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2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 1116-1123, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157996

RESUMEN

Food contamination during weaning and complementary feeding can result in high diarrheal incidence among infants. Caregiver practices are important determinants of exposure to foodborne pathogens, and can therefore play a role in reduction in infant food contamination. Through a qualitative approach, we used the Trials of Improved Practices methodology to design a food hygiene intervention in a low-income settlement of Kisumu city in Kenya. These settlements in Kisumu city host a large portion of the city's population and are faced with a high diarrheal disease burden. Caregivers were selected if they had a child aged 6-9 months, and together, we codesigned a combination of hardware and messaging components targeting handwashing with soap, hygienic feeding, reheating, and hygienic storage of infant food. Caregivers received up to six engagement visits with the research team. The visits were aimed at improving the designed hardware and messaging components. Results showed that feeding items were easily adopted by caregivers, whereas reheating of food was less observed. Households reportedly improved their food storage and handwashing practices. As a result, the hardware components were further refined and tested among the caregivers. Messaging components spurred the aspirations that caregivers had for their children and acted as reminders of practicing good food hygiene. The outcomes of the codesign process provided valuable insights on the knowledge of caregivers, a delivery approach for implementing the intervention, and further informed a subsequent trial that adopted the designed intervention to target early childhood exposure to enteric pathogens through contaminated food.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Higiene , Utensilios de Comida y Culinaria , Manipulación de Alimentos/normas , Desinfección de las Manos , Educación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Higiene/educación , Kenia , Pobreza , Población Urbana
3.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12991, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162452

RESUMEN

In low- and middle-income countries, food may be a critical transmission route for pathogens causing childhood diarrhoea, but basic food hygiene is often overlooked in public health strategies. Characterising child food contamination and its risk factors could help prioritise interventions to reduce foodborne diarrhoeal disease, especially in low-income urban areas where the diarrhoeal disease burden is often high. This cross-sectional study comprised a caregiver questionnaire coupled with food sampling, and food preparation observations, among the study population of an ongoing sanitation trial in Maputo. The aim was to determine the prevalence of child food contamination and associated risk factors. The prevalence of Enterococcus spp., as an indicator of faecal contamination, was estimated in food samples. Risk factor analyses were performed through zero-inflated negative binomial regression on colony counts. A modified hazard analysis and critical control point approach was used to determine critical control points (CCPs) that might effectively reduce risk. Fifty-eight linked caregiver questionnaires and food samples were collected, and 59 food preparation observations were conducted. The prevalence of enterococci in child foods exceeding 10 colony forming units per gram was 53% (95% confidence interval [40%, 67%]). Risk factors for child food contamination were identified, including type of food, food preparation practices, and hygiene behaviours. CCPs included cooking/reheating of food and food storage and handling. This exploratory study highlights the need for more research into diarrhoeagenic pathogens and foodborne risks for children living in these challenging urban environments.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 220-222, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746311

RESUMEN

Complementary food hygiene is important to reduce infant exposures to enteric pathogens; however, interventions to improve food hygiene in low- and middle-income countries often ignore the larger context in which childcare occurs. In this study, we explore on observational and qualitative information regarding childcare in an informal community in Kenya. Our findings demonstrate that behaviors associated with food contamination, such as hand feeding and storing food for extended periods, are determined largely by the larger social and economic realities of primary caretakers. Data also show how caregiving within an informal settlement is highly dynamic and involves multiple individuals and locations throughout the day. Findings from this study will help inform the development and implementation of food hygiene interventions in informal urban communities.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Alimentos Infantiles , Población Urbana , Adulto , Cuidadores , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia , Encuestas Nutricionales , Áreas de Pobreza
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225687, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805087

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The public health burden of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women in rural areas of low-income countries is poorly addressed because health care seeking for treatment of RTIs is inadequate. There are gaps in knowledge about whether low care seeking behavior stems from challenges in accessing health care versus women's recognition of and response to RTI-specific disease symptoms. We aim to identify determinants of care seeking behavior and analyze the difference in utilization of health care resources in response to symptoms of an RTI versus non-RTI disease symptoms in rural India. This will aid in the design of interventions that promote RTI care seeking behavior. METHODS: Our analysis uses data from a cross-sectional, population-based surveillance survey among rural, non-pregnant women in Odisha, India, from 2013-2014 (n = 3,600). We utilized bivariate logistic regression to determine the degree that certain determinants are associated with a woman's likelihood to seek RTI treatment, and chi-Squared tests to assess for differences in health care resources used for non-RTI versus RTI symptoms. RESULTS: Married women were significantly more likely to seek health care for RTI symptoms (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.2-3.0) while unmarried adolescents were less likely to seek treatment (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.2-0.6). There was no association between RTI health care seeking with education level, belief about whether symptoms can be treated, or poverty. The majority (73.8%) of women who did not seek treatment for RTI symptoms reported not seeking treatment because they did not know treatment was needed. Women utilized formal health care providers at a higher rate in response to RTI symptoms than in response to their most recent symptoms of any kind (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Community-based reproductive health education interventions are needed to increase health care seeking behavior for RTIs in rural Indian women. Interventions should target unmarried women and focus on both sexual health education and access to care.


Asunto(s)
Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Infecciones del Sistema Genital/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Matrimonio , Población Rural , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric infections in early childhood are associated with negative effects on childhood growth and development, especially in low and middle-income countries, and food may be an important transmission route. Although basic food hygiene practices might reduce exposure to faecal pathogens and resulting infections, there have been few rigorous interventions studies to assess this, and no studies in low income urban settings where risks are plausibly very high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel infant food hygiene intervention on infant enteric infections and diarrhoea in peri-urban settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized control trial with 50 clusters, representing the catchment areas of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs), randomly assigned to intervention or control, and a total of 750 infants recruited on a rolling basis at 22 weeks of age and then followed for 15 weeks. The intervention targeted four key caregiver behaviours related to food hygiene: 1) hand washing with soap before infant food preparation and feeding; 2) bringing all infant food to the boil before feeding, including when reheating or reserving; 3) storing all infant food in sealed containers; and, 4) using only specific utensils for infant feeding which are kept separate and clean. RESULTS: The primary outcome of interest is the prevalence of one or more of 23 pre-specified enteric infections, determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteric pathogen gene targets. In addition, infant food samples were collected at 33 weeks, and faecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus) isolated and enumerated to assess the impact of the intervention on infant food contamination. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of an infant food hygiene intervention on enteric infections in a high burden, low income urban setting. Our trial responds to growing evidence that food may be a key pathway for early childhood enteric infection and disease and that basic food hygiene behaviours may be able to mitigate these risks. The Safe Start trial seeks to provide new evidence as to whether a locally appropriate infant food hygiene intervention delivered through the local health extension system can improve the health of young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov on March 16th 2018 before enrolment of any participants (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03468114).


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/microbiología , Enteritis/epidemiología , Enteritis/microbiología , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Infecciones/epidemiología , Pobreza , Cuidadores , Culinaria , Diarrea/prevención & control , Enteritis/prevención & control , Enterococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Control de Infecciones , Infecciones/microbiología , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Pública , Jabones , Salud Urbana
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 216, 2019 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Humans are susceptible to over 1400 pathogens. Co-infection by multiple pathogens is common, and can result in a range of neutral, facilitative, or antagonistic interactions within the host. Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are powerful immunomodulators, but evidence of the effect of STH infection on the direction and magnitude of concurrent enteric microparasite infections is mixed. METHODS: We collected fecal samples from 891 randomly selected children and adults in rural Laos. Samples were analyzed for 5 STH species, 6 viruses, 9 bacteria, and 5 protozoa using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. We utilized logistic regression, controlling for demographics and household water, sanitation, and hygiene access, to examine the effect of STH infection on concurrent viral, bacterial, and protozoal infection. RESULTS: We found that STH infection was associated with lower odds of concurrent viral infection [odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-0.83], but higher odds of concurrent bacterial infections (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.07) and concurrent protozoal infections (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 0.95-2.37). Trends were consistent across STH species. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of STH on odds of concurrent microparasite co-infection may differ by microparasite taxa, whereby STH infection was negatively associated with viral infections but positively associated with bacterial and protozoal infections. Results suggest that efforts to reduce STH through preventive chemotherapy could have a spillover effect on microparasite infections, though the extent of this impact requires additional study. The associations between STH and concurrent microparasite infection may reflect a reverse effect due to the cross-sectional study design. Additional research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the immunomodulatory effects of STH on concurrent enteric microparasite infection.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/complicaciones , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Enfermedades Intestinales/etiología , Suelo/parasitología , Adulto , Infecciones Bacterianas/complicaciones , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Intestinales/microbiología , Enfermedades Intestinales/parasitología , Enfermedades Intestinales/virología , Parasitosis Intestinales/complicaciones , Laos/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Virosis/complicaciones
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007292, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917117

RESUMEN

Young children are infected by a diverse variety of enteric pathogens in low-income, high-burden countries. Little is known about which conditions pose the greatest risk for enteric pathogen exposure and infection. Young children frequently play in residential public areas around their household, including areas contaminated by human and animal feces, suggesting these exposures are particularly hazardous. The objective of this study was to examine how the dose of six types of common enteric pathogens, and the probability of exposure to one or multiple enteric pathogens for young children playing at public play areas in Kisumu, Kenya is influenced by the type and frequency of child play behaviors that result in ingestion of soil or surface water. Additionally, we examine how pathogen doses and multi-pathogen exposure are modified by spatial variability in the number of public areas children are exposed to in their neighborhood. A Bayesian framework was employed to obtain the posterior distribution of pathogen doses for a certain number of contacts. First, a multivariate mixed effects tobit model was used to obtain the posterior distribution of pathogen concentrations, and their interdependencies, in soil and surface water, based upon empirical data of enteric pathogen contamination in three neighborhoods of Kisumu. Then, exposure doses were estimated using behavioral contact parameters from previous studies and contrasted under different exposure conditions. Pathogen presence and concentration in soil varied widely across local (< 25 meter radius area) and neighborhood-level scales, but pathogens were correlated among distinct surface water samples collected near to each other. Multi-pathogen exposure of children at public play areas was common. Pathogen doses and the probability of multi-pathogen ingestion increased with: higher frequency of environmental contact, especially for surface water; larger volume of soil or water ingested; and with play at multiple sites in the neighborhood versus single site play. Child contact with surface water and soil at public play areas in their neighborhood is an important cause of exposure to enteric pathogens in Kisumu, and behavioral, environmental, and spatial conditions are determinants of exposure.


Asunto(s)
Agua Dulce/microbiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Microbiología del Suelo , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Heces/microbiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/microbiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia/epidemiología , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759722

RESUMEN

Pediatric diarrheal disease remains the second most common cause of preventable illness and death among children under the age of five, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited information regarding the role of food in pathogen transmission in LMICs. For this study, we examined the frequency of enteric pathogen occurrence and co-occurrence in 127 infant weaning foods in Kisumu, Kenya, using a multi-pathogen PCR diagnostic tool, and assessed household food hygiene risk factors for contamination. Bacterial, viral, and protozoan enteric pathogen DNA and RNA were detected in 62% of the infant weaning food samples collected, with 37% of foods containing more than one pathogen type. Multivariable generalized linear mixed model analysis indicated type of infant food best explained the presence and diversity of enteric pathogens in infant food, while most household food hygiene risk factors considered in this study were not significantly associated with pathogen contamination. Specifically, cow's milk was significantly more likely to contain a pathogen (adjusted risk ratio = 14.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78⁻116.1) and more likely to have higher number of enteric pathogen species (adjusted risk ratio = 2.35; 95% CI 1.67⁻3.29) than porridge. Our study demonstrates that infants in this low-income urban setting are frequently exposed to diarrhoeagenic pathogens in food and suggests that interventions are needed to prevent foodborne transmission of pathogens to infants.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos , Alimentos Infantiles/microbiología , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia , Animales , Bovinos , Preescolar , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Leche/microbiología , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Hum Resour Health ; 16(1): 53, 2018 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Community health workers play an important role in health service delivery and are increasingly involved in behaviour change interventions, including for hygiene-related behaviour change. However, their role and capacity to deliver behaviour change interventions, particularly in high-density urban settlements, remain under-researched. This study examines the behaviour change-related activities of community health volunteers (CHVs)-community health workers affiliated with the Kenyan Ministry of Health-in a peri-urban settlement in Kenya, in order to assess their capabilities, opportunities to work effectively, and sources of motivation. METHODS: This mixed-methods study included a census of 16 CHVs who work in the study area. All CHVs participated in structured observations of their daily duties, structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and two focus group discussions. Structured data were analysed descriptively. Thematic content analysis was followed for qualitative data. Results were synthesized and interpreted using the capability, opportunity, motivation for behaviour change framework, COM-B. RESULTS: In addition to their responsibilities with the Ministry of Health, CHVs partnered with a range of non-governmental organizations engaged in health and development programming, often receiving small stipends from these organizations. CHVs reported employing a limited number of behaviour change techniques when interacting with community members at the household level. Capability: While supervision and support from the MOH was robust, CHV training was inconsistent and inadequate with regard to behaviour change and CHVs often lacked material resources necessary for their work. Opportunity: CHVs spent very little time with the households in their allocated catchment area. The number of households contacted per day was insufficient to reach all assigned households within a given month as required and the brief time spent with households limited the quality of engagement. MOTIVATION: Lack of compensation was noted as a demotivating factor for CHVs. This was compounded by the challenging social environment and CHVs' low motivation to encourage behaviour change in local communities. CONCLUSIONS: In a complex urban environment, CHVs faced challenges that limited their capacity to be involved in behaviour change interventions. More resources, better coordination, and additional training in modern behaviour change approaches are needed to ensure their optimal performance in implementing health programmes.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/psicología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Rol Profesional , Voluntarios/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Kenia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Urbana
11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205345, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, preterm birth (PTB) and low infant birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Inadequate water and sanitation access (WASH) are risk factors for PTB and LBW in low-income countries. Physical stress from carrying water and psychosocial stress from addressing sanitation needs in the open may be mechanisms underlying these associations. If so, then living in a community with strong social capital should be able to buffer the adverse effects of WASH on birth outcomes. The objective of this study is to assess the relationships between WASH access and social conditions (including harassment and social capital) on PTB and LBW outcomes among Indian women, and to test whether social conditions modified the association between WASH and birth outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This cohort study examined the effect of pre-birth WASH and social conditions on self-reported PTB status and LBW status for 7,926 women who gave birth between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Waves of the India Human Development Survey. PTB and LBW occurred in 14.9% and 15.5% of women, respectively. After adjusting for maternal biological and socioeconomic conditions, PTB was associated with sharing a building/compound latrine (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01, 2.38) versus private latrine access, but suggested an effect in the opposite direction for sharing a community/public latrine (OR = 0.67; CI = 0.45, 1.01). Open defecation, type of drinking water source, minutes per day spent fetching water, and one-way time to a drinking water source were not associated with PTB. LBW was associated with spending more than two hours per day fetching water compared to less than two hours (OR = 1.33; CI = 1.05, 1.70) and suggested an association with open defecation (OR = 1.22; CI = 1.00, 1.48), but was not associated with other types of sanitation, type of drinking water source, or time to a drinking water source. Harassment of women and girls in the community was associated with both PTB (OR = 1.33; CI = 1.09, 1.62) and LBW (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.03, 1.54). The data also showed a possible association of local crime with LBW (OR = 1.30; CI = 1.00, 1.68). Statistically significant (p<0.05) evidence of effect modification was only found for collective efficacy on the association between type of sanitation access and PTB. In addition, stratified analyses identified differences in effect size for walking time to the primary drinking water source and PTB by crime, sanitation access and PTB by harassment, and total hours per day fetching water and LBW by collective efficacy. Limitations of this observational study include risk of bias, inability to confirm causality, reliance on self-reported outcomes, and limited sub-group sample sizes for testing effect modification. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between adverse birth outcomes and sanitation access, domestic water fetching, crime, and gender-based harassment suggests physical and psychosocial stress are possible mechanisms by which WASH access affects PTB and LBW among Indian women. Interventions that reduce domestic responsibilities related to water and sanitation and change social norms related to gender-based harassment may reduce rates of PTB and LBW in India.


Asunto(s)
Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/epidemiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , India/epidemiología , Recién Nacido , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/etiología , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/patología , Resultado del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/etiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/patología , Factores de Riesgo , Acoso Sexual , Capital Social , Calidad del Agua
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081490

RESUMEN

Globally, gastrointestinal (GI) infections by enteric pathogens are the second-leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (≤5 years). While GI pathogen exposure in households has been rigorously examined, there is little data about young children's exposure in public domains. Moreover, public areas in low-income settings are often used for other waste disposal practices in addition to human feces, such as trash dumping in areas near households. If young children play in public domains, they might be exposed to interrelated and highly concentrated microbial, chemical, and physical hazards. This study performed structured observations at 36 public areas in an internally displaced persons community that has transitioned into a formal settlement in Haiti. We documented how often young children played in public areas and quantified behaviors that might lead to illness and injury. Children ≤5 years played at all public sites, which included infants who played at 47% of sites. Children touched and mouthed plastic, metal and glass trash, food and other objects from the ground, ate soil (geophagia) and drank surface water. They also touched latrines, animals, animal feces and open drainage canals. Hand-to-mouth contact was one of the most common behaviors observed and the rate of contact significantly differed among developmental stages (infants: 18/h, toddlers: 11/h and young children: 9/h), providing evidence that children could ingest trace amounts of animal/human feces on hands that may contain GI pathogens. These findings demonstrate that water, sanitation and hygiene interventions could be more effective if they consider exposure risks to feces in public domains. Furthermore, this research highlights the need for waste-related interventions to address the broader set of civil conditions that create unsafe, toxic and contaminated public environments where young children play.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Animales , Salud del Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/etiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/etiología , Haití , Humanos , Higiene , Lactante , Masculino , Juego e Implementos de Juego/lesiones , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Campos de Refugiados , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento , Calidad del Agua
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(18): 10263-10274, 2018 09 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106283

RESUMEN

Young children are infected by a diverse range of enteric pathogens in high disease burden settings, suggesting pathogen contamination of the environment is equally diverse. This study aimed to characterize across- and within-neighborhood diversity in enteric pathogen contamination of public domains in urban informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya, and to assess the relationship between pathogen detection patterns and human and domestic animal sanitation conditions. Microbial contamination of soil and surface water from 166 public sites in three Kisumu neighborhoods was measured by enterococcal assays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for 19 enteric pathogens. Regression was used to assess the association between observed sanitary indicators of contamination with enterococci and pathogen presence and concentration, and pathogen diversity. Seventeen types of pathogens were detected in Kisumu public domains. Enteric pathogens were codetected in 33% of soil and 65% of surface water samples. Greater pathogen diversity was associated with the presence of domestic animal feces but not with human open defecation, deteriorating latrines, flies, or disposal of human feces. Sanitary conditions were not associated with enterococcal bacteria, specific pathogen concentrations, or "any pathogen". Young children played at 40% of observed sites. Managing domestic animal feces may be required to reduce enteric pathogen environmental contamination in high-burden settings.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Niño , Preescolar , Heces , Humanos , Kenia
14.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199304, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969466

RESUMEN

Exposure to fecal contamination in public areas, especially in dense, urban environments, may significantly contribute to enteric infection risk. This study examined associations between sanitation and fecal contamination in public environments in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. Soil (n = 72) and open drain (n = 90) samples were tested for E. coli, adenovirus, and norovirus. Sanitation facilities in surveyed households (n = 793) were categorized by onsite fecal sludge containment ("contained" vs. "uncontained") using previous Joint Monitoring Program infrastructure guidelines. Most sanitation facilities were shared by multiple households. Associations between spatial clustering of household sanitation coverage and fecal contamination were examined, controlling for neighborhood and population density (measured as enumeration areas in the 2010 census and spatially matched to sample locations). E. coli concentrations in drains within 50m of clusters of contained household sanitation were more than 3 log-units lower than those outside of clusters. Further, although results were not always statistically significant, E. coli concentrations in drains showed consistent trends with household sanitation coverage clusters: concentrations were lower in or near clusters of high coverage of household sanitation facilities-especially contained facilities-and vice versa. Virus detection in drains and E. coli concentrations in soil were not significantly associated with clustering of any type of household sanitation and did not exhibit consistent trends. Population density alone was not significantly associated with any of the fecal contamination outcomes by itself and was a significant, yet inconsistent, effect modifier of the association between sanitation clusters and E. coli concentrations. These findings suggest clustering of contained household sanitation, even when shared, may be associated with lower levels of fecal contamination within drains in the immediate public domain. Further research is needed to better quantify these relationships and examine impacts on health.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/análisis , Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis por Conglomerados , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Heces/virología , Ghana , Humanos , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Densidad de Población , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/economía , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos
15.
Pathog Glob Health ; 112(4): 195-202, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874978

RESUMEN

Epidemiological studies have identified an increased risk of diarrheal diseases associated with using shared sanitation facilities. We hypothesized that this might be related to differences in transmission routes of pathogens. We proposed a mathematical model of two fictitious pathogens, one transmitted with an environmental reservoir and one without. We assumed that individuals susceptible to one pathogen are not susceptible to the other, and therefore, decoupled the two models. We initialized the model with 99% individuals being susceptible. We sampled the parameter space using Latin Hypercube Sampling. We simulated 10,000 parameter sets. We varied the effective shared sanitation coverage (the product of latrine coverage and users' compliance). Our results show that, in our hypothetical scenario, across all levels of effective coverage of shared sanitation, the median final cumulative incidence of diarrheal disease was higher than that of zero coverage. Our simulation findings suggest that increasing effective coverage of shared sanitation may have limited benefits against diarrhea-causing pathogens with an environmental reservoir and may lack benefit against diarrhea-causing pathogens without an environmental reservoir given increased human contacts if latrines are poorly maintained.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Modelos Teóricos , Saneamiento/métodos , Cuartos de Baño , Humanos , Incidencia
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(5): 1250-1259, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557327

RESUMEN

In crowded urban settlements in low-income countries, many households rely on shared sanitation facilities. Shared facilities are not currently considered "improved sanitation" because of concerns about whether hygiene conditions sufficiently protect users from the feces of others. Prevention of fecal exposure at a latrine is only one aspect of sanitary safety. Ensuring consistent use of latrines for feces disposal, especially child feces, is required to reduce fecal contamination in households and communities. Household crowding and shared latrine access are correlated in these settings, rendering latrine use by neighbors sharing communal living areas as critically important for protecting one's own household. This study in Accra, Ghana, found that household access to a within-compound basic latrine was associated with higher latrine use by children of ages 5-12 years and for disposal of feces of children < 5 years, compared with households using public latrines. However, within-compound access was not associated with improved child feces disposal by other caregivers in the compound. Feces was rarely observed in household compounds but was observed more often in compounds with latrines versus compounds relying on public latrines. Escherichia coli and human adenovirus were detected frequently on household surfaces, but concentrations did not differ when compared by latrine access or usage practices. The differences in latrine use for households sharing within-compound versus public latrines in Accra suggest that disaggregated shared sanitation categories may be useful in monitoring global progress in sanitation coverage. However, compound access did not completely ensure that households were protected from feces and microbial contamination.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Cuidadores , Composición Familiar , Heces , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Madres
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364184

RESUMEN

Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3-9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior. Data were collected through structured observations of 25 index infants for the oral contact data and 25 households for the caregiver handwashing data in a peri-urban setting in Kisumu (Obunga), Kenya. Breast was the most common type of oral contact event with an average of 3.00 per observation period and 0.5 events per hour. This was followed by a range of physical objects with an average of 2.49 per observation and 0.4 events per hour. The "infant's own hands" was the third most common oral contact, with an average of 2.16 events per hour, and 0.4 oral contact events per hour. Food and liquids were the 4th and 5th most common oral contact events with an average of 1.64 food contacts and 0.52 liquid oral contact events per observation period. Feeding events, including breastfeeding, were the most commonly observed key juncture-71% of total junctures observed were caregivers feeding children. This was followed by child cleaning (23%), caregiver toilet uses at (4%), and lastly food preparation at 2%. HWWS was observed only once before a feeding event (1%), twice after cleaning a child (9%), and twice after caregiver toilet use (40%). The combined implication of data from observing oral contact behavior in children and hand hygiene of caregivers suggests that caregiver hand hygiene prior to feeding events and after cleaning a child are priority interventions.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Heces/microbiología , Higiene de las Manos , Lactancia Materna , Diarrea Infantil/prevención & control , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia , Masculino , Boca
18.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0188234, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206842

RESUMEN

Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot be inferred from this study design. Future research is needed to understand whether improvements in water and sanitation access could improve the practice of safe hygiene behaviors and reduce the global burden of RTIs in women.


Asunto(s)
Higiene , Menarquia , Menopausia , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Abastecimiento de Agua , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Adulto Joven
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1009-1019, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031283

RESUMEN

Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (108-1016 CFU/day for Escherichia coli) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Heces , Contaminación de Alimentos , Teorema de Bayes , Preescolar , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
PLoS Med ; 13(5): e1002010, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27138888

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. METHODS/FINDINGS: The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged <5 y old experiencing MSD and for 12,390 asymptomatic age, gender, and neighborhood-matched controls. An MSD case was defined as a child with a diarrheal illness <7 d duration comprising ≥3 loose stools in 24 h and ≥1 of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, dysentery, intravenous (IV) rehydration, or hospitalization. Site-specific conditional logistic regression models were used to explore the association between sanitation and hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children <5 y old in Kenya. Sharing sanitation facilities with 1-2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of MSD in children. These findings support the current World Health Organization/ United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) system that categorizes shared sanitation as unimproved.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Higiene , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Preescolar , Diarrea/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
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