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1.
Psychol Trauma ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525371

RESUMEN

The mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are particularly relevant in African-American communities because African-Americans have been disproportionately impacted by the disease, yet they are traditionally less engaged in mental health treatment compared with other racial groups. Using the state of Michigan as an example, we describe the social and psychological consequences of the pandemic on African-American communities in the United States, highlighting community members' concerns about contracting the disease, fears of racial bias in testing and treatment, experiences of sustained grief and loss, and retraumatization of already-traumatized communities. Furthermore, we describe the multilevel, community-wide approaches that have been used thus far to mitigate adverse mental health outcomes within our local African-American communities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102311, 2020 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531758

RESUMEN

The forensic science community is poised to utilize modern advances in massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies to better characterize biological samples with higher resolution. A critical component towards the advancement of forensic DNA analysis with these technologies is a comprehensive understanding of the diversity and population distribution of sequence-based short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. Here we analyzed 786 samples of individuals from different population groups, including four of the mostly commonly encountered in forensic casework in the USA. DNA samples were amplified with the PowerSeq™ Auto/Y System Prototype Kit (Promega Corp.), and sequencing was performed on an Illumina® MiSeq instrument. Sequence data were analyzed using a bioinformatics processing tool, Altius. For additional data analysis and profile comparison, capillary electrophoresis (CE) size-based STR genotypes were generated for a subset of individuals, and where possible, also with a second commercially available MPS STR assay. Autosomal STR loci were analyzed and frequencies were calculated based on sequence composition. Also, population genetics studies were performed, with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, polymorphic information content (PIC), and observed and expected heterozygosity all assessed. Overall, sequence-based allelic variants of the repeat region were observed in 20 out of 22 different STR loci commonly used in forensic DNA genotyping, with the highest number of sequence variation observed at locus D12S391. The highest increase in allelic diversity and in PIC through sequence-based genotyping was observed at loci D3S1358 and D8S1179. Such detailed sequence analysis, as the one performed in the present study, is important to help understand the diversity of sequence-based STR alleles across different populations and to demonstrate how such allelic variation can improve statistics used for forensic casework.

3.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(696): e457-e462, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Microcytosis (smaller than normal red blood cells) has previously been identified as a possible early risk marker for some cancers. However, the role of microcytosis across all cancers has not been fully investigated. AIM: To examine cancer incidence in a cohort of patients with microcytosis, with and without accompanying anaemia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study of patients aged ≥40 years using UK primary care electronic patient records. METHOD: The 1-year cancer incidence was compared between cohorts of patients with a mean red cell volume of <85 femtolitres (fL) (low) or 85-101 fL (normal). Further analyses examined sex, age group, cancer site, and haemoglobin values. RESULTS: Of 12 289 patients with microcytosis, 497 had a new cancer diagnosis within 1 year (4.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7 to 4.4), compared with 1465 of 73 150 without microcytosis (2.0%, CI = 1.9 to 2.1). In males, 298 out of 4800 with microcytosis were diagnosed with cancer (6.2%, CI = 5.5 to 6.9), compared with 940 out of 34 653 without (2.7%, CI = 2.5 to 2.9). In females with microcytosis, 199 out of 7489 were diagnosed with cancer (2.7%, CI = 2.3 to 3.1), compared with 525 out of 38 497 without (1.4%, CI = 1.3 to 1.5). In patients with microcytosis but normal haemoglobin, 86 out of 2637 males (3.3%, CI = 2.6 to 4.0) and 101 out of 5055 females (2.0%, CI = 1.6 to 2.4) were diagnosed with cancer. CONCLUSION: Microcytosis is a predictor of underlying cancer even if haemoglobin is normal. Although a benign explanation is more likely, clinicians in primary care should consider simple testing for cancer on encountering unexplained microcytosis, particularly in males.

4.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 40(5): 729-742, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444166

RESUMEN

RESEARCH QUESTION: Is it feasible to perform a future definitive trial to determine the effectiveness of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) in improving the psychological well-being of women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) during the early stages of a new pregnancy? DESIGN: This mixed method study aimed to establish the feasibility of conducting a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to definitively test the effects of the PRCI on the psychological well-being of women with RPL. Participants (n = 75) were recruited to the study and at the point of a positive pregnancy test, 47 were randomized into two study groups. The intervention group received the PRCI and weekly questionnaire assessment (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Weekly Record Keeping Form [WRK]) to monitor psychological well-being; the control group received the same questionnaires. Nested within the RCT was a qualitative process evaluation (QPE) exploring participants' subjective experience of study methods and the intervention. The study was conducted over a two-year period between 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: This study successfully gathered knowledge about the feasibility aspects of conducting a future multicentre definitive study to determine the effects of the PRCI on the psychological well-being of women with RPL. Participants were receptive to its use and the intervention appeared to convey benefits with no apparent downside. CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that a definitive RCT of the PRCI is possible and that the model of care already has the potential to be made more widely available as a safe, low-cost, convenient and easily deliverable intervention to provide much-needed support to a vulnerable patient population.

5.
Fam Pract ; 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recently, faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been introduced for investigation of primary care patients with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer (CRC), but recommendations vary across the world. This systematic review of clinical practice guidelines aimed to determine how FITs are used in symptomatic primary care patients and the underpinning evidence for these guidelines. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and TRIP databases were systematically searched, from 1 November 2008 to 1 November 2018 for guidelines on the assessment of patients with symptoms suggestive of CRC. Known guideline databases, websites and references of related literature were searched. The following questions were addressed: (i) which countries use FIT for symptomatic primary care patients; (ii) in which populations is FIT used; (iii) what is the cut-off level used for haemoglobin in the faeces (FIT) and (iv) on what evidence are FIT recommendations based. RESULTS: The search yielded 2433 publications; 25 covered initial diagnostic assessment of patients with symptoms of CRC in 15 countries (Asia, n = 1; Europe, n = 13; Oceania, n = 4; North America, n = 5; and South America, n = 2). In three countries (Australia, Spain and the UK), FIT was recommended for patients with abdominal symptoms, unexplained weight loss, change in bowel habit or anaemia despite a low level of evidence in the symptomatic primary care patient population. CONCLUSIONS: Few countries recommend FITs in symptomatic patients in primary care either because of limited evidence or because symptomatic patients are directly referred to secondary care without triage. These results demonstrate a clear need for research on FIT in the symptomatic primary care population.

6.
Aust Health Rev ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787137

RESUMEN

ObjectiveCollaborative practice is critical to optimising patient outcomes in contemporary healthcare settings. Evidence suggests interprofessional learning is an effective way to develop teamwork capabilities, yet these skills are traditionally developed in professional silos, or not at all. This study evaluated the implementation of a team development program, the Team Management Systems (TMS) program, for allied health staff within a large metropolitan health service.MethodsA mixed-methods audit-quality improvement study was conducted, using Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model to structure evaluation of the program. Semistructured questionnaire and workforce survey data were retrieved immediately, 6 months and 1-2 years after training and applied to each level of the model (Reaction, Learning, Behaviour, Results).ResultsIn all, 886 staff participated in the TMS program from 2014 to 2018. High satisfaction with the program was observed. Knowledge of what constitutes effective teamwork improved significantly (P=0.008) in TMS participants compared with a matched untrained cohort. Participants reported positive behaviour change and continued engagement with TMS principles 6 months after training. Perceived impact of the program on patient and/or organisational outcomes was evident, although less compelling than the changes to knowledge and behaviour.ConclusionsThe TMS program yielded positive effects on staff satisfaction, knowledge, team dynamics and team behaviours. These findings demonstrate the significant value of such initiatives to enhance the capability and effectiveness of interdisciplinary healthcare teams.What is known about the topic?Complex conditions, increasing comorbidities, specialisation and scarcity of resources mean healthcare workers need to work effectively in teams to achieve quality, safe, person centred patient care. There is some evidence of the effect of teamwork initiatives on knowledge or behaviour in specific clinical specialities, single services or single professions, but limited research is available regarding the effects of teamwork programs across multiple professions, including allied health professions, and on patient and organisational outcomes.What does this paper add?This paper describes the effect of a large-scale teamwork program implemented across multiple professions, including enablers and barriers. It presents outcomes at all four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, including the less studied behaviour and results levels.What are the implications for practitioners?This paper supports health service leaders to consider developing and implementing interprofessional teamwork programs to foster essential teamwork capabilities. Learning together about teamwork, across professional silos, will lead to collaborative, patient-centred care, which leads to safe, quality patient outcomes.

8.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 09 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554266

RESUMEN

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine offers promising perspectives for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Although ketamine demonstrates rapid and long-lasting effects, even in treatment-resistant patients, to date, the underlying mode of action remains elusive. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of ketamine at clinically relevant concentrations by establishing an in vitro model based on human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Notably, ketamine increased the proliferation of NPCs independent of the NMDA receptor, while transcriptome analysis revealed significant upregulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and p11, a member of the S100 EF-hand protein family, which are both implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, 24 h after ketamine treatment. Ketamine (1 µM) was able to increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in NPCs within 15 min and cell proliferation, while ketamine-induced IGF2 expression was reduced after PKA inhibition with cAMPS-Rp. Furthermore, 24 h post-administration of ketamine (15 mg/kg) in vivo confirmed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, ketamine promotes the proliferation of NPCs presumably by involving cAMP-IGF2 signaling.

9.
J Infect ; 79(4): 332-340, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398375

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Adjunctive rifampicin did not reduce failure/recurrence/death as a composite endpoint in the ARREST trial of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, but did reduce recurrences. We investigated clinically-defined 14-day treatment failure, and recurrence and S. aureus-attributed/unattributed mortality by 12-weeks to further define their predictors. METHODS: A post-hoc exploratory analysis using competing risks models was conducted to identify sub-groups which might benefit from rifampicin. A points-based recurrence risk score was developed and used to compare rifampicin's benefits. RESULTS: Recurrence was strongly associated with liver and renal failure, diabetes and immune-suppressive drugs (p < 0.005); in contrast, failure and S. aureus-attributed mortality were associated with older age and higher neutrophil counts. Higher SOFA scores predicted mortality; higher Charlson scores and deep-seated initial infection focus predicted failure. Unexpectedly, recurrence risk increased with increasing BMI in placebo (p = 0.04) but not rifampicin (p = 0.60) participants (pheterogeneity = 0.06). A persistent focus was judged the primary reason for recurrence in 23(74%). A 5-factor risk score based on BMI, Immunosuppression, Renal disease, Diabetes, Liver disease (BIRDL) strongly predicted recurrence (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin reduces recurrences overall; those with greatest absolute risk reductions were identified using a simple risk score. Source control and adequate duration of antibiotic therapy remain essential to prevent recurrence and improve outcomes.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e029354, 2019 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154315

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how women experience the initial period of a new pregnancy after suffering recurrent miscarriage (RM). DESIGN: A qualitative study, nested within a randomised controlled feasibility study of a coping intervention for RM, used semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic network approach. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic and Early Pregnancy Unit in two tertiary referral hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 14 women with RMs and who had previously participated in the randomised controlled trial (RCT) feasibility component of the study were recruited. RESULTS: Seven organising themes emerged from the data: (1) turmoil of emotions, (2) preparing for the worst, (3) setting of personal milestones, (4) hypervigilance, (5) social isolation, (6) adoption of pragmatic approaches, (7) need for professional affirmation. CONCLUSIONS: The study established that for women with a history of RM, the waiting period of a new pregnancy is a traumatic time of great uncertainty and emotional turmoil and one in which they express a need for emotional support. Consideration should be given to the manner in which supportive care is best delivered within the constraints of current health service provision. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN43571276.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Habitual/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-13, 2019 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131641

RESUMEN

Purpose: Evidence is increasing for effective virtual reality therapy for motor rehabilitation for children with Cerebral Palsy. We assessed the feasibility of a virtual reality therapy mode of intervention, appropriateness of measures, and potential cost-effectiveness. Methods: A 12-week, 2-group, parallel-feasibility trial (ISRCT 17624388) using Nintendo Wii FitTM at home. Children aged 5-16, with ambulatory Cerebral Palsy, who were able to follow simple instructions were randomised to two groups; one supported by physiotherapists (individualised activity programme), the other unsupported with children having free choice (control). Children were assessed in clinic at baseline, week 6, and week 12 by blinded assessors. Feasibility of the intervention was assessed via recruitment, adherence, and usefulness of measurement tools. Results: Forty-four children were eligible (out of 48 approached): 31 consented, 30 were randomised, 21 completed the study; 10 in the supported group and 11 in the unsupported group. Nine children discontinued from tiredness, after-school activities, homework, surgery, technical difficulties or negative system feedback. The supported group completed 19 of 36 (IQR 5-35) possible sessions; the unsupported group 24 of 36 sessions (IQR 8-36). Gross Motor Function Measure scores varied by Cerebral Palsy severity after the intervention. There were no adverse events. Conclusion: Virtual reality therapy offers potential as a therapeutic adjunct for children with Cerebral Palsy, warranting substantive confirmatory study. Gross Motor Function Measure, with modifications to improve sensitivity, appeared appropriate as a primary measure, with Timed up and Go test secondary. The intervention was inexpensive costing £20 per child. An explanatory trial to evaluate the clinical/cost-effectiveness of commercial system virtual reality therapy is feasible with minor methodological adaptation. Implications for rehabilitation Home-based interactive computer gaming was feasible, safe and cost effective as a therapy adjunct. Discontinue if additional pressures are present: imminent surgery, family resilience to technical difficulties, negative system feedback, after-school activities. Change in Gross Motor Function Measurement scores varied by severity of Cerebral Palsy.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 14: 100329, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886933

RESUMEN

Chronic disease carries high morbidity and mortality in the United States, with large racial and ethnic disparities observed in chronic disease. Physical activity and healthy food are vital for chronic disease prevention yet challenging to access in economically distressed areas. Public health prevention efforts have become particularly prominent within faith-based organizations over the last three decades. This manuscript describes the protocol of the Church Challenge, a multilevel cluster-randomized controlled nutrition and physical activity trial across 24 churches to reduce blood pressure by 6 mmHg among 576 residents in Flint, MI. The Church Challenge was developed using community-based participatory approaches and is rooted in a church-based program developed by and for primarily African-American Flint church congregations. This three-level intervention addresses health at the community (level 3), church (level 2), and individual (level 1) to reduce blood pressure, reduce chronic disease risk, and promote health equity and wellbeing in Flint. Churches are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to a 16-week physical activity and nutrition program or a 4-session health and wellness workshop. Flint is not a unique community but has a history of traumatic community wide events; even now, the public health infrastructure continues to be a challenge and distract residents from focusing on their health. This trial is highly significant and innovative because it uses a combination of evidence-based practices simultaneously supporting health behavior change for individuals and their faith organizations, and evaluates multilevel efforts to sustain long-term health promotion activities in vulnerable communities like Flint.

14.
J Investig Med ; 67(6): 964-970, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842213

RESUMEN

High-sugar intake may cause endothelial dysfunction. It is unknown if a bout of aerobic exercise improves endothelial dysfunction caused by a high-sugar meal in postmenopausal women. This study evaluated if prior aerobic exercise attenuates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (age [mean±SD]: 60.4±6.5 years; % body fat: 40.3%±7.5%) underwent an exercise (EX) or no exercise (NE) condition, in a random order, 13-16 hours prior to the high-sugar meal consumption. The EX condition included a 60 min bout of supervised aerobic exercise at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. The high-sugar meal, consumed after a 12-hour fast, contained 33% of the subjects' daily energy needs, and 75.6% energy from carbohydrates. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed at baseline and 60 min, 120 min, and 180 min postprandially. Repeated measures analysis test showed that there were no condition by time interaction or condition effects for FMD, glucose, insulin, or NO. There was a significant condition by time interaction but no condition effect for ET-1. Area under the curve was also not different by condition for insulin sensitivity or the above variables. In conclusion, prior aerobic exercise compared with NE did not affect FMD, blood glucose, insulin, ET-1 or NO concentrations, or insulin sensitivity following a high-sugar meal in postmenopausal women. Future studies should look at the effect of different EX intensities on meal-induced endothelial dysfunction in this population. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02919488.

15.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 24, 2019 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845958

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke disability is common, costly, and projected to increase. Acute stroke treatments can substantially reduce post-stroke disability, but few patients take advantage of these cost-effective treatments. Practical, cost-efficient, and sustainable interventions to address underutilized acute stroke treatments are currently lacking. In this context, we present the Stroke Ready project, a stepped wedge design, multi-level intervention that combines implementation science and community-based participatory research approaches to increase acute stroke treatments in the predominately African American community of Flint, Michigan, USA. METHODS: Guided by the Tailored Implementation of Chronic Disease (TICD) framework, we begin with optimization of acute stroke care in emergency departments, with particular attention given to our safety-net hospital partners. Then, we move to a community-wide, multi-faceted, stroke preparedness intervention, with workshops led by peer educators, over 2 years. Measures of engagement of the safety-net hospital and the feasibility and sustainability of the implementation strategy as well as community intervention reach, dose delivered, and satisfaction will be collected. The primary outcome is acute stroke treatment rates, which includes both intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, and endovascular treatment. The co-secondary outcomes are intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment rates and the proportion of stroke patients who arrive by ambulance. DISCUSSION: If successful, Stroke Ready will increase acute stroke treatment rates through emergency department and community level interventions. The stepped wedge design and process evaluation will provide insight into how Stroke Ready works and where it might work best. By exploring the relative effectiveness of the emergency department optimization and the community intervention, we will inform hospitals and communities as they determine how best to use their resources to optimize acute stroke care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Trial Identifier NCT03645590 .


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Enfermedad Aguda , Afroamericanos/etnología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Michigan , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Accidente Cerebrovascular/economía , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(3): 1548241, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723576

RESUMEN

Host responses to tumor cells include tumor suppressing or promoting mechanisms. We sought to detail the effect of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibition on the composition of the mammary tumor immune portfolio. We hypothesized that Hh signaling mediates a crosstalk between breast cancer cells and macrophages that dictates alternative polarization of macrophages and consequently supports a tumor-promoting microenvironment. We used an immunocompetent, syngeneic mouse mammary cancer model to inhibit Hh signaling with the pharmacological inhibitor, Vismodegib. Using molecular and functional assays, we identified that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling mediates a molecular crosstalk between mammary cancer cells and macrophages that culminates in alternative polarization of macrophages. We carried out an unbiased kinomics and genomics assessment to unravel changes in global kinomic and gene signatures impacted by Hh signaling. Our investigations reveal that in an immunocompetent mammary cancer model, the administration of Vismodegib led to changes in the portfolio of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. This was characterized by a marked reduction in immune-suppressive innate and adaptive cells concomitant with an enrichment of cytotoxic immune cells. Breast cancer cells induce M2 polarization of macrophages via a crosstalk mediated by Hh ligands that alters critical kinomic and genomic signatures. Macrophage depletion improved the benefit of Hedgehog inhibition on eliciting an immunogenic, pro-inflammatory profile. We define a novel role for Hh signaling in disabling anti-tumor immunity. Inhibition of Hh signaling presents with dual advantages of tumor cell-targeting as well as re-educating a dysfunctional tumor microenvironment.

18.
Lab Invest ; 99(2): 260-270, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420690

RESUMEN

Modification of proteins by O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) promotes tumor cell survival, proliferation, epigenetic changes, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that in conditions of elevated glucose, there is increased expression of key drug resistance proteins (ABCB1, ABCG2, ERCC1, and XRCC1), all of which are regulated by the Hedgehog pathway. In elevated glucose conditions, we determined that the Hedgehog pathway transcription factors, GLI1 and GLI2, are modified by O-GlcNAcylation. This modification functionally enhanced their transcriptional activity. The activity of GLI was enhanced when O-GlcNAcase was inhibited, while inhibiting O-GlcNAc transferase caused a decrease in GLI activity. The metabolic impact of hyperglycemic conditions impinges on maintaining PKM2 in the less active state that facilitates the availability of glycolytic intermediates for biosynthetic pathways. Interestingly, under elevated glucose conditions, PKM2 directly influenced GLI activity. Specifically, abrogating PKM2 expression caused a significant decline in GLI activity and expression of drug resistance proteins. Cumulatively, our results suggest that elevated glucose conditions upregulate chemoresistance through elevated transcriptional activity of the Hedgehog/GLI pathway. Interfering in O-GlcNAcylation of the GLI transcription factors may be a novel target in controlling cancer progression and drug resistance of breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferasas/metabolismo , Proteínas Portadoras/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hiperglucemia , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Hormonas Tiroideas/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 147: 8-15, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177381

RESUMEN

Following the Editorial addressing the BALMAS project, we open the ballast water management special issue for the Adriatic Sea by providing background information on non-indigenous species and the mechanisms (vectors) of transport. Problems allocating introduction mechanisms for various species with certainty are described; in general, key introduction mechanisms are shipping, with ballast water and biofouling as dominant vectors, and aquaculture activities. The dominant mechanisms for introduction may differ through time, between regions and across species. We highlight ballast water as the focus of an international convention to prevent future introductions, reviewing management options and suggesting future research needs. This assessment is not restricted in application to the Adriatic Sea, but is applicable to other coastal waters. Results of such future work may contribute to the experience building phase planned by the International Maritime Organization for a harmonised implementation of the Ballast Water Management Convention.


Asunto(s)
Especies Introducidas , Navíos , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Animales , Incrustaciones Biológicas , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Europa (Continente) , Mar Mediterráneo , Agua
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(1): 25-38, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295388

RESUMEN

Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm to identify temporal and spatial patterns, likely source regions of NIS, and the putative introduction pathways. We included 54 introduction events representing 34 unique NIS. The rate of NIS discovery ranged from zero to four species per year between 1960 and 2015. The Iceland Shelf had the greatest number of introduction events (n = 14), followed by the Barents Sea (n = 11), and the Norwegian Sea (n = 11). Sixteen of the 54 introduction records had no known origins. The majority of those with known source regions were attributed to the Northeast Atlantic and the Northwest Pacific, 19 and 14 records, respectively. Some introduction events were attributed to multiple possible pathways. For these introductions, vessels transferred the greatest number of aquatic NIS (39%) to the Arctic, followed by natural spread (30%) and aquaculture activities (25%). Similar trends were found for introductions attributed to a single pathway. The phyla Arthropoda and Ochrophyta had the highest number of recorded introduction events, with 19 and 12 records, respectively. Recommendations including vector management, horizon scanning, early detection, rapid response, and a pan-Arctic biodiversity inventory are considered in this paper. Our study provides a comprehensive record of primary introductions of NIS for marine environments in the circumpolar Arctic and identifies knowledge gaps and opportunities for NIS research and management. Ecosystems worldwide will face dramatic changes in the coming decades due to global change. Our findings contribute to the knowledge base needed to address two aspects of global change-invasive species and climate change.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos/fisiología , Cambio Climático , Especies Introducidas/tendencias , Animales , Regiones Árticas , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo
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