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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452867

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the utility of [18F]FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters as prognostic factors for the response to neoadjuvant treatment, progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients (29 men) diagnosed with SCC were retrospectively evaluated over a 6-year interval. Metabolic parameters were determined: maximum SUV (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmed), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from baseline PET/CT study. After treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, response to treatment and patient survival were assessed. The comparison of parameters between groups of responders and non-responders was carried out using a Mann-Whitney U test ROC curves and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analysis of prognostic factors and survival curves. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 22.4 months, with 22 recurrence-progressions and 25 deaths. Significant differences were demonstrated between responders and non-responders with respect to tumor size, MTV and TLG. Survival analysis found significant differences for SCE and CSS depending on these three parameters. CONCLUSION: Metabolic parameters MTV and TLG, and tumor size were prognostic factors for neoadjuvant treatment response, PFS, and CSS in patients diagnosed with SCC. Neither SUVmax nor SUVmed were predictive for any of the evaluation criteria. Results could help to personalize patient treatment.

2.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088649

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters as prognostic factors for the response to neoadjuvant treatment, progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients (29 men) diagnosed with SCC were retrospectively evaluated over a 6-year interval. Metabolic parameters were determined: maximum SUV (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmed), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from baseline PET/CT study. After treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, response to treatment and patient survival were assessed. The comparison of parameters between groups of responders and non-responders was carried out using a Mann-Whitney U test. ROC curves and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analysis of prognostic factors and survival curves. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 22.4months, with 22 recurrence-progressions and 25 deads. Significant differences were demonstrated between responders and non-responders with respect to tumor size, MTV and TLG. Survival analysis found significant differences for SCE and CSS depending on these three parameters. CONCLUSION: Metabolic parameters MTV and TLG, and tumor size were prognostic factors for neoadjuvant treatment response, PFS, and CSS in patients diagnosed with SCC. Neither SUVmax nor SUVmed were predictive for any of the evaluation criteria. Results could help to personalize patient treatment.

3.
J Knee Surg ; 34(6): 672-678, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820429

RESUMEN

Extra-articular procedures for the improvement in rotational stability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have gained popularity in the last decade. This surgical gesture hoped to improve resistance to the high tensional forces affecting the ACL graft during cutting and pivoting movements of the lower extremity and eventually prevent ACL reconstruction failure. We performed this study to analyze the long-term results of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction using a nonanatomic double-bundle technique with an additional extra-articular augmentation. All the cases that underwent an ACL reconstruction using a nonanatomic double-bundle technique with an extra-articular reinforcement during the period between 1992 and 1997 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria for this study included a minimum follow-up of 10 years and age between 14 and 45 years at the time of the surgery. Forty patients were included in this series (34 males and 6 females). The mean Lysholm score after a minimum follow-up period of 10 years was 92.3 (standard deviation [SD], 9.4). The average preoperative Tegner score of the participants was 7.0 (SD, 1.1). This score decreased to 5.7 (SD, 1.2) at the end of follow-up. Follow-up X-rays were reviewed to assess the degenerative changes in the three knee compartments. Degenerative changes ≥ Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 were observed in our six (15%) patients, all of them in the medial knee compartment. With these results, we conclude that double-bundle nonanatomic ACL reconstruction combined with an extra-articular reinforcement resembling the anterolateral ligament offers good overall long-term results, with relatively low rates of osteoarthritis.

4.
Rev Neurol ; 71(8): 277-284, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034365

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined how manipulating the semantic relationship between objects impacts visual working memory accuracy or reaction time. AIM: To characterize how the semantic relatedness of visual objects impacts working memory accuracy and reaction time in healthy adults using a newly developed mobile-tablet cognitive task. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A delayed matching to sample paradigm on the tablet task was studied in a sample of 76 community-dwelling adult participants from Spain and Colombia. The tablet task included 80 unique sets of either four or six semantically related or semantically unrelated objects. The accuracy and reaction time of the participants on the task were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: When objects were semantically related, reaction time was greater in the six object sets relative to the four object sets. Age was positively associated with reaction time, but not accuracy across all four task conditions. Participants with fewer years of formal education than the sample median (16 years) exhibited worse response accuracy and slower reaction time on both the four and six semantically related conditions relative to participants with 16 or more years of formal education. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggest that when objects are semantically related (versus unrelated) and object load is increased, more processing time is needed to determine whether an object was or was not in the encoded set. The results also suggest that greater educational attainment -which likely relates with greater exposure to more technologies- is related with faster and more accurate responses on some task conditions.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo , Tiempo de Reacción , Semántica , Adulto , Cognición , Colombia , Humanos , España
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13219, 2020 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764593

RESUMEN

The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in some regions. Nevertheless, the epidemiology of this disease has not been extensively investigated in southern Europe. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with primary oropharyngeal cancer from 1991 to 2016. Cancer tissues underwent histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, HPV-DNA detection and p16INK4a immunohistochemistry. Data were collected from medical records. Factors associated with HPV positivity and time trends were evaluated with multivariable Bayesian models. The adjusted prevalence of HPV-related cases in 864 patients with a valid HPV-DNA result was 9.7%, with HPV-DNA/p16INK4a double positivity being considered. HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer was likely to occur in non-smokers and non-drinkers, to be located in the tonsil or diagnosed at advanced stages. Time-trend analysis showed an increasing risk of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer in the most recent periods (5-year period increase of 30%). This increase was highest and with a clear increasing trend only in the most recent years (2012-2016). The prevalence of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer started to sharply increase in the most recent years in our setting, as occurred two decades ago in areas where most oropharyngeal cancer cases are currently HPV-related. Our results provide a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological landscape of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer in a region of southern Europe.


Asunto(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 6(2): 112-120, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756118

RESUMEN

The study of individuals with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease affords one of the best opportunities to characterize the biological and cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease that occur over the course of the preclinical and symptomatic stages. Unifying the knowledge gained from the past three decades of research in the world's largest single-mutation autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease kindred - a family in Antioquia, Colombia with the E280A mutation in the Presenilin1 gene - will provide new directions for Alzheimer's research and a framework for generalizing the findings from this cohort to the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. As this specific mutation is virtually 100% penetrant for the development of the disease by midlife, we use a previously defined median age of onset for mild cognitive impairment for this cohort to examine the trajectory of the biological and cognitive markers of the disease as a function of the carriers' estimated years to clinical onset. Studies from this cohort suggest that structural and functional brain abnormalities - such as cortical thinning and hyperactivation in memory networks - as well as differences in biofluid and in vivo measurements of Alzheimer's-related pathological proteins distinguish Presenilin1 E280A mutation carriers from non-carriers as early as childhood, or approximately three decades before the median age of onset of clinical symptoms. We conclude our review with discussion on future directions for Alzheimer's disease research, with specific emphasis on ways to design studies that compare the generalizability of research in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease to the larger sporadic Alzheimer's disease population.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Fragmentos de Péptidos/metabolismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/sangre , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Compuestos de Anilina , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangre , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Niño , Colombia , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Electroencefalografía , Glicoles de Etileno , Femenino , Neuroimagen Funcional , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fragmentos de Péptidos/sangre , Fragmentos de Péptidos/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Radiofármacos , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único , Adulto Joven
7.
Tob Induc Dis ; 15: 41, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142531

RESUMEN

Background: Several health organizations have adopted the 5A's brief intervention model (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), based on evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation. We examine individual, cognitive, behavioral, and organizational factors associated with the 5A's performance among clinical healthcare workers in Catalonia. We also investigate how these factors interact and potentially predict the implementation of each component of the 5A's. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among clinical health workers enrolled in an online smoking cessation training course (n = 580). The survey included questions about individual characteristics as well as cognitive, behavioral, and organizational factors previously identified in research. We assessed self-reported performance of the 5A's, assessed on a scale from 0 to 10, and used Multivariate regression to examine factors associated with its performance. Results: The performance means (standard deviation) were moderate for the first 3A's [Ask: 6.4 (3.1); Advise: 7.1 (2.7); Assess: 6.3 (2.8)] and low for the last 2A's [Assist: 4.4 (2.9); Arrange: 3.2 (3.3)]. We observed a high correlation between Assist and Arrange (r = 0.704, p < 0.001). Having positive experiences and feeling competent were positively associated with performing the 5A's model and having organizational support with Assist and Arrange. Personal tobacco use among healthcare workers was negatively associated with Advice and Arrange. Conclusions: Our study found that clinical healthcare workers do not perform the 5A's completely. The main barriers identified suggest the need of training and making available practical guidelines in healthcare services. Organizational support is essential for moving towards the implementation of Assist and Arrange.

8.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 10(2): 69-73, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-162619

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Caracterizar cinemáticamente el gesto técnico del remate en voleibol en un grupo de jugadoras experimentadas de categoría sénior utilizando un sistema de captura y análisis del movimiento tridimensionalmente. Método. Se utilizó un sistema de captura de movimiento con cinco cámaras de alta velocidad (100Hz). Se definió un modelo de marcadores de 27 marcas reflectantes. Resultados. Se analizaron 38 parámetros cinemáticos, entre ellos: tiempos entre eventos, posición del centro de masas, velocidades y altura del remate. Se describieron parámetros como tiempo de vuelo, velocidad de impulsión vertical, salida del balón y rango de movimientos en brazo ejecutor, entre otros, con valores cercanos a los publicados por otros autores. Conclusiones. El presente estudio ha permitido definir un protocolo y modelo de informe como herramienta para el entrenamiento personalizado en función de las deficiencias observadas y para prevenir posibles lesiones a medio/largo plazo (AU)


Objetivo. Caracterizar cinematicamente o gesto técnico do ataque em voleibol em um grupo de jogadoras experientes de categoria sênior utilizando um sistema de captura e análise do sistema de movimento tridimensional. Método. Foi utilizado um sistema de movimento com cinco câmeras de alta velocidade (100Hz). Foi definido um modelo de marcadores reflexivos com 27 marcadores definido. Resultados. Foram analisados 38 parâmetros cinemáticos, entre eles: tempos entre eventos, posição do centro de massas, velocidade e altura do ataque. Foram descritos parâmetros como o tempo de vôo, velocidade de impulsão vertical, saída da bola e amplitude de movimento do braço executor, entre outros, com valores próximos aos publicados por outros autores. Conclusão. O presente estudo permitiu definir um modelo de protocolo e relatório como uma ferramenta para treinamento personalizado em função das deficiências observadas e para prevenir possíveis lesões a médio/longo prazo (AU)


Objective. Characterize the kinematic parameters in a group of experienced women senior class volleyball players using a 3D motion capture and analysis system. Method. A motion capture system connected to five high-speed cameras (100Hz) was used. A marker set was defined using 27 reflective marks. Results. Thirty eight kinematic parameters were analyzed: time between events, centre of mass, speed, height of spike. Many parameters were described as flight time, vertical impulsion speed, ball speed after spiking and range of movement in executor arm, among others, with similar values to those published by other authors. Conclusions. This study has defined a protocol and a custom report as tool for personalized training according to deficiencies detected and to prevent injuries at medium/long term (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos/fisiología , Voleibol/fisiología , Voleibol/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Movimiento/fisiología , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
Cytopathology ; 28(3): 192-202, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029192

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence the inter-observer reproducibility of the routine, conventional Pap smear cytology (Pap smear test) in a network of certificated laboratories in a middle-income Latin American country. METHODS: Twenty-six laboratories provided each an average of 26 negative for malignancy (NILM) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) Pap smears. An external panel reviewed the slides. The kappa index and multilevel logistic regression were used to estimate the reproducibility and odds ratios (OR) of a false result with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), respectively. Results are presented for laboratories that collect (collector laboratories) and do not collect (non-collector laboratories) samples. RESULTS: The agreements ranged widely (median kappa 0.51, range 0.16-0.70). The overall false-positive (FP) and false-negative (FN) rates were 31% (95% CI 27-35) and 11% (95% CI 7-17). Among collector laboratories (N = 14), a bigger sample collection volume decreased the probability of a FP (OR-adjusted 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.1) whereas the number of quality defects (OR-adjusted 1.67, 95% CI 1.25-2.24), high workload (OR-adjusted 5.52, 95% CI 3.85-7.92) and collection by cytotechnologists (OR-adjusted 1.28, 95% CI 1.15-1.42) or health professionals (OR-adjusted 2.26, 95% CI 2.04-2.49) instead of nursing assistants increased it. Among non-collector laboratories (N = 9), the FP rate increased with the number of quality defects (OR-adjusted 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.26) but decreased if the samples were collected by health professionals instead of nursing assistants (OR-adjusted 0.37, 95%CI 0.17-0.80). No significant associations were observed for FN. CONCLUSIONS: Staff in charge of cervical sampling significantly determined the reproducibility of the Pap smear test, but this depended on whether the laboratory collects samples or read samples collected elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patología , Cuello del Útero/patología , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas de Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Laboratorios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multinivel , Prueba de Papanicolaou/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Frotis Vaginal/métodos
10.
Actas Urol Esp ; 40(8): 485-91, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260350

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine which cancer and demographic criteria influence the indication for surgery (radical prostatectomy) or radiation therapy (external or brachytherapy) in the treatment of prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis of the 2714 patients of the 2010 National Prostate Cancer Registry treated with curative intent. The analysed variables were age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, the number of biopsy cores, the percentage of positive cores, the stage, Gleason score, the type of pathologist, the presence of perineural invasion and the study centre. We analysed the association among these variables and the type of treatment (surgery vs. radiation therapy/brachytherapy), using a univariate analysis (Student's t test and chi-squared) and a binary multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The 48.12% of the patients (1306/2714) were treated with surgery, and 51.88% (1,408/2,714) underwent radiation therapy/brachytherapy. Differences were observed between the patients treated with prostatectomy and those treated with radiation therapy/brachytherapy (p<.05) in age (63.50±6.5 vs. 69.0±6.7), PSA (8.76±16.97 vs. 13.21±15.88), biopsied cores, percentage of positives cores (30.0±22 vs. 38.7±29), Gleason score (G6: 53.9% vs. 46.1%; G7: 45% vs. 55% G8-10: 26.6%, 73.4%), stage (localised: 50% vs. 50%; locally advanced: 14.6% vs. 85.4%), perineural invasion and hospital centre. In the multivariate analysis, the selected independent variables were age, PSA, percentage of positives cores, stage, Gleason score and hospital centre. CONCLUSION: According to our study, age, tumour aggressiveness and stage and the centre where the patient will be treated affect the selection of curative treatment for prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Anciano , Braquiterapia , Demografía , Humanos , Masculino , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Sistema de Registros , España
11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(11): 1294-300, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324103

RESUMEN

We have sequenced the complete genomes of 72 individuals affected with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease caused by an autosomal dominant, highly penetrant mutation in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene, and performed genome-wide association testing to identify variants that modify age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease. Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster associated with delayed onset of mild-cognitive impairment and dementia. Individuals carrying this haplotype had a mean AAO of mild-cognitive impairment at 51.0 ± 5.2 years compared with 41.1 ± 7.4 years for those without these SNPs. This haplotype thus appears to modify Alzheimer's AAO, conferring a large (~10 years) protective effect. The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense polymorphism in this gene. Validating this association, we found plasma eotaxin-1 levels were correlated with disease AAO in an independent cohort from the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. In this second cohort, the associated haplotype disrupted the typical age-associated increase of eotaxin-1 levels, suggesting a complex regulatory role for this haplotype in the general population. Altogether, these results suggest eotaxin-1 as a novel modifier of Alzheimer's disease AAO and open potential avenues for therapy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Quimiocina CCL11/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/sangre , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/complicaciones , Quimiocina CCL11/sangre , Cromosomas Humanos Par 17/genética , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/genética , Estudios de Cohortes , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(15): 154208, 2015 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783857

RESUMEN

We provide here a roadmap for modeling silicon nano-devices with one or two group V donors (D). We discuss systems containing one or two electrons, that is, D(0), D(-), D(+)(2) and D(0)(2) centers. The impact of different levels of approximation is discussed. The most accurate instances--for which we provide quantitative results--are within multivalley effective mass including the central cell correction and a configuration interaction account of the electron-electron correlations. We also derive insightful, yet less accurate, analytical approximations and discuss their validity and limitations--in particular, for a donor pair, we discuss the single orbital LCAO method, the Hückel approximation and the Hubbard model. Finally, we connect these results with recent experiments on devices with few dopants.

13.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 77(2): 143-147, 2012. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-627415

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: Los mioepiteliomas, son tumores poco frecuentes originados a partir de la proliferación de células mioepiteliales. La mayor parte localizados en las extremidades inferiores y en glándulas salivales. Existen ocasionales informes previos de MEP que involucren la vagina. Objetivo: Describir un caso de mioepitelioma localizado en vagina. Caso clínico: Embarazada de 29 años edad, quien presenta una masa vaginal de un año de evolución, localizada en el himen. El examen histopatológico muestra una lesión compuesta por células fusiformes con positividad inmunohistoquímica para vimentina, citoqueratinas (CK) AE1/ AE3, S100, CD10, receptores de estrógenos y progesterona, Bcl2 y calponina y negatividad para desmina, actina muscular especifica, actina de músculo liso y p63. Con los anteriores hallazgos se interpreta la lesión como un mioepitelioma primario vaginal. Conclusión: Los mioepiteliomas son tumores que requieren para su diagnostico, análisis con técnicas de inmunohistoquímica o ultraestructurales que permitan diferenciarlos de otros tumores.


Background: The myoepitheliomas are rare tumors arising from the proliferation of myoepithelial cells. Most tumors are located in the lower extremity and salivary glands. There have been only occasional myoepithelial neoplasms previously reported involving the vagina. Objective: Describe a case of myoepithelioma located in the vagina of a pregnant woman. Case report: A 29 years old pregnant female, who about 1 year prior has a vaginal mass, located in the hymen. At histopathological examination shows a mass composed of spindle cells with positivity immunohistochemical studies for vimentin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, S100, CD10 and calponin and negative for desmin, actinmuscle specific (HHF35), smooth muscle actin and p63. With these findings it was established the diagnosis of myoepithelioma in the vagina. Conclusion: Myoepitheliomas are tumors requiring for diagnostic of immunohistochemistry or ultrastructural techniques that allow its differentiation from other tumors.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo , Mioepitelioma/diagnóstico , Mioepitelioma/patología , Neoplasias Vaginales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Vaginales/patología , Neoplasias de la Vulva/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Vulva/patología , Inmunohistoquímica , Biomarcadores de Tumor
14.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 18(3): 305-311, sept.-dic. 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-610007

RESUMEN

La interacción ácido-base entre un polielectrolito y un fármaco ionizable podría conllevar a la formación de complejos iónicos. Este tipo de nano-estructuras permitiría obtener propiedades fisicoquímicas diferentes a las del fármaco original, que se podría reflejar en variaciones de la solubilidad, de la estabilidad y del comportamiento de liberación del fármaco, entre otras. Este estudio se realizó para establecer si la solubilidad del diclofenaco podría verse modificada por la formación de complejos polielectrolito-fármaco con el Eudragit® E. Los complejos se elaboraron mediante el método de evaporación del solvente; se caracterizaron al estado sólido por espectroscopía infrarroja y difracción de rayos X y se les determinó la solubilidad aparente. Los resultados evidenciaron la formación del complejo en cada caso, denominados EuD50, EuD50Cl10, EuD50Cl25 y EuD50Cl35. Los valores de solubilidad aparente, fueron 431 y 1498 veces más altos para los complejos EuD50Cl25 y EuD50Cl35, respectivamente, cuando se empleó el agua como solvente; y 3674 y 10412 veces mayor en solución fisiológica, al compararlas con el fármaco sin complejar. Se concluyó que los complejos formados poseen solubilidades diferentes a la del fármaco original, con potencial aplicación en el diseño de formas farmacéuticas líquidas homogéneas.


Asunto(s)
Diclofenaco , Polimetil Metacrilato , Solubilidad
15.
Tissue Antigens ; 74(3): 189-204, 2009 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19563525

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most successful of human pathogens and has acquired the ability to establish latent or progressive infection and persist even in the presence of a fully functioning immune system. The ability of M. tuberculosis to avoid immune-mediated clearance is likely to reflect a highly evolved and coordinated program of immune evasion strategies, including some that interfere with antigen presentation to prevent or alter the quality of T-cell responses. Here, we review an extensive array of published studies supporting the view that antigen presentation pathways are targeted at many points by pathogenic mycobacteria. These studies show the multiple potential mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis may actively inhibit, subvert or otherwise modulate antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I, class II and CD1 molecules. Unraveling the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis evades or modulates antigen presentation is of critical importance for the development of more effective new vaccines based on live attenuated mycobacterial strains.


Asunto(s)
Presentación de Antígeno/inmunología , Evasión Inmune , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/inmunología , Mycobacterium/inmunología , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I/inmunología , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase II/inmunología , Humanos , Modelos Inmunológicos , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Tuberculosis/inmunología
16.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 15(1): 132-140, jan.-jun. 2008. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-502229

RESUMEN

Acetanilide (ACN) and phenacetin (PNC) are compounds structurally related with acetaminophen widely used as model drugs in pharmaceutical chemistry. Based on published thermodynamic quantities for dissolution, partitioning and sublimation of ACN and PNC, at 25.0 °C, thermodynamic quantities for drugs solvation in cyclohexane-saturated water (W(CH)) and water-saturated cyclohexane (CH(W)), chloroform-saturated water (W(CLF)) and water-saturated chloroform (CLF(W)), and isopropyl myristate- saturated water (W(IPM)) and water-saturated isopropyl myristate (IPM(W)), as well as the drugs dilution in the organic solvents were calculated. The Gibbs energies of solvation were favourable in all cases. Respective enthalpies and entropies were negative indicating an enthalpy-driving for the solvation process in all cases. Otherwise, the Gibbs energies of dilution were favourable for ACN and PNC in IPM(W) but unfavourable in the other organic solvents, whereas the respective enthalpies and entropies were negative for both drugs in all the organic solvents, except for PNC in CH(W) indicating enthalpy-driving for the dilution process in the former cases and entropy-driving for the later. From obtained values for the transfer processes, an interpretation based on solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions was developed.


Asunto(s)
Acetanilidas , Fenacetina
17.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol ; 30(1): 37-41, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18389096

RESUMEN

The aim of this work was to assess paracetamol bioavailability after administering 1 g in oral solution. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected for this open-label study. A total of 15.4 ml of Gelocatil Oral Solution (Laboratorios Gelos, S.L.), corresponding to 1 g of paracetamol, were administered to fasting subjects. Blood samples were collected at 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The study was conducted without deviations from protocol. Pharmacokinetic data from 18 subjects were allowed for estimating fast and high-paracetamol bioavailability: t(max) 20 min (10-45) [median (range)], C(max) 24. 3 mg/l (6.5) [mean (standard deviation)], AUC(0-t) 64.0 mg h/l (16.1) and AUC(0-00) 68.1 mg h/l (17.9). These results are comparable to those described for Gelocatil Oral Solution given at a 650 mg dose and for immediate release Gelocatil 650 mg tablets. Absorption speed was very fast, similar to that described for other oral-solution formulations, which provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. The results of this study show suitable bioavailability for 1 g Gelocatil Oral Solution, with fast-absorption speed that provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/farmacocinética , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/farmacocinética , Acetaminofén/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/administración & dosificación , Área Bajo la Curva , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Femenino , Semivida , Humanos , Masculino , Tasa de Depuración Metabólica , Soluciones Farmacéuticas
18.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 18(5): 1020-6, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18021221

RESUMEN

This study evaluated Pap screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge in a population of Colombian women as a possible contributing factor of low cervical cancer screening success. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional analysis of 454 women who were approached in five different hospitals and clinics throughout Medellín, Colombia. Of them, 449 females agreed to participate and answered a standardized face-to-face questionnaire regarding Pap screening and HPV knowledge. Using logistic regression, predictors of both Pap and HPV knowledge were examined. Overall, 76.3% of the participants exhibited a high level of Pap screening knowledge, while only 7.8% showed high level of HPV knowledge. Of the 449 women, 71.5% reported that it had been 1 year or less since their last Pap test, while 7.8% reported never having had a Pap test or not having had a recent test. Factors influencing Pap screening knowledge included education level and insurance; factors influencing HPV knowledge included education level and age. The high level of Pap screening knowledge and use do not explain the high cervical cancer rates in Colombia. The results of this study suggest that educational efforts should be focused on increasing women's knowledge and awareness of HPV in anticipation of the availability of HPV vaccines and HPV tests for screening.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Papillomaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Frotis Vaginal
20.
Trastor. adict. (Ed. impr.) ; 9(1): 46-52, ene. 2007.
Artículo en Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-058617

RESUMEN

RESUMEN. Objetivo. La mayoría de los fumadores quieren dejar de fumar. Un porcentaje importante de ellos lo intentan sin ningún tipo de ayuda profesional, lo que en muchas ocasiones conlleva un elevado número de recaídas. Una de las principales razones de estos intentos sin tratamiento es la frecuente falta de accesibilidad a los mismos. El objetivo del estudio es revisar las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación y su aplicación en el tratamiento del tabaquismo. Material y métodos. Se analizan las distintas posibilidades de intervención en el tratamiento del tabaquismo basadas en las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación. Resultados. El avance de las nuevas tecnologías ha proporcionado un aumento en la investigación y creación de programas de tratamiento del tabaquismo a distancia, mostrándose eficaces tanto los programas de intervención por teléfono como las páginas de internet que ofrecen ayuda para dejar de fumar. Otras tecnologías que están siendo validadas en esta línea son los mensajes de texto de los teléfonos móviles y los blogs o páginas web personales de opinión. Conclusiones. Las nuevas formas de intervención basadas en las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación proporcionan mayor accesibilidad y flexibilidad en los tratamientos para dejar de fumar (AU)


ABSTRACT. Objectives. Most smokers want to quit smoking. An important percentage of them try to quit without any professional help but often these attempts lead to an important number of relapses. One of the main reasons of these attempts without professional help is the lack of accessibility to treatment. Material and methods. The different possibilities of intervention in smoking treatment are analysed based on the new information and communication technologies. Results. New technologies advance has provided an increase in the research and creation of effective smoking cessation distance programs being as much the programs of intervention by telephone like the pages of Internet that offer help to quit smoking. Other technologies that have been validated in this line are the text messages of the mobile telephones and the blogs or personal opinion internet pages. Conclusions. New smoking interventions based in new technologies provide greater accessibility and flexibility in the smoking cessation treatments (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Acceso a la Información , Servicios de Información , Recursos en Materia de Comunicaciones , Internet
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