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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413172

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health workers as one of its strategies to reduce the rate of emergence and transmission of AMR. Available data on the prescribing behavior of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Nigeria remains incomplete. This study was designed to provide an up-to-date estimate of the knowledge, attitude and antibiotic prescribing behavior of HCWs in Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to healthcare workers selected from six states, one each from the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to reflect the three tiers of healthcare: primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Quantitative data was summarized using descriptive statistics. All data analysis was done using the Statistical package for social sciences version 26.0. RESULTS: Of the 420 questionnaires distributed, 358 (85.2%) responded. The mean year of practice of the respondents was 9.32 ± 7.8 years. About a half (50.3%) agreed that their prescribing behavior could promote antimicrobial resistance. 49.2% had a good knowledge of AMR and physicians had significantly better knowledge than other HCWs (X2 = 69.59, P < 0.001). Several participants prescribed antibiotics for common viral infections such as sore throats (75.7%), measles (37.7%), common cold and flu (21.2%). Over 60.3% admitted prescribing antibiotics just to be on the safe side. In general, 70.9% of the respondents frequently or moderately use practice guidelines while 25.7% often apply the delayed antibiotic prescription (DAP) strategy to reduce antimicrobial prescription. CONCLUSION: This study reveals an overall moderate level of knowledge of AMR and attitude towards minimizing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance though this did not translate significantly to practice. Further efforts must be made in order to improve rational prescription of antimicrobials among HCWs in Nigeria.

2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 72, 2020 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One of the objectives of the Global Action Plan by the World Health Organization (WHO) to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR), is to improve global awareness through effective communication and education. Comprehensive information on the level of awareness of AMR among Nigerian public is deficient. This study was therefore designed to assess the current level of awareness and knowledge of the Nigerian public of AMR. METHODS: Pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to obtain information from the general public across the six geopolitical zones (North Central, North East, North West, South East, South South and South West) in Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select one state from each zone and respondents were selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Responses to eight questions were used to grade the level of knowledge categorized as poor, fair and good. Collation and analysis of data were performed at the Microbiology Department of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Lagos, Nigeria, using SPSS version 24.0. RESULTS: Questionnaires from 482 respondents comprising 242 (50.2%) females and 240 (49.8%) males from six states (Lagos, Ebonyi, Delta, Plateau, Borno and Jigawa) were analyzed. Of the 482 respondents, 322 (66.8%) had taken antibiotics in the last six months out of which 31.3% were without prescription. 26.1% of respondents believe they don't need to complete the dosage as long as they feel better. Although 272(56.5%) of the respondents were familiar with the term "antibiotic resistance", only 40(8.3%) had good knowledge of AMR. A majority (76.6%) believed that they were powerless to stop the spread of AMR. There was no association between the gender of respondents and knowledge of AMR (p = 0.13). However, respondents from Ebonyi and Delta states in southern Nigeria were more likely to have good knowledge of AMR (X2 = 53.22, P < 0.0001). The respondents in the urban area had a higher score for knowledge level compared to the rural dwellers, though this was not statistically significant within and across states. CONCLUSION: This survey provides an insight into the level of AMR awareness and antibiotic use in the wider Nigeria public. Our findings show that about a third of the general public consume antibiotics obtained without prescription. There is an overall poor understanding of antimicrobial resistance and/or proper use of antibiotics among respondents. It is critical that more holistic public enlightenment programs are carried out to increase awareness of AMR and promote responsible use of antibiotics.

3.
Virol J ; 13: 76, 2016 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150469

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. METHODS: Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. RESULTS: Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. CONCLUSION: Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre , Sangre/virología , ADN Viral/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Medición de Riesgo , Trasplante de Células Madre/efectos adversos , Reacción a la Transfusión
4.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e107899, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25233270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health concerns for HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have moved from morbidity to the challenges of long-term ART. We investigated the effect of Zidovudine or Nevirapine on reproductive capacity across two mouse generations. METHODS: A prospective mouse study with drugs administered through one spermatogenic cycle. Mouse groups (16 males and 10 females) were given Zidovudine or Nevirapine for 56 days. Males were mated to untreated virgin females to determine dominant lethal effects. Twenty females (10 treated and 10 untreated) mated with the treated males per dose and gave birth to the F1 generation. Parental mice were withdrawn from drugs for one spermatogenic cycle and mated to the same dams to ascertain if effects are reversible. The F1 generation were exposed for another 56 days and mated to produce the F2 generation. RESULTS: Foetal loss was indicated in the dominant lethal assay as early as four weeks into drug administration to the males. At the first mating of the parental generation to produce the F1 generation, births from 10 dams/dose when the 'father-only' was exposed to Zidovudine (10, 100 and 250 mg/kg) was 3, 2 and 1 while it was 7, 1 and 4 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. Similarly births from the parental generation first mating when the 'father-only' was exposed to Nevirapine (5, 50 and 150 mg/kg) was 2, 2 and 0 while it was 6, 5 and 9 respectively when 'both-parents' were exposed. However, fertility was not significantly different neither by dose nor by the parental exposure. The F1 mice mated to produce the F2 generation recorded only one birth. CONCLUSION: The dominant lethal analysis showed foetal loss occurred when the "fathers-only" were treated while fertility was enhanced when "both-parents" were on therapy at the time of mating.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/toxicidad , Nevirapina/toxicidad , Zidovudina/toxicidad , Animales , Femenino , Fertilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Muerte Fetal , Masculino , Ratones , Embarazo , Razón de Masculinidad
5.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e90296, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24599327

RESUMEN

Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004), but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68). Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Nevirapina/farmacología , Zidovudina/farmacología , Daño del ADN , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Mitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Índice Mitótico , Mutágenos/farmacología , Cebollas/citología , Cebollas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/citología , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos
6.
Afr J Lab Med ; 3(1): 102, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043176

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Proficiency testing (PT) is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. RESULTS: Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. CONCLUSIONS: There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria.

7.
Afr J Lab Med ; 3(2): 200, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043183

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Nigerian Institute of Medical Research houses two reference laboratories: the virology and tuberculosis laboratories. Both were enrolled in the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of SLMTA and discuss factors affecting the results, with an emphasis on mentorship. METHODS: The SLMTA programme was implemented from April 2010 through November 2012. Participants attended three workshops and executed quality improvement projects; laboratory auditors evaluated performance using a standard checklist. The virology laboratory did not receive mentorship; however, the tuberculosis laboratory had an international mentor who visited the laboratory four times during the programme, spending two to four weeks embedded within the laboratory during each visit. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in the performance of both laboratories, with the virology laboratory increasing 13% (from 80% at baseline to 93% at exit audit) and the tuberculosis laboratory increasing 29% (from 66% to 95%). These scores were maintained nine months later at the surveillance audit. CONCLUSION: The SLMTA programme resulted in improved and sustained quality management performance for both laboratories. Mentoring was a possible factor in the substantial improvement made by the tuberculosis laboratory and should be considered in order to augment the training received from the SLMTA workshops.

8.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e73582, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24069209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines and programs in resource-limited settings (RLS) have focused on 1(st)- and 2(nd)-line (2 L) therapy. As programs approach a decade of implementation, policy regarding access to 3(rd)-line (3 L) ART is needed. We aimed to examine the impact of maintaining patients on failing 2 L ART on the accumulation of protease (PR) mutations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From 2004-2011, the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR Program provided ART to >100,000 people in Nigeria. Genotypic resistance testing was performed on a subset of patients experiencing 2 L failure, defined as 2 consecutive viral loads (VL)>1000 copies/mL after ≥6 months on 2 L. Of 6714 patients who received protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART, 673 (10.0%) met virologic failure criteria. Genotypes were performed on 61 samples. Patients on non-suppressive 2 L therapy for <12 months prior to genotyping had a median of 2 (IQR: 0-5) International AIDS Society (IAS) PR mutations compared with 5 (IQR: 0-6) among patients failing for >24 months. Patients developed a median of 0.6 (IQR: 0-1.4) IAS PR mutations per 6 months on failing 2 L therapy. In 38% of failing patients no PR mutations were present. For patients failing >24 months, high- or intermediate-level resistance to lopinavir and atazanavir was present in 63%, with 5% to darunavir. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report assessing the impact of duration of non-suppressive 2 L therapy on the accumulation of PR resistance in a RLS. This information provides insight into the resistance cost of failing to switch non-suppressive 2 L regimens and highlights the issue of 3 L access.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , VIH-1/enzimología , Péptido Hidrolasas/genética , Terapia Recuperativa/métodos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutación , Nigeria
9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 26(4): 402-6, 2013 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23186370

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting report on the association of HIV infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Most of these studies were from areas with low HIV burden. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of ASB in HIV positive pregnant women. METHODS: A cross sectional study among HIV positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were evaluated for ASB at first clinic attendance. Blood samples were also collected for viral load, CD4 count and hemoglobin levels assessment. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version 19. RESULTS: 102 (18.1%) women out of 563 studied were found positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Ninety-seven (95.1%) of the positive samples yielded single bacterial isolates. Escherichia coli (44.3%) and Proteus mirabilis (21.6%) were the most common bacterial isolates. Previous urinary tract infection (OR: 4.3), HIV-1 RNA greater than 10,000 copies/ml (OR: 3.9), CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (OR: 1.4) and maternal hemoglobin <11 g/dl (OR: 1.4) were factors significantly associated with ASB after controlling for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: ASB is common in HIV positive pregnant women in our environment and is associated with previous UTI, high viral load, low CD4 count and maternal hemoglobin <11 g/dl.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriuria/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Bacteriuria/complicaciones , Bacteriuria/microbiología , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/genética , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Proteus mirabilis/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones Urinarias/complicaciones , Carga Viral
10.
Afr J Lab Med ; 1(1): 18, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062734

RESUMEN

ISSUES: Quality-management systems (QMS) are uncommon in clinical laboratories in Nigeria, and until recently, none of the nation's 5 349 clinical laboratories have been able to attain the certifications necessary to begin the process of attaining international accreditation. Nigeria's Human Virology Laboratory (HVL), however, began implementation of a QMS in 2006, and in 2008 it was determined that the laboratory conformed to the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 (now 2008), making it the first diagnostic laboratory to be certified in Nigeria. The HVL has now applied for the World Health Organization (WHO) accreditation preparedness scheme. The experience of the QMS implementation process and the lessons learned therein are shared here. DESCRIPTION: In 2005, two personnel from the HVL spent time studying quality systems in a certified clinical laboratory in Dakar, Senegal. Following this peer-to-peer technical assistance, several training sessions were undertaken by HVL staff, a baseline assessment was conducted, and processes were established. The HVL has monitored its quality indicators and conducted internal and external audits; these analyses (from 2007 to 2009) are presented herein. LESSONS LEARNED: Although there was improvement in the pre-analytical and analytical indicators analysed and although data-entry errors decreased in the post-analytical process, the delay in returning laboratory test results increased significantly. There were several factors identified as causes for this delay and all of these have now been addressed except for an identified need for automation of some high-volume assays (currently being negotiated). Internal and external audits showed a trend of increasing non-conformities which could be the result of personnel simply becoming lax over time. Application for laboratory accreditation, however, could provide the renewed vigour needed to correct these non-conformities. RECOMMENDATION: This experience shows that sustainability of the QMS at present is a cause for concern. However, the tiered system of accreditation being developed by WHO-Afro may act as a driving force to preserve the spirit of continual improvement.

11.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 36(5): 1053-8, 2010 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21058440

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and determinants of menstrual abnormalities in HIV-positive Nigerian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 3473 (2549 HIV-seropositive and 924 seronegative) consecutive and consenting women seen at the HIV treatment centers at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos and the Federal Medical Centre, Markurdi. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of the two groups were comparable, except for body mass index (BMI): the HIV-negative women (28.1 ± 8.1) had statistically significantly (P < 0.005) higher BMI compared to the HIV-positive women (21.9 ± 7.5). Menstrual abnormalities were significantly more common in women living with HIV/AIDS (29.1%) compared to the HIV-negative (18.9%) women (P < 0.001). The proportions of women in the two groups with intermenstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, hypermenorrhea, and postcoital bleeding were similar (P > 0.005), however amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, irregular periods and secondary dysmenorrhea were more common in the HIV-positive women (P < 0.02). Primary dysmenorrhea was less common in HIV-positive women (P < 0.03). Among the HIV-positive women, menstrual dysfunction was more common in women living with HIV/AIDS with opportunistic infections, CD4 count < 200, not undertaking therapy, symptomatic disease and BMI < 20. However, after controlling for cofounders, only CD4 < 200 (odds ratio [OR], 3.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-9.7), BMI < 20 (OR, 2.4; 95%CI, 1.3-3.5) and not taking antiretroviral drugs (OR, 2.05; CI, 1.7-6.5) were associated with amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, irregular periods and secondary dysmenorrhea. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive women in this study experienced more menstrual abnormalities of amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and irregular periods compared to the HIV-negative controls. HIV-positive women with CD4 count < 200, BMI < 20 and who do not take antiretroviral drugs are at the greatest risk.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Seropositividad para VIH/complicaciones , Inmunosupresión , Trastornos de la Menstruación/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos de la Menstruación/complicaciones , Nigeria/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Int J Pediatr ; 2010: 474380, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20169116

RESUMEN

Population studies showed that there are differences in T-lymphocytes subpopulation of normal children in different regions, and reference values in an area might be different from another. This study compared the values in our population with CDC and WHO reference values. Blood samples from 279 healthy, HIV-negative children <12 years of age were analysed for complete blood count, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ counts and percentages. Except for CD8%, mean values for all parameters measured significantly decreased with age. CD4+ counts were higher in females than males, P < .05. Using the WHO criteria, 15.9% of subjects had low total lymphocyte count and 20.6% had low CD4 count. Children <3 years had median CD4% lower than WHO normal values. Our median CD4+ counts correlated with CDC values. Values used by WHO in infants are higher than ours. We suggest that our children be assessed using CDC reference values which correlate with ours.

14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 40(1): 65-9, 2005 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16123684

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment outcome in the first 12 months among HIV-positive patients managed with a combination of nevirapine + stavudine + lamivudine under the current national antiretroviral (ARV) program in Nigeria. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational, cohort study on 50 ARV-naive patients who met the inclusion criteria for the program and had given informed consent. All patients were in stage 2 or stage 3 periods of infection based on World Health Organization clinical classification. The patients were treated with the generic brands of ARVs and treatment consisted of oral nevirapine (Nevimal, Cipla, Mumbai, India), 200 mg daily, lamivudine (Lamivir, Cipla), 150 mg twice daily, and stavudine (Stavir, Cipla), 40 mg twice daily. Prior to initiation of treatment, the clinical history and baseline data for each patient were documented. The levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell counts, frequency of opportunistic infections, and estimated body mass index were recorded at baseline and subsequently at intervals during treatment. Data obtained at the various sampling times for each parameter were compared against their baseline values. RESULTS: Data on the plasma HIV-1 RNA levels indicated that between baseline and week 24, the median viral load of the patients decreased by 1.79 log(10) copies/mL. Equally between baseline and week 48 the median CD4 cell counts increased by 186 x 10(6) cells/L, the frequency of opportunistic infections decreased by 82%, the median body mass index increased by 4.8 kg/m(2), and 36% experienced side effects, which were minor and transient. The most prevalent side effect recorded was skin rash associated with nevirapine. Good adherence to this triple regimen was recorded in >85% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results within the 12-month treatment period indicated an effective suppression of viral replication, the reconstitution of the immune system, and improvement of the physical well-being of the study population. Though there may be differences in global distribution of the infecting HIV-1 subtypes, the clinical and biologic results of this study compared favorably to those documented in cohorts treated with branded and generic ARV drugs in some developed and developing countries. The cumulative data in this study further confirmed that the correct use of generic brands of ARVs is a feasible option in HIV care and support programs in resource-poor countries.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1 , Lamivudine/uso terapéutico , Nevirapina/uso terapéutico , Estavudina/uso terapéutico , Academias e Institutos , Administración Oral , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Exantema/inducido químicamente , Programas de Gobierno , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/genética , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Lamivudine/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nevirapina/administración & dosificación , Nevirapina/efectos adversos , Nigeria , Estudios Prospectivos , ARN Viral/sangre , Estavudina/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral
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