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1.
Toxicol Res ; 36(3): 249-256, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685429

RESUMEN

Some pesticides increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but whether fetal exposure carries transgenerational risk remains unknown. We evaluated the metabolic effects of gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid in female Wistar rats and their offspring. We studied female nulliparous Wistar rats, including six exposed to imidacloprid (IMI) and six to chlorpyrifos (CPF) once daily throughout gestation at 1/10 lethal dose 50, while six (control group) received distilled water. These were explored 1 month after the birth of the offspring, while their offspring were explored at weaning (4 weeks) and adult age (12 weeks). Blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were determined at each stage, while glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkß) protein expression was measured in skeletal muscle at the end of follow up. Exposure to pesticides was associated with significantly higher fasting glucose (+25.4 to 30.9%) and insulin (> 100%) levels, with > 100% increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), - 18.3 to - 21.1% reduced HDL-cholesterol and + 60.9 to + 102.6% increased LDL-cholesterol in mothers. GLUT4 expression was reduced by 28.9-42.3% while NFkß expression increased by 32.8-35.4% in mothers. In offspring, similar abnormalities were observed at weaning (+ 18.4 to 67.4% fasting glucose, + 57.1 to 72.2% LDL-cholesterol, + 72.3 to 78.2% fasting insulin), persisting at adult age with decreased expression of GLUT4 (- 52.8 to 54.5%) and increased expression of NFkß (+ 30.5 to 30.7%). Gestational exposure to imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos induces hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in female Wistar rats and their offspring. The effects on offspring persist until adult age, suggesting intergenerational adverse effects.

2.
Appl Clin Genet ; 12: 229-234, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819589

RESUMEN

Background and objectives: The association of chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) polymorphism with HIV transmission or disease progression remains highly controversial. The role of CCR2-64I allele in HIV infection may differ from one population to another because of their genetic background. The objectives of this study were to characterize the CCR2 genetic polymorphism and to determine its potential effect in HIV acquisition in children living in the Northern Region of Cameroon. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five health facilities in the Northern region of Cameroon. DNA was extracted from the Buffy coat of each participant using the QIAamp®DNA mini kit. The DNA extract was then subjected to polymorphic analyses. CCR2 genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The Chi-Squared test was used for the assessment of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Results: A total of 134 children under 15 years comprised of 38 HIV-exposed infected (28.36%) and 96 HIV-exposed un-infected (71.64%) participants were recruited. Prevalences of 44.78% wild type homozygous, 48.52% heterozygous and 6.7% mutant homozygous alleles were found in the overall population. An allelic frequency of 29.69% for the mutant allele CCR2-64I was found in HIV-exposed un-infected individuals as compared to 34.21% in HIV-infected children (p=0.47). Conclusion: The CCR2-64I allele is relatively common in the Northern Region of Cameroon, with a similar distribution among HIV-exposed un-infected and infected children. As this allele alone does not seem to confer protection against HIV-1 infection, further studies using genotype-combination of CCR2 polymorphism and other single nucleotide polymorphisms would be of great relevance in both HIV prevention and novel therapeutic strategies.

3.
Toxicol Res ; 35(3): 241-248, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341553

RESUMEN

Pesticide exposure may induce biochemical alterations including oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, in the context of developmental origin of health and disease, putative trans-generational effect of exposure to pesticides are insufficiently studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate the biochemical effect of gestational exposure to four pesticides on female Wistar rats and their offspring at adult age. We studied 30 female nulliparous Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group and received distilled water while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received orally pesticide 1 (imidacloprid), pesticide 2 (chlorpyrifos), pesticide 3 (imidacloprid + lambda cyhalothrin) and pesticide 4 (oxamyl) respectively once daily throughout gestation at a dose equivalent to 1/10 lethal dose 50. The mothers were followed up until one month post gestation. The offspring were followed up from birth until adult age (12 weeks). In all animals at each time point we evaluated malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress and liver function enzymes. There was similar variation of total body weight in all the groups during and after gestation. However, Female Wistar rats of the exposed groups had significant alterations in liver SOD (-30.8% to +64.1%), catalase (-38.8% to -85.7%) and GSH (-29.2% to -86.5%) and; kidney catalase (> 100%), GSH (> 100%). Moreover, MDA, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were significantly higher in pesticide exposed rats compared to the control group. Similar alterations in antioxidant enzymes, MDA and liver function enzymes were observed in offspring of treated rats evidenced at weaning and persisting until adult age. Exposure to pesticides causes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in exposed female Wistar rats and their offspring. The persistence in offspring at adult age suggests transgenerational adverse effects.

4.
J Parasitol Res ; 2019: 1417967, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984417

RESUMEN

Background: Despite recommendation from the World Health Organization that all malaria suspected patients undergo a parasitological confirmation using rapid diagnostic test or light microscopy prior to treatment, health facilities in remote malaria endemic settings sometimes resort to presumptive diagnosis of malaria for clinical management for various reasons. Following observation of this practice, we undertook a cross-sectional study aimed at comparing presumptive diagnosis based on axillary temperature, SD Bioline™ rapid test, and light microscopy as strategies for malaria diagnosis in the coastal region of Mutengene in the South West of Cameroon with the overall goal of supporting improved malaria diagnosis at local levels. Methodology: Venous blood from 320 participants was used to detect the presence of malaria parasite using SD Bioline™ mRDT and Giemsa stained microscopy or spotted on filter paper for PCR amplification of the 18s rRNA gene of Plasmodium sp following standard procedures. The axillary temperature of each participant was also measured. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and their confidence intervals were determined for each of the methods with PCR as the reference. The area under the curve was used to estimate accuracy of diagnostic method and compared between test method using the X2 test with P<0.05 considered significant. Results: The overall diagnostic sensitivities of presumptive diagnosis using axillary temperature, light microscopy, and SD Bioline™ were observed to be 74.30% (95%CI: 67.90-80.01), 94.86% (95%CI: 90.99-97.41), and 95.33% (95%CI: 91.57-97.74), respectively, and their respective diagnostic specificities were 53.77% (95%CI: 43.82-63.51), 94.34% (95%CI: 88.09-97.87), and 94.34%(95%CI: 88.09-97.89). SD Bioline™ had a diagnostic sensitivity of 91.80% [95%CI: 81.90-97.28] at a parasitaemia of less than 500 parasites/µl of blood but a sensitivity of 100% for parasite counts above 500 parasites/µl of blood. The predictive values of the positive test were highly comparable between light microscopy (90.09%, [95%CI: 83.61-94.18]) and SD Bioline™ mRDT (90.91%, [95%CI: 84.50-94.83]), P=0.98 with kappa values of 0.898 but lower for presumptive diagnosis (50.89%, [95%CI: 43.72-58.03]), P<0.0001, and kappa value of 0.277. Perfect agreement was observed between SD Bioline™ mRDT and light microscopy (Cohen kappa= 0.924). Conclusions: The study showed that SD Bioline™ was as good as light microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria in remote areas of perennial transmission in South West Cameroon. This study equally revealed the limitations of presumptive diagnosis of malaria (as opposed to the use of RDTs or microscopy). Efforts should be made in such areas to promote parasitological confirmation of malaria using quality assured rapid tests or light microscopy for case management of malaria. The presence of nonnegligible levels of Plasmodium ovale in this study area indicate that treatment guidelines may require revision if same trend is proven in several other areas of same ecology.

5.
Appl Clin Genet ; 12: 261-268, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920362

RESUMEN

Purpose: The metabolism of antiretroviral drugs is subject to individual variations of the CYP 2B6 gene. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of CYP 2B6 516 G>T and 983 T>C polymorphisms and investigate their association with the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in people living with HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. Patients and methods: A total number of 122 patients, attending the Yaoundé Central Hospital HIV Day Clinic, consented to take part in this study. Blood specimens were collected and DNA was extracted using the Chelex method. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed for the detection of CYP 2B6 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotype frequencies were compared between groups with or without ADRs. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess association between genotype and adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results: Three types of metabolizers were identified: extensive, intermediate and slow. For the 516G>T polymorphism, prevalences of 8.2% GG, 65.6% GT and 26.2% TT were obtained. For the 983T>C polymorphism, 89.3% TT, 4.1% CT and 6.6% CC prevalences were obtained. Those homozygous for the wild-type allele (516GG) were less likely to develop ADR with a statistically significant difference (OR=0.885, P=0.029). For the CYP2B6 T983C SNP, homozygous mutants (CC) may present a higher risk (threefold) of developing adverse reactions (OR=2.677, P=0.164). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that ADRs among HIV/AIDS patients under ART may be associated with the genetic variability of the metabolizing enzyme CYP 2B6. Genotyping for this gene may guide the better administration of Efavirenz and Nevirapine to Cameroonian patients.

6.
J Diabetes ; 10(11): 866-873, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707905

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Viruses have been considered potential triggers for the development of diabetes. This study assessed insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-infected and uninfected sub-Saharan African people with diabetes. METHODS: In all, 173 people with non-autoimmune diabetes were enrolled consecutively: 124 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 49 with ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) admitted in hyperglycemic crisis. Those with KPD were further subdivided into those with new-onset ketotic-phase KPD (n = 34) or non-ketotic phase KPD (n = 15). All participants were screened for HHV8-specific antibodies and genomic DNA. Blood samples were collected for analysis of fasting glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, and C-peptide, with insulin resistance and secretion estimated by homeostasis model assessment. RESULTS: Among the 173 diabetic participants, 88 (50.9%) were positive for HHV8 antibodies (Ac-HHV8+), including 15 (8.7%) positive for HHV8 DNA (DNA-HHV8+). The seroprevalence of HHV8 was similar between T2DM (55.6%) and KPD (61.2%) subjects. Of those with and without ketotic-phase KPD, 35.3% and 46.7% were Ac-HHV8+, respectively. Body mass index was significantly in lower DNA-HHV8+ than DNA-HHV8- subjects. Low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were significantly higher, but C-peptide and homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß) were significantly lower in DNA-HHV8+ than DNA-HHV8- participants. After excluding DNA-HHV8+ participants, triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in Ac-HHV8+ (n = 73) than Ac-HHV8- (n = 85) subjects. In contrast, HOMA-ß was significantly higher among Ac-HHV8+ than Ac-HHV8- participants. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, HHV8 DNA positivity was associated with low insulin secretion in this sub-Saharan African diabetes population.


Asunto(s)
ADN Viral/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/virología , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/virología , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Insulina/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Camerún/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/sangre , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/epidemiología , Herpesvirus Humano 8/patogenicidad , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Vías Secretoras , Carga Viral
8.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 36(1): 12, 2017 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the association between the rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene with obesity in a Cameroonian population. METHOD: This was a case-control pilot study including 61 obese and 61 non-obese Cameroonian adults. Anthropometric indices of obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and blood lipids were measured. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and genotypes were correlated with clinical and biological parameters. RESULTS: The T allele was predominant in the study population with a frequency of 93%. No statistically significant difference was however observed between the genotypic (p = 0.50) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.58) of obese and non-obese subjects. Comparison of clinical and biochemical parameters of C allele carriers (CX = CC + CT) with those of TT genotype showed that there was no significant difference between the lipid profile of these two groups. CONCLUSION: The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene might not be associated with obesity in the Cameroonian population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Alelos , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Proyectos Piloto , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Vía de Señalización Wnt , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Obes ; 3: 26, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) is a transcription factor with a key role in adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage and glucose homeostasis. The Ala allele of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the isoform PPAR-γ2 is at the center of many controversies because in some populations, it has been observed to be associated with T2DM or obesity but, not in others. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-γ2 gene with susceptibility to obesity or T2DM in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 62 obese, 60 T2DM patients and 120 controls (60 non obese and 60 patients without T2DM), all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin. PPAR-γ2 was examined by genotyping for Pro12Ala using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR - RFLP). RESULTS: A portion of the 270 base pair bands of the PPAR-γ2 gene was successfully amplified. The Ala12 variant was totally absent from the study population, all participants being homozygote Pro/Pro. CONCLUSION: PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala gene polymorphism may not be associated with obesity and T2DM. These results suggest that, PPAR-γ2 is unlikely a major gene for obesity or T2DM in the study population.

10.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 717, 2015 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is one of the genes that have been identified as possible determinants of diabetes which is associated with obesity. Data on the genetic causes of obesity in sub-Saharan African populations are very scares. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphism (rs12255372 G/T) and obesity and weight-related traits in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 35 obese and 30 non-obese Cameroonian adults. TCF7L2 rs12255372 genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP and correlated with BMI and weight-related traits. RESULTS: No significant association was observed between the rs12255372 T allele (χ(2) = 0.0684, p = 0.79) or the TT genotype (χ(2) = 0.372, p = 0.54) of the TCF7L2 gene and obesity in the Cameroonian population. However, amongst the weight-related traits, triglycerides were significantly associated with the T risk allele of the TCF7L2 gene (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: This study on Cameroonian subjects replicates the absence of association between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 variant and obesity as observed in European and American populations.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Proteína 2 Similar al Factor de Transcripción 7/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Camerún , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Fenotipo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven
11.
Clin Transl Med ; 4: 17, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25995831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To study the relationship between the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Cameroonian population. METHODS: This case-control study included 60 T2DM patients and 60 healthy normoglycemic controls, all unrelated and of Cameroonian origin, aged above 40 years (range 40-87). The Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The T allele frequency was significantly higher in the diabetic group (0.44) than in the control group (0.17). This allele was significantly associated to a greater risk of developing T2DM as compared to the G allele (OR = 3.92, 95% CI 2.04 - 7.67, p < 0.0001). The codominant (additive) model explained best the risk of developing the disease, as the TT genotype was significantly associated to T2DM when compared to the GG genotype (OR = 4.45, 95% CI 1.64 - 12.83, p = 0.0014). By logistic regression adjusted for age, this OR was 4.33 (95% CI: 1.57 - 11.92, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene is an important risk factor for T2DM in the Cameroonian population.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on the genetic variants for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in sub-Saharan African populations are very scarce. This study aimed to investigate the association of transcription factor 7-like (TCF7L2) with T2DM in a Cameroonian population and explore possible genotype-phenotype correlation. METHODS: This is a case-control study involving 37 T2DM patients and 37 non-diabetic volunteers of Cameroonian ethnicity aged 40 years old and above. We collected clinical and biological data to determine phenotypic traits. TCF7L2 was analyzed by genotyping for rs7903146 (C/T) using PCR-RFLP. Biochemical analyses were performed using a spectrophotometer with Chronolab kits. Statistical analyses were carried out using IBM SPSS, PS and Quanto. RESULTS: TCF7L2 was associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population (p = 0.013 for alleles, and p = 0.013 for genotypes). The risk allele was C (9.5% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 16.56) and the protective allele was T (90.5% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.06). The risk genotype was C/T (18.9% patients vs. 0% healthy controls, OR = 18.44), while the protective genotype was T/T (81.1% patients vs. 100.0% healthy controls, OR = 0.054). The statistical power was 99.99%. TCF7L2 was not preferentially associated with a specific disease phenotype. CONCLUSION: TCF7L2 is associated with T2DM in this Cameroonian population. The association is not dependent on a specific T2DM phenotype. Clinical genetic testing for TCF7L2 can help to predict the occurrence of T2DM in Cameroon.

13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 107(1): 31-6, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25511714

RESUMEN

AIM: We investigated the association of HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles, haplotypes and genotypes with unprovoked antibody-negative ketosis-prone atypical diabetes (A(-) KPD) in comparison to type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A(-) KPD and T2D sub-Saharan African patients aged 19-63 years were consecutively recruited. Patients positive for cytoplasmic islet cell, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase or islet antigen-2 autoantibodies were excluded. Odds ratios were obtained via logistic regression after considering alleles with a minimum frequency of 5% in the study population. Bonferroni correction was used in the case of multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Among the 130 participants, 35 (27%) were women and 57 (44%) were A(-) KPD. DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies were similar for both A(-) KPD and T2D patients; they did not confer any substantial risk even after considering type 1 diabetes susceptibility and resistance alleles. We found no association between A(-) KPD and the derived DRB1*07-DQB1*02:02 (OR: 0.55 [95%CI: 0.17-1.85], P=0.336); DRB1*11-DQB1*03:01 (OR: 2.42 [95%CI: 0.79-7.42], P=0.123); DRB1*15-DQB1*06:02 (OR: 0.87 [95%CI: 0.39-1.95], P=0.731) and DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR: 1.48 [95%CI: 0.55-3.96], P=0.437) haplotypes. Overall, we did not find any evidence of susceptibility to ketosis associated with DRB1 and DQB1 genotypes (all P>0.05) in A(-) KPD compared to T2D. Similar results were obtained after adjusting the analysis for age and sex. CONCLUSION: Factors other than DRB1 and DQB1 genotype could explain the propensity to ketosis in A(-) KPD. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population with the perspective of improving the classification and understanding of the pathophysiology of A(-) KPD.


Asunto(s)
Autoanticuerpos/inmunología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inmunología , Cadenas beta de HLA-DQ/inmunología , Cadenas HLA-DRB1/inmunología , Cetosis/inmunología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Autoanticuerpos/genética , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Cadenas beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadenas HLA-DRB1/genética , Humanos , Cetosis/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little data to guide diet prescription exists about the foods most frequently consumed in Africa. Moreover, the sauce accompanying a meal can significantly alter the metabolic effects of food. Our work was to study the influence of sauces on the metabolic effects of foofoo corn (Zea mays), one of the most commonly consumed foods in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a wide range of sauces. METHODS: Our study population consisted of ten healthy volunteers (five men, five women), aged from 21 to 28 years, with mean BMI of 23.9 (SD 1.9) kg/m2. The study involved seven visits of three hours each, conducted every 2 days, including one devoted to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and six visits to the consumption of each of 6 meals tested, standardized to 75 g of carbohydrate intake. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after consumption of meals for blood glucose and triglycerides levels. The glucose area under the curve of each tested meal, was used to calculate its glycemic index, using the OGTT as the reference. The accompanying sauces tested with foofoo corn were: okra sauce (Abelmoschus esculentus), the so-called yellow sauce (Elaeis guinensis), the pistachio sauce (Pistacia vera), the nkui (Triumpheta pentandra), ndolé (Vernonia amygdalima) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea). RESULTS: All meals had generally a low glycemic index, with a maximum of 22.59 % for okra and cabbage, followed by ndolè (20.18 %), the yellow sauce (13.10 %), pistachio sauce (11.60 %), and nkui (5.27 %). There was a difference in the effects of the diets on triglyceride levels only at 180 min (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Whatever the accompanying sauce, foofoo corn has a low glycemic index. Some sauces, such as nkui give it a very low glycemic index and may be of great interest in diet prescription for patients with various metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity.

15.
Pathog Glob Health ; 108(7): 323-33, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25388906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In this post-hoc analysis, we determined the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in host candidate immune genes on the outcome of drug resistant malaria in Cameroon. METHODS: Human DNA from 760 patients from a previous clinical trial was subjected to mass spectrometry-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Allele frequencies of candidate immune genes were calculated for 62 SNPs on 17 human chromosomes for their possible involvement in clearance of drug-resistant parasites with the triple mutations of pfcrt76T, pfmdr86Y, and pfmdr1246Y (TY) and pfdhfr51I, pfdhfr59R, pfdhfr108N, and pfdhps437G (IRNG) which were determined by dotblot or PCR-restriction analysis. Differences in SNP frequencies and association analysis were carried out by comparing Chi-square odds ratios (ORs) and stratified by Mantel-Haenzel statistics. An adjusted P value (OR) <0·0008 was considered significant. RESULTS: Post-treatment drug failure rates were amodiaquine (36·4%); sulpadoxine/pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (15·4%); and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (18·1%). SNPs in IL22, IL-4R1, and CD36 appeared to have been associated with clearance of resistant parasites [p  =  0·017, OR (C allele):1·44, 95% CI (OR): 1·06-1·95]; [P  =  0·014, OR  =  1·31, 95% CI (OR): 1·07-1·83]; [P  =  5·78×10(-5), OR  =  0·27, 95%CI (OR): 0·13-0·54], respectively, with high fever (>39°C for 48 hours) [IL-22, P  =  0·01, OR  =  1·5, 95% CI (OR): 1·8-2·1] and also in high frequency among the Fulani participants [P  =  0·006, OR  =  1·83, 95% CI (OR): 1·11-3·08)]. The CD36-1264 null allele was completely absent in the northern population. CONCLUSION: Independent association of SNPs in IL22 and IL-4 with clearance of amodiaquine- and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant parasites did not reach statistical significance, but may suggest that not all drug-resistant mutants are adversely affected by the same immune-mediated mechanisms of clearance.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Malaria Falciparum/genética , Malaria Falciparum/inmunología , Plasmodium falciparum/inmunología , Amodiaquina/farmacología , Antimaláricos/farmacología , Camerún , Preescolar , Combinación de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Pirimetamina/farmacología , Sulfadoxina/farmacología
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 14: 65, 2014 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of common fasting insulin sensitivity indices, and non-laboratory surrogates [BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in sub-Saharan Africans without diabetes. METHODS: We measured fasting glucose and insulin, and glucose uptake during 80/mU/m2/min euglycemic clamp in 87 Cameroonians (51 men) aged (SD) 34.6 (11.4) years. We derived insulin sensitivity indices including HOMA-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (GIR). Indices and clinical predictors were compared to clamp using correlation tests, robust linear regressions and agreement of classification by sex-specific thirds. RESULTS: The mean insulin sensitivity was M = 10.5 ± 3.2 mg/kg/min. Classification across thirds of insulin sensitivity by clamp matched with non-laboratory surrogates in 30-48% of participants, and with fasting indices in 27-51%, with kappa statistics ranging from -0.10 to 0.26. Fasting indices correlated significantly with clamp (/r/=0.23-0.30), with GIR performing less well than fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (both p < 0.02). BMI, WC and WHtR were equal or superior to fasting indices (/r/=0.38-0.43). Combinations of fasting indices and clinical predictors explained 25-27% of variation in clamp values. CONCLUSION: Fasting insulin sensitivity indices are modest predictors of insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic clamp, and do not perform better than clinical surrogates in this population.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Ayuno/fisiología , Resistencia a la Insulina , Insulina/sangre , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Técnica de Clampeo de la Glucosa , Humanos , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreción de Insulina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Pronóstico , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
17.
Malar Res Treat ; 2013: 234683, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24455414

RESUMEN

Background. In Cameroon, both Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are used as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in line with the WHO recommendations. We compared the efficacy and safety of both therapeutic combinations and determined the prevalence of drug resistance conferring mutations in three parasite genes. Methods. One hundred and fifty acute malaria patients between six months and 14 years of age were randomized to receive standard doses of either AS/AQ (73) or AL (77) and followedup for 28 days. Outcome of treatment was according to the standard WHO classification. DNA samples from pretreatment parasite isolates were used to determine the prevalence of resistant mutations in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, and dhfr genes. Results. Both drug combinations induced rapid clearance of parasites and malaria symptoms. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% and 96.4% for AL. The combinations were well tolerated. Major haplotypes included CVIET (71%), CVMNT (25%) for the pfcrt; SND (100%) for the pfmdr1; IRN (79, 8%), NCS (8.8%), and mixed haplotype (11, 8%) for the dhfr. Conclusion. Both AS/AQ and AL were highly effective and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ngaoundere, Cameroon. High prevalence of mutant pfcrt alleles confirms earlier observations. Long-term monitoring of safety and efficacy and molecular markers is highly solicited.

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