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PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302554, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696499


BACKGROUND: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a gynaecological complication of urinary schistosomiasis (US) with an estimated burden of 20-120 million cases in endemic areas. A neglected sexual and reproductive health disease in sub-Saharan Africa, FGS increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections including cervical cancer and infertility among other morbidities. However, there appears to be limited FGS knowledge among practicing and pre-service health providers with implications for control. We assessed FGS awareness among final-year midwifery students who would soon be delivering primary maternal and reproductive health care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 193 randomly selected final-year students from all three midwifery training institutions in the Volta region of Ghana in August/September, 2022. Data on participants' demographics and knowledge of the transmission, signs and symptoms, complications, treatment and prevention of both FGS and US were collected using structured questionnaires. Summary statistics were presented as frequencies, proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Only 23.3% (44/189) of participants had heard about FGS compared to 64% (123/192) for US. Of the former, 42 (95%), 40 (91%) and 36 (81.8%) respectively identified genital itching/burning sensation, bloody vaginal discharge and pelvic pain/pain during intercourse as part of the symptoms of FGS. Less than a third (13/44) and about half (25/44) of those who indicated hearing about FGS knew it can be a risk for ectopic pregnancies and infertility respectively. Majority of these participants, 40 (91%), wrongly selected antibiotics as treatment for FGS while 9 indicated it is prevented by sleeping in insecticide-treated nets. CONCLUSION: Awareness of FGS was limited among the study participants. The high prevalence of knowledge of some FGS symptoms related to the genitalia needs cautious interpretation. Health care training institutions must make deliberate efforts to highlight FGS in the training of midwives as the condition has diagnostic and management implications for some sexual and reproductive health conditions.

Competencia Clínica , Enfermedades de los Genitales Femeninos , Partería , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Enfermedades de los Genitales Femeninos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Genitales Femeninos/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/complicaciones , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/diagnóstico , Femenino , Ghana , Estudios Transversales , Enfermedades Desatendidas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Desatendidas/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0296076, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128029


BACKGROUND: Stillbirths are indicators of the quality of obstetrics care in health systems. Stillbirth rates and their associating factors vary by socio-economic and geographical settings. Published data on stillbirths and their associating factors in the Volta Region of Ghana are limited. This limits understanding of local factors that must be considered in designing appropriate interventions to mitigate the occurrence of stillbirths. This study determined the incidence of stillbirths and associated factors among deliveries at Ho Teaching Hospital (HTH) and contributes to understanding the consistent high stillbirths in the country and potentially in other low-resourced settings in sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study involving pregnant women admitted for delivery at HTH between October 2019 and March 2020. Data on socio-demographic characteristics such as age and employment, obstetric factors including gestational age at delivery and delivery outcomes like birthweight were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. The primary outcome was the incidence of stillbirths at the facility. Summary statistics were reported as frequencies, percentages and means. Logistic regression methods were used to assess for association between stillbirths and independent variables including age and birthweight. Odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals and associations with p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 687 women and their 702 newborns contributed data for analysis. The mean age (SD) was 29.3 (6.3) years and close to two-thirds had had at least one delivery previously. Overall stillbirth incidence was 31.3 per 1000 births. Of the 22 stillbirths, 17 were antepartum. Pre-eclampsia was the most common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy observed (49.3%, 33/67). Among others, less than 3 antenatal visits and low birthweight increased the odds of stillbirths in the bivariate analysis. In the final multivariate model, pregnancy and delivery at 28-34 weeks gestation [AOR 9.37(95% CI 1.18-74.53); p = 0.034] and induction of labour [AOR 11.06 (95% CI 3.10-39.42); p < 0.001] remained significantly associated with stillbirths. CONCLUSION: Stillbirth incidence was 31.3 per 1000 births with more than half being antepartum stillbirths. Pregnancy/delivery at 28-34 weeks' gestation increased the odds of a stillbirth. Improving the quality of antenatal services, ensuring adherence to evidence-based protocols, accurate and prompt diagnosis and timely interventions of medical conditions in pregnancy particularly at 28-34 weeks' gestation could reduce incidence of stillbirths.

Instituciones de Salud , Mortinato , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Adulto , Mortinato/epidemiología , Peso al Nacer , Ghana/epidemiología , Incidencia , Estudios Prospectivos
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 60, 2023 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721102


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has continuously affected human life with several devastating effects. Currently, there are effective vaccines to protect people from COVID-19 and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted strategies to influence COVID-19 vaccine uptake in hard-to-reach communities in Ghana. However, prior studies on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in Ghana are online surveys targeting the literates and those in urban areas, leaving residents in far-flung communities. We assessed knowledge, attitude and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine among residents in rural communities in Ghana. METHODS: This study was a community-based cross-sectional study and was conducted at three selected regions in Ghana (Northern, Ashanti and Western North) from May to November, 2021. This study included residents 15-81 years, living in the selected rural communities for more than 1 year. Study participants were recruited and questionnaires administered to collect data on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26.0 and GraphPad Prism Version 8.0 software. RESULTS: Of the 764 participants included in this study, more than half had inadequate knowledge (55.0%), poor attitudes (59.4%) and bad perception about COVID-19 vaccine (55.4%). The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in this study was 41.9%. The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in Ashanti, Northern and Western North regions were 32.5%, 26.2% and 29.6% respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, receiving recent or previous vaccine such as HBV vaccine [aOR = 1.57, 95% CI (1.23-3.29), p = 0.002], having good attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine [aOR = 61.47, 95% CI (29.55-127.86), p < 0.0001] and having good perception about the COVID-19 vaccine [aOR = 3.87, 95% CI (1.40-10.72), p < 0.0001] were independently associated with higher odds of accepting COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: More than half of residents in Ghanaian rural communities have inadequate knowledge, poor attitudes and bad perception about COVID-19 vaccine. The acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine is generally low among rural residents in Ashanti, Northern and Western North regions of Ghana. Residents living in hard-to-reach communities must be educated about the benefits of COVID-19 vaccine to achieve effective vaccination program.

COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Ghana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Población Rural , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268947, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613148


INTRODUCTION: Caesarean sections (CS) feature prominently in obstetric care and have impacted positively on maternal / neonatal outcomes globally including Ghana. However, in spite of documented increasing CS rates in the country, there are no studies assessing the adequacy of post-CS pain control. This study assessed the adequacy of post-CS pain management as well as factors influencing this outcome. Additionally, post-CS analgesia prescription and serving habits of doctors and nurses were also described to help fill existing knowledge gaps. METHODS: Pain scores of 400 randomly selected and consenting post-CS women at a tertiary facility in Ghana were assessed at 6-12 hours post-CS at rest and with movement and at 24-36 hours post-CS with movement using a validated visual analog scale (VAS) from February 1, 2015 to April 8, 2015. Participant characteristics including age, marital status and duration of CS were obtained using pretested questionnaires and patient records review. Descriptive statistics were presented as frequencies and proportions. Associations between background characteristics and the outcome variables of adequacy of pain control at 6-12 hours post-CS at rest and with movement and at 24-36 hours post-CS with movement were analysed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression methods. Adequate pain control was defined as VAS scores ≤5. RESULTS: At 6-12 hours post-CS (at rest), equal proportions of participants had adequate and inadequate pain control (50.1% vrs 49.9%). Over the same time period but with movement, pain control was deemed inadequate in 93% of respondents (369/396). Women who had one previous surgery [OR 0.47 95%CI 0.27, 0.82; p = 0.008] and those whose CS lasted longer than 45 mins [OR 0.39 95% CI 0.24, 0.62; p<0.001] had lower odds of reporting adequate pain control. Women prescribed 12-hourly and 8-hourly doses of pethidine had only 23.5% (12/51) and 10.3% (3/29) served as prescribed respectively. At 24-36 hours post CS, adequate pain control was reported by 85.3% (326/382) of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Pain management was deemed inadequate within the first 12 hours post-CS with potential implications for early mother-child interaction. Appreciable numbers of participants did not have their analgesics served as prescribed. Adjunct pain control measures should be explored and healthcare workers must be encouraged to pay more attention to patients' pain relief needs.

Analgesia , Cesárea , Analgésicos , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Dolor , Embarazo
SAGE Open Med ; 8: 2050312120959181, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999722


OBJECTIVES: Unintended pregnancy presents a crisis situation with limited options for resolution. Abortion appears to be a commonly chosen option but is stigmatized in many societies including Ghana. Keeping a child from an unintended pregnancy is also unsuitable for many people. Carrying through with the pregnancy and placing the child up for adoption is a potential management option but there is scanty literature on how viable this option is to women globally including Ghana. The study sought to assess acceptability of this option and its barriers and facilitators in Ghana. METHODS: This study was a part of a bigger analytical cross-sectional study on unintended pregnancy in Kumasi conducted in three centres from January to April 2014. Exit interviews were conducted for 461 consenting women to capture data on demography, reproductive profile and acceptability of giving up a child from an unintended pregnancy for adoption. Frequencies, proportions and means were computed and presented in tables. RESULTS: Over 85% of respondents would not give up their children for adoption as a way to manage their unintended pregnancy, whereas about 6% were undecided. A need for the child to grow up in a two-parent home was considered more important than the financial security of the adoptive parents while disappointment from family and friends came up as marked barrier to adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Keeping a pregnancy and placing the child up for adoption is presently not ideal for managing an unintended pregnancy crisis. More education is needed to increase awareness of adoption as an option in resolving this crisis while continued efforts are made at primary prevention through using contraceptives. The complex adoption process must be made friendly for women with unintended pregnancies who neither desire parenting nor abortion.

PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237518, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810136


The study assessed the prevalence and determinants of non-fistulous urinary incontinence among gynaecologic care seekers as well as its interference with everyday life activities of affected women. A cross-sectional study involving 400 women was conducted in a tertiary facility in Ghana. Urinary incontinence was assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-short form (ICIQ-SF) which has not been validated locally. The questionnaire was administered mostly in the Asante Twi language with translation done at the time of the interview. The data was analysed for proportions and associations between selected variables. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 12%, the common types being urgency (33.3%), stress (22.9%), and mixed (20.8%). Age ≥60 years compared to 18-39 years (OR 3.66 95%CI 1.48-9.00 P = 0.005), and a history of chronic cough (OR 3.80 95% CI 1.36-10.58 P = 0.01) were associated with urinary incontinence. Women with education beyond the basic level were 72% less likely to experience urinary incontinence (OR 0.28 95%CI 0.08-0.96 P = 0.04). Urinary incontinence interferes with everyday life activities of most affected women. Non-fistulous urinary incontinence is relatively common among gynaecologic care seekers yet very few women were referred with such a diagnosis. Advocacy measures aimed at urging affected women to report the condition and educating the general population on potential causes, prevention and treatment are needed.

Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Incontinencia Urinaria/epidemiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Ginecología/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Incontinencia Urinaria/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven