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Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 96: 126-131, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940425


Acute stress affects human decision making. It has been argued that there are systematic sex differences in behavioral responses to acute stress, with males showing a 'fight or flight' and females showing a 'tend and befriend' response. A 'tend and befriend' response would suggest that women become more cooperative under acute stress, while men do not. We investigated the effects of acute stress on social behavior. We induced stress via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and then immediately after measured how participants reacted to offers made in the ultimatum game by a male proposer. We found that female participants were less likely to reject offers under stress (n = 25) vs. no stress (n = 37), p = 0.009, independent of how fair these offers were, cooperative behavior consistent with the 'tend and befriend' hypothesis. Male participants when stressed (n = 30) did not show differences in rejections rates compared to the control condition (n = 26), p = 0.41. Our results provide support for a qualitatively different behavioral response to acute stress among men and women.

Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Femenino , Juegos Experimentales , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Masculino , Saliva/química , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Social , Adulto Joven
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 60(1): 47-54, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23070999


BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. AIMS: To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. RESULTS: Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

Actitud , Comparación Transcultural , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Alfabetización en Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Estigma Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Indias Occidentales , Adulto Joven