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2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107338, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846305

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inadequate or misinformation about electroencephalography (EEG) and epilepsy may lead to anxiety in children and their parents. The purpose of this study was to make a simultaneous evaluation of the anxiety levels of children and parents before EEG procedures and to make a brief assessment of their knowledge about EEG. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Children aged between 8 and 18 years who were referred for EEG tests at Department of Pediatric Neurology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey and their parents were included in the study, prospectively. Data were collected through Personal Information Forms; an EEG questionnaire form, which questioned the knowledge of the participants about EEG; the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine anxiety levels of the parents; and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State form (STAIC) to determine the anxiety levels of the children. The following parameters were collected in a database: demographic data about children and parents (sex, age), indication of suspected diagnosis on EEG request (i.e., the referral diagnosis), history of epilepsy, number of EEG recordings, and results of previous EEG recordings. The state and trait anxiety test results of the children were compared between the girls and boys, between age groups, and their parents' results in terms of both trait and state anxiety in terms of EEG, sex, ages, educational levels, and working. RESULTS: Eighty-five children (mean age: 13.25 ±â€¯3.02 years) and 85 parents (mean age: 41.16 ±â€¯7.65 years) were included in the study. The children's mean trait anxiety score was 32.51 ±â€¯8.09, and the mean state anxiety score was 34.97 ±â€¯7.62. Half of the children who had a trait anxiety score of ≤30 points had increased state anxiety levels because they received more than 30 points in the state anxiety evaluation score. No significant differences were found between the boys and girls in terms of the state and trait anxiety scores (p > 0.05). The parents' mean trait anxiety score was 39.16 ±â€¯7.74, and the mean state anxiety score was 42.74 ±â€¯6.22. Forty (47%) parents were found to have trait anxiety, and 52 (61.2%) parents had state anxiety before the EEG. The trait anxiety score of the mothers was statistically significantly higher than that of the fathers (p < 0.01). The investigation of the knowledge level of both parents and children about EEG demonstrated some misunderstandings or points of insufficiency. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that both parents and children had insufficient knowledge about EEG, and the procedure caused anxiety for both the parents and children. When EEG procedures are requested, parents and children should be given brief information about EEG and epilepsy. We think that in this way, the knowledge of both parents and children about this issue may be increased and their anxiety may be decreased.

3.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107320, 2020 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839145

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess sleep architecture and sleep problems among three homogenous groups of children including children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, children with newly diagnosed, drug-naïve focal epilepsy, and healthy children using overnight video-polysomnography (V-PSG) and a sleep questionnaire. METHODS: We compared sleep architecture among 44 children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, 41 children with newly diagnosed, drug naïve focal epilepsy, and 36 healthy children. All children underwent an overnight V-PSG recording, and their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Sleep recordings were scored according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. RESULTS: Compared with children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and healthy controls, children with drug-resistant epilepsy receiving antiepileptic treatment showed disturbed sleep architecture, a significant reduction in time in bed, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, NREM3%, REM%, and a significant increase in awakenings, wake after sleep onset, and periodic leg movement. Children with drug-naïve, newly diagnosed focal epilepsy showed a statistically significant increase in sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement (REM) latency, N1%, awakenings, and a significant decrease in time in bed when compared with the controls. Children with drug-resistant epilepsy had the highest CSHQ total scores, while children with drug-naïve, newly diagnosed focal epilepsy had higher scores than healthy children. CONCLUSION: This is one of the few polysomnographic studies adding to the limited research on the sleep macrostructure of children with drug-resistant epilepsy compared with children with drug-naïve, newly diagnosed focal epilepsy and healthy children by obtaining objective measurements of sleep concurrently with a validated questionnaire. Children with drug-resistant epilepsy had a greater incidence of sleep disturbance on the basis of qualitative aspects and architecture of sleep than children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, suggesting the need for referral of children with drug-resistant epilepsy for overnight sleep evaluation in order to improve the clinical management and optimize therapeutic strategies.

4.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809122

RESUMEN

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare, devastating neurodegenerative encephalitis whose diagnosis and therapy are still in question. Atypical clinical presentation and heterogeneity of neuroimaging findings that have been initially confused with metabolic disorders have hampered early diagnosis. To describe a series of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with imaging findings mimicking metabolic disorders. A total of six patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were diagnosed from January 2012 to December 2016 in whom a metabolic disorder was suspected on initial clinical and MRI findings. Detailed laboratory investigation was performed in all patients. All patients presented with atypical neurologic manifestations, including dystonia, syncopal attacks, involuntary limb movements, meaningless speech and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities included bilateral putaminal, bilateral posterior periventricular white matter and diffuse or splenial corpus callosum involvement which are particularly unusual in SSPE and mostly observed in metabolic disorders. All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid Ig G measles antibodies. The diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis through clinical and imaging features can be considerably challenging. It is crucial to differentiate it from metabolic disorders, since the management and clinical outcome are different.

5.
Turk J Pediatr ; 62(2): 320-325, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419427

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) of childhood is rarely reported in the literature. Clinico-radiological features of ANE are well-recognized and bilateral thalamic nuclei are frequently affected by ANE. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are rarely seen. Thalamic damage can cause psychosis. CASE: Herein, we present a pediatric case of enterovirus-associated ANE presenting with psychosis related to thalamus damage in whom a favorable response to treatment was achieved. CONCLUSION: Thalamic damage occurs during the Enteroviruses-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy and it can be related psychiatric sympthoms. Clinicians should be aware of uncommon presentations of ANE, and patients with thalamic damage should be followed for neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of ANE is important to obtain favorable outcomes.

6.
Seizure ; 79: 44-48, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416566

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is one of the most frequently seen epileptic syndromes in childhood. It is characterized by centrotemporal spikes (CTS) on electroencephalography (EEG) that are typically activated by drowsiness and stage N2 sleep. The location, frequency, and amplitude of the spikes may vary in different EEG records of the same patient, supporting the presence of a global pathology rather than a focal one. Despite the well-known relation between BECTS and stage N2 sleep, the results of sleep studies have been diverse and have mainly focused on sleep cycles. The characteristics of sleep spindles in the interictal periods have not been studied well. METHODS: A retrospective study involving patients with BECTS who were admitted to the Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology from January 2017 to October 2018 was conducted herein. Patients with BECTS and age-matched controls who had stage N2 sleep records of 10 min were enrolled for spindle amplitude (peak-to-peak difference in spindle voltage), frequency (number of waveforms per second), and duration and density (number of spindle bursts/minute of stage N2 sleep). RESULTS: A total of 30 children with BECTS and 20 age-matched healthy peers were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between the age and sex of the patients. Statistically significant lower mean values of the amplitude, and duration and density of the spindle activity were observed in patients with BECTS when compared to the controls (P: 0.034, P: 0.016, and 0.020, respectively). Additionally, the risk of epilepsy was found to increase by 1.9 %, by the decrease of the mean amplitude of the spindles by 1 mV when compared to control group. CONCLUSION: The interictal records of stage N2 sleep differed in the patients with BECTS when compared to the controls. Findings related to the stage N2 sleep of the present study may suggest a network problem involving the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways in patients with BECTS.

7.
Nucl Med Commun ; 41(8): 800-809, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459714

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the utility and additional clinical contribution of brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging for the assessment of children with possible autoimmune encephalitis in comparison to brain MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of six pediatric patients (all seronegative) between 2014 and 2019 with the initial diagnosis of possible autoimmune encephalitis who had brain FDG PET/CT or PET/MRI and brain MRI during the diagnostic period. Diagnosis of possible autoimmune encephalitis was based on clinical consensus criteria defined by Graus et al. Brain FDG PET images were visually evaluated. Semiquantitative evaluation was also performed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) method. RESULTS: Cerebrospinal fluid pleiocytosis and electroencephalography abnormality were present in all patients. Mean duration between the onset of symptoms and brain FDG PET imaging was 33 ± 16 days (range: 18-62 days). There were a total of eight brain FDG PET scans (six of PET/MRI and two of PET/CT). In two patients, FDG PET imaging was performed at diagnosis and follow-up. Initial FDG PET and SPM analysis findings were abnormal in all patients (100%), with four demonstrating only hypometabolism. Only a hypermetabolic pattern was seen in one patient, and mixed the hypohypermetabolic pattern was seen in one patient. All patients had metabolic abnormalities in temporal lobes. Additionally, visual and semiquantitative FDG PET findings revealed hypometabolism in extratemporal regions. Brain MRI was abnormal in two patients (33.3%) who had also FDG hypermetabolism in mesial temporal lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the usage of fluorine-18-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT)/MRI with quantitative analysis early in the diagnostic work-up of possible autoimmune encephalitis, particularly in those with normal or nonspecific MRI findings. However, it remains a purpose of further studies, if and to what extent FDG PET/CT or integrated FDG PET/MRI with quantitative analysis can improve the diagnostic workup of children with possible autoimmune encephalitis.

9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(7): 1425-1433, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940057

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) with ocular ultrasonography (USG) is a noninvasive technique that can be readily used to determine clues of increased intracranial pressure. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of optic nerve sheath diameter measurements in the diagnosis and follow-up of pediatric patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: Eight patients with a diagnosis of IIH with a median age of 11.7 (range 4.5-17) years were examined prospectively. During follow-up, orbital ultrasonography (USG) was performed immediately prior to lumbar puncture (LP) and at 24 h, at 1 week, and between 1 and 18 months after LP. Cranial MRI examinations and automated visual field assessments were performed at baseline and at 3 months, and both measurements were compared with each other. RESULTS: The mean cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure (37.75 ± 12.64 cm H2O) and the mean ONSD (5.94 ± 0.46 mm) were correlated. The median follow-up was 16 (range, 12-18 months), and ONSD regressed gradually consistent with clinical and radiologic improvement during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective pilot study performed on pediatric patients with IIH using orbital USG for ONSD measurements. Despite the small sample size, the present study indicated that orbital USG may be used as a promising noninvasive tool to diagnose increased intracranial pressure and for monitoring treatment efficacy in this special patient population.

10.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 26: 82-88, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818545

RESUMEN

Ictal pouting (Chapeau de gendarme sign) can be described as an inverted smile. It consists of a turned down mouth with the contraction of the chin, wrinkling of the lips and symmetrical lowering of the labial commissures. This shape resembles the gendarme's hat during Napoléon I's time. Chapeau de gendarme sign is frequently seen in frontal and temporal lobe seizures. Focal cortical dysplasias are intrinsically epileptogenic foci and are frequently seen in patients with ictal pouting in seizure semiology. In this report, we analyzed clinical data, video EEG recordings and brain imagings of three children presenting with ictal pouting semiology in whom patients' magnetic resonans images (MRIs) or positron emission tomographies (PETs) were positive or doubtful for FCD in all. In case 1 and 2 the epileptogenic zones were temporal or temporoinsular. In these patients, with involvement of temporal lobe, dystonia and automatisms were seen in the seizure semiology after chapeau de gendarme sign. In case 3 with frontal lobe origin, hypermotor movements were seen after ictal pouting. In the patients 1 and 2, the cortical dysplasias were in temporal lobe. In patient 3, PET demonstrated hypometabolism on left inferior frontal gyrus but we couldn't verify this finding with MRIs. Ictal pouting (Chapeau de gendarme sign) is a distinct seizure semiology that can often be overlooked and coexist with focal cortical thickening. We suggest that focal cortical dysplasias should be searched in patients with ictal pouting particularly in those with refractory focal seizures.


Asunto(s)
Malformaciones del Desarrollo Cortical/complicaciones , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Convulsiones/etiología , Adulto , Niño , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Músculos Faciales/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Malformaciones del Desarrollo Cortical/fisiopatología , Espasmo/etiología
11.
Seizure ; 65: 89-93, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641413

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Anti-epileptic drugs have been widely used in children with epilepsy. Although several studies have investigated the role of oxidative stress and the effects of antiepileptic drugs on several oxidative markers in epilepsy, adequate information is not available on this issue. This study aimed to investigate the changes in thiol disulphide homeostasis in children with epilepsy under two commonly prescribed AED monotherapies, carbamazepine and valproic acid. METHODS: A hundred and one children with epilepsy using valproic acid or carbamazepine and 58 healthy children were included in this study. Of the 101 patients with idiopathic epilepsy, 58 were on valproic acid monotherapy and 43 patients were on carbamazepine monotherapy. The total thiol, native thiol, and disulphide levels were measured and the disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native thiol/total thiol ratios were calculated in both groups. RESULTS: The total thiol and native thiol levels of the valproic acid treated group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.05). The native thiol level of carbamazepine treated group was lower than the control group without a significance (p = 0.123). Disulphide level, disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol ratios were significantly higher and native thiol/total thiol ratio was significantly lower in both valproic acid and carbamazepine treated group compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Thiol/disulphide homeostasis is impaired in children with idiopathic epilepsy using valproic acid or carbamazepine. Valproic acid which is frequently used in childhood epilepsy may modify this balance more than carbamazepine monotherapy. More importantly, the new method used in our study proposes a promising, practical and daily applicable test for evaluating oxidative stress in these patien.


Asunto(s)
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Disulfuros/sangre , Epilepsia/sangre , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/sangre , Adolescente , Carbamazepina/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Disulfuros/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
12.
J Pediatr Neurosci ; 13(2): 276-278, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090157

RESUMEN

Citrullinemia type 1 (CTLN1) is a rare inherited urea cycle disorder, which resulted from the deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase enzyme. We presented an infant who was hospitalized because of acute losses of tonus and cyanotic hypoventilation attacks lasting approximately 4-5 min. The physical and neurological examinations were normal. Ammonia level was in the normal range. Citrulline levels increased in both blood and urine. The blood sample was sent to mutation analysis, which showed one novel and one known mutation on ASS1 gene sequencing: a heterozygous novel mutation p.A94V (c.281C>T) and a heterozygous mutation p.W179R (c.535C>T). Urea cycle disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained brief apnea or hypoventilation attacks, even though those symptoms do not lead to hyperammonemia during infancy and childhood as seen in our patient. This is the first case in terms of atypical clinical presentation with a new mutation for CTLN1.

13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 48(4): 786-793, 2018 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119154

RESUMEN

Background/aim: We evaluated the utility of electroencephalography (EEG) in children with neurological conditions and compared the results with those of our previous study on excessive uses of pediatric EEG, which was published in 2003. We also evaluated the possibility of subsequent EEGs and satisfactory duration of EEG recordings according to EEG type and admission status. We also evaluated the yield of varying durations of EEG recordings. Materials and methods: All consecutive pediatric EEG records performed at Gazi University EEG laboratory during a 1-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The indications of EEGs, the number of EEGs for each patient, condition and duration of EEG records, and activation techniques were evaluated in terms of detection of abnormalities by EEG. Results: We reviewed a total of 2045 EEGs in children aged 2 months­20 years. Of these, 776 were repeat EEGs (38%) and 485 recordings were ≥30 min (23.7%); 98% of EEG abnormalities appeared in the first 30 min. Overall, 90.5% of EEGs were ordered by a pediatric neurologist. There were similar requests for numbers of EEGs, but the rate of abnormal EEGs (43.6%) was significantly higher when compared to that of our previous study (36.2%). Conclusion: The results of this study show that the utility of EEG becomes more selective and interpretation of pediatric EEG improves depending on the increasing number of pediatric neurologists. A duration of 20­30 min of EEG recording is sufficient, on the condition of inclusion of nREM sleep records.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía/tendencias , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico , Pediatría/tendencias , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Neurólogos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Sueño , Turquia
14.
J Clin Neurosci ; 56: 172-175, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041901

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Carotid artery dissections may occur in severe trauma such as motor vehicle accidents or may also develop due to minor trauma. We aimed to present a case with internal carotid artery dissection that referred to the pediatric neurology department due to speech impairment after minor shoulder trauma. CASE: A previously healthy 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the pediatric emergency clinic due to headache, vomiting and speech impairment. In his story, we learned that he had bumped shoulder to shoulder with his friend about 6 h ago. He did not fall or hit his head. On his admission he could not speak and had right central facial paralysis. There was no infarct or diffusion limitation in MRI but MR angiography showed thinning in left internal carotid artery calibration. Fat-suppressed, non-contrast T1-weighted MRI showed that the left carotid artery had ring-shaped pathological signal changes. Low-molecular-weight heparin therapy was initiated with the diagnosis of carotid artery dissection (CAD). No hemiparesis or hemiplejia occurred in the follow-up of the patient. Within a few days, his speech improved. At the end of the first month, facial paralysis completely recovered. CONCLUSION: In carotid artery dissections, prodromal symptoms such as transient ischemic attack, like in our patient, are rarely present in children. For good long term outcomes, it is very important to suspect, diagnose and initiate appropriate treatment in a rapid manner in carotid artery dissection before severe neurological findings such as acute ischemic stroke develops.


Asunto(s)
Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico , Lesiones del Hombro/complicaciones , Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagen , Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/etiología , Disección de la Arteria Carótida Interna/terapia , Niño , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Microtraumatismos Físicos/complicaciones
15.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 34(9): 1799-1801, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We describe the first child with drug-resistant epilepsy in whom vagus nerve stimulation aggravated seizures and emerged status epilepticus after the increase in vagal nerve stimulation current output. OBJECTIVE: A 13-year-old girl presented with refractory secondary generalized focal epilepsy. Vagal nerve stimulator was implanted because of drug-resistant epilepsy. After the increase of vagal nerve stimulator current output to a relatively high level, the patient experienced seizure aggravation and status epilepticus. CONCLUSION: We conclude that vagus nerve stimulation may induce paradoxical seizures and may lead to status epilepticus, similarly to some antiepileptic drugs.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Refractaria/terapia , Convulsiones/etiología , Estado Epiléptico/etiología , Estimulación del Nervio Vago/efectos adversos , Niño , Epilepsia Refractaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Convulsiones/diagnóstico por imagen , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico por imagen
16.
Epilepsy Behav ; 82: 150-154, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625366

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the electrographic criteria related to seizure recurrence and determine age-related seizure recurrence in children with rolandic epilepsy under long-term follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data belonging to 109 patients with rolandic epilepsy with sufficient information regarding disease course and follow-up duration longer than 3years. Patients were divided into two categories: Group A (n: 75), comprised of "patients having fewer than four seizures", and Group B (n: 34), the "recurrence group comprised of patients having more than four seizures in the first three months". The number of spikes per minute during both wakefulness and sleep, the localization of spikes other than centrotemporal region, and the duration of spike-wave activity were evaluated longitudinally, with repeated electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings every 6months. RESULTS: The appearance of rolandic spikes in awake EEGs tended to be more prevalent in Group B than Group A. In Group B, spike rates significantly increased in the 12 and 18months after onset whereas spike rates increased significantly only 6months after onset in Group A. Seizure recurrence is mostly seen at 6-8years, and improvement becomes evident by age 12. The mean number of paroxysmal rolandic discharges during sleep was significantly higher in the younger age groups (3-5, 6-8), and the mean number of spikes per minute significantly decreased at ages 9-11 and over 12. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that extended periods of high frequency of paroxysmal discharges, initial frontal EEG focus, and persistence of awake interictal abnormalities are highly effective in predicting seizure recurrence in patients with rolandic epilepsy (RE).


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Rolándica/fisiopatología , Convulsiones/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Análisis de Varianza , Niño , Preescolar , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sueño/fisiología , Vigilia/fisiología
17.
Epilepsy Behav ; 81: 33-40, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462779

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on heart rate variability (HRV) in children with epilepsy. METHODS: The subgroups of HRV, namely time domain (Standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN), SDNN index, Standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals (SDANN), Root mean square of successive differences (RMMSD), Adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms in the entire recording divided by the total number of all NN intervals (PNN50), triangular index) and frequency domain (Low-frequency (LF), High-frequency (HF), LF/HF), were investigated in 20 pediatric patients before and after 6 and 12months of VNS treatment during day and night by comparing their data with those of 20 control subjects. In addition, subgroups of age, epilepsy duration and localization, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were also evaluated if they had further effects on basal HRV levels. RESULTS: Increased heart rates (HRs); decreased SDNN, SDANN, RMMSD, and PNN50; and increased LF/HF ratios were identified before VNS therapy (p<0.05). Even though remarkable improvement was seen after 6months of VNS treatment (p<0.05), no further changes were observed in 12-month compared with 6-month levels (p>0.05) in all parameters, still even significantly lower than those of controls (p<0.05). Longer duration of epilepsy and localization of epileptic focus, such as in the temporal lobe, were also found to further contribute to diminished basal HRV levels (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The cardiovascular system is under deep sympathetic influence in children with epilepsy. Although VNS seems to provide a substantial improvement by achieving increased parasympathetic effects in short-term therapy, the levels were still lower than those of healthy children after either short- or long-term therapy. Therefore, impaired cardiovascular autonomic regulation may be associated with the epileptic process itself as well as with the contribution of some additional factors. Overall, different aspects such as age, epilepsy duration, epileptic focus, seizure frequency, and AEDs should also be considered for their further possible effects on HRV during VNS therapy.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Epilepsia/terapia , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Estimulación del Nervio Vago , Nervio Vago/fisiología , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Epilepsias Parciales/fisiopatología , Epilepsia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Convulsiones/fisiopatología , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 21(5): 738-744, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623069

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We examined the various types of epilepsy in children with neonatal hypoglycemia in order to define electroclinical and prognostic features of these patients. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia who have been followed at Gazi University Hospital Pediatric Neurology Department between 2006 and 2015. Patients with perinatal asphyxia were excluded. Details of each patient's perinatal history, neurological outcome, epilepsy details, seizure outcome and EEG and brain MRI findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Fourty five patients (range 6 mo-15 y) with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia were included the study. Epilepsy developed in 36 patients and 23 of them had intractable epilepsy. All patients had occipital brain injury. CONCLUSION: We observed that most of the patients, either manifesting focal or generalized seizures, further develop intractable epilepsy. This finding establishes neonatal hypoglycemia as a possible cause to be considered in any case of intractable epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/etiología , Hipoglucemia/complicaciones , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Convulsiones/etiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 33(9): 1501-1507, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534259

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of orbital ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of patients referred to our department for suspected IIH. RESULTS: Seven children were diagnosed with IIH. Nine children revealed pseudopapilledema by optic coherence tomography and/or orbital ultrasonography. When the axial sequences were reexamined, patients with papilledema had optic nerve sheath (ONS) enlargement (6.62 ± 0.70 mm); patients with pseudopapilledema had ONS diameter as 4.62 ± 0.64 mm. There was a significant correlation between the CSF opening pressure and ONS diameter (p < 0.005, r = 0.661). In the papilledema group, the presence of proposed subtle markers as increased tortuosity in the optic nerve was found in six patients. Five of seven patients had a target sign, intraocular protrusion of the optic nerve, and posterior globe flattening. DISCUSSION: Ophthalmological review is important to avoid unnecessary procedures for detection of true papilledema. ONS diameter is a reliable neuroimaging marker as other subtle markers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Hereditarias del Ojo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Papiledema/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades Hereditarias del Ojo/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión Intracraneal/etiología , Presión Intracraneal , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Nervio Óptico/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades del Nervio Óptico/complicaciones , Papiledema/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ultrasonografía
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