commissioned to carry out a systematic search and assessment of the literature for one area of the guideline. The identified materials were used by the interdisciplinary working groups to develop suggestions for Recommendations and Statements, which were then modified during structured consensus conferences and/or additionally amended online using the DELPHI method with consent being reached online. The guideline report is freely available online. Recommendations Part 1 of this short version of the guideline presents recommendations on epidemiology, screening, diagnosis and hereditary factors, The epidemiology of endometrial cancer and the risk factors for developing endomentrial cancer are presented. The options for screening and the methods used to diagnose endometrial cancer including the pathology of the cancer are outlined. Recommendations are given for the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of hereditary forms of endometrial cancer.

15.
Zentralbl Chir ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068014

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic total gastrectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with germline mutation in the CDH1 gene and therefore high risk for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Minimally invasive techniques have been established in recent years for treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: We report findings with 12 patients with proven CDH1 mutation who underwent multidisciplinary treatment between 2013 and 3/2018 in our centre for hereditary tumour diseases, followed by prophylactic total gastrectomy in our department. Data were collected in a prospective hereditary tumour database. RESULTS: Open prophylactic total gastrectomy was performed in 5 patients (between 2013 and 2015) and minimally invasive prospective gastrectomy in 7 patients (between 2015 and 2018). The median age of all patients (7 women and 5 men) was 42 (range: 19 - 60) years. The mean operation time was 291 ± 72 minutes (open: 269 ± 70; minimally invasive: 307 ± 75). Perioperative 60-day mortality and anastomotic leakage rate were 0%. In 3 patients, postoperative complications occurred (according to the Clavien-Dindo classification: one each of grades II, IIIa and IVb, respectively), and therefore 25% morbidity. The average postoperative hospital stay was 14.5 ± 6.2 days (open: 16.2 ± 7.9; minimally invasive: 13.3 ± 5.0). In 10 of 12 patients (83%), foci of intramucosal signet ring cell carcinomas were found in the gastric specimen, in 9 patients with multifocal dissemination. There were no cases with advanced carcinomas (≥ pT1b) or lymph node metastases. CONCLUSION: Patients with suspected high risk for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer should be cared for in a multidisciplinary centre for hereditary tumour diseases. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy is a safe and feasible risk-reducing procedure for patients with CDH1 germline mutation. Therefore, in the absence of contraindications and with available surgical expertise, the minimally invasive operation should be the standard procedure for these patients.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 10 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/genética , Endonucleasa PMS2 de Reparación del Emparejamiento Incorrecto/genética , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrancia , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación
17.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1400-1409.e2, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Lynch syndrome are at high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopic surveillance is recommended, but there is no international consensus on the appropriate interval. We investigated whether shorter intervals are associated with lower CRC incidence and detection at earlier stages by comparing the surveillance policies in Germany, which evaluates patients by colonoscopy annually, in the Netherlands (patients evaluated at 1-2-year intervals), and Finland (patients evaluated at 2-3-year intervals). METHODS: We collected data from 16,327 colonoscopic examinations (conducted from 1984 through 2015) of 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome (pathogenic variants in the MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 genes) from the German HNPCC Consortium, the Dutch Lynch Syndrome Registry, and the Finnish Lynch Syndrome Registry. Our analysis included 23,309 person-years of cumulative observation time. Time from the index colonoscopy to incident CRC or adenoma was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method; groups were compared using the log-rank test. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with CRC risk (diagnosis of CRC before the index colonoscopy, sex, mutation, age, and presence of adenoma at the index colonoscopy). RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative CRC incidence ranged from 4.1% to 18.4% in patients with low- and high-risk profiles, respectively, and varied with age, sex, mutation, and prior detection of CRC or adenoma. Observed colonoscopy intervals were largely in accordance with the country-specific recommendations. We found no significant differences in cumulative CRC incidence or CRC stage at detection among countries. There was no significant association between CRC stage and time since last colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant reduction in CRC incidence or stage of detection in Germany (annual colonoscopic surveillance) than in countries with longer surveillance intervals (the Netherlands, with 1-2-year intervals, and Finland, with 2-3-year intervals). Overall, we did not find a significant association of the interval with CRC risk, although age, sex, mutation, and prior neoplasia were used to individually modify colonoscopy intervals. Studies are needed to develop and validate risk-adapted surveillance strategies and to identify patients who benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.


Asunto(s)
Colonoscopía , Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
18.
Int J Cancer ; 143(11): 2800-2813, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987844

RESUMEN

In many families with suspected Lynch syndrome (LS), no germline mutation in the causative mismatch repair (MMR) genes is detected during routine diagnostics. To identify novel causative genes for LS, the present study investigated 77 unrelated, mutation-negative patients with clinically suspected LS and a loss of MSH2 in tumor tissue. An analysis for genomic copy number variants (CNV) was performed, with subsequent next generation sequencing (NGS) of selected candidate genes in a subgroup of the cohort. Genomic DNA was genotyped using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress Bead Array. After quality control and filtering, 25 deletions and 16 duplications encompassing 73 genes were identified in 28 patients. No recurrent CNV was detected, and none of the CNVs affected the regulatory regions of MSH2. A total of 49 candidate genes from genomic regions implicated by the present CNV analysis and 30 known or assumed risk genes for colorectal cancer (CRC) were then sequenced in a subset of 38 patients using a customized NGS gene panel and Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide variants were identified in 14 candidate genes from the CNV analysis. The most promising of these candidate genes were: (i) PRKCA, PRKDC, and MCM4, as a functional relation to MSH2 is predicted by network analysis, and (ii) CSMD1, as this is commonly mutated in CRC. Furthermore, six patients harbored POLE variants outside the exonuclease domain, suggesting that these might be implicated in hereditary CRC. Analyses in larger cohorts of suspected LS patients recruited via international collaborations are warranted to verify the present findings.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales Hereditarias sin Poliposis/genética , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Reparación de la Incompatibilidad de ADN/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Mutación de Línea Germinal/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(3): 429-435, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273943

RESUMEN

Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) are at increased risk of developing benign and malignant tumors, including thyroid carcinoma. Benign thyroid lesions and single cases of thyroid carcinoma have been reported in children with PHTS. We conducted a retrospective, single-centered study including children and adolescents with a molecularly proven diagnosis of PTEN. Our cohort consists of 16 patients, with a mean age at diagnosis PHTS of 5.7 years. Twelve of 16 cases exhibited thyroid abnormalities (75%). In seven patients, thyroid abnormalities were already present at first ultrasound screening, in five cases they occurred during follow-up. Eight patients underwent thyroidectomy. Histopathology included nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary microcarcinoma in a boy of six and follicular carcinoma in a girl of 13 years. Two patients had autoimmune thyroid disease. CONCLUSION: Thyroid disease is common in children with PHTS. Physicians caring for patients with early thyroid abnormalities and additional syndromal features should be aware of PHTS as a potentially underlying disorder. Ultrasound screening should be performed immediately after diagnosis of PHTS and repeated yearly or more frequently. Because of possible early cancer development, we recommend early surgical intervention in the form of total thyroidectomy in cases of suspicious ultrasound findings. What is Known: • PHTS patients are at high risk of developing benign and malignant tumors. • Individual cases of thyroid carcinoma in children have been reported. What is New: • Thyroid disease is even more common in children with PHTS (75%) than previously expected. • Frequently thyroid disease is the first organ pathology requiring diagnostic workup and therefore children with PHTS should be examined for thyroid disease right after diagnosis and receive follow-up on a regular basis throughout life.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Hamartoma Múltiple/complicaciones , Enfermedades de la Tiroides/etiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de la Tiroides/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Enfermedades de la Tiroides/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
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