Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 45
Filtrar
1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191578

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of infected humans and hundreds of thousands of fatalities. As the novel disease - referred to as COVID-19 - unfolded, occasional anthropozoonotic infections of animals by owners or caretakers were reported in dogs, felid species and farmed mink. Further species were shown to be susceptible under experimental conditions. The extent of natural infections of animals, however, is still largely unknown. Serological methods will be useful tools for tracing SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals once test systems are evaluated for use in different species. Here, we developed an indirect multi-species ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. The newly established ELISA was evaluated using 59 sera of infected or vaccinated animals, including ferrets, raccoon dogs, hamsters, rabbits, chickens, cattle and a cat, and a total of 220 antibody-negative sera of the same animal species. Overall, a diagnostic specificity of 100.0% and sensitivity of 98.31% were achieved, and the functionality with every species included in this study could be demonstrated. Hence, a versatile and reliable ELISA protocol was established that enables high-throughput antibody detection in a broad range of animal species, which may be used for outbreak investigations, to assess the seroprevalence in susceptible species or to screen for reservoir or intermediate hosts.

2.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 383, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a fatal neurologic disease of farmed mink. Evidence indicates that TME and L-BSE are similar and may be linked in some outbreaks of TME. We previously transmitted bovine adapted TME (bTME) to sheep. The present study compared ovine passaged bTME (o-bTME) to C-BSE and L-BSE in transgenic mice expressing wild type bovine prion protein (TgBovXV). To directly compare the transmission efficiency of all prion strains in this study, we considered the attack rates and mean incubation periods. Additional methods for strain comparison were utilized including lesion profiles, fibril stability, and western blotting. RESULTS: Sheep donor genotype elicited variable disease phenotypes in bovinized mice. Inoculum derived from a sheep with the VRQ/VRQ genotype (o-bTMEVV) resulted in an attack rate, incubation period, western blot profile, and neuropathology most similar to bTME and L-BSE. Conversely, donor material from a sheep with the VRQ/ARQ genotype (o-bTMEAV) elicited a phenotype distinct from o-bTMEVV, bTME and L-BSE. The TSE with the highest transmission efficiency in bovinized mice was L-BSE. The tendency to efficiently transmit to TgBovXV mice decreased in the order bTME, C-BSE, o-bTMEVV, and o-bTMEAV. The transmission efficiency of L-BSE was approximately 1.3 times higher than o-bTMEVV and 3.2 times higher than o-bTMEAV. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight on how sheep host genotype modulates strain genesis and influences interspecies transmission characteristics. Given that the transmission efficiencies of L-BSE and bTME are higher than C-BSE, coupled with previous reports of L-BSE transmission to mice expressing the human prion protein, continued monitoring for atypical BSE is advisable in order to prevent occurrences of interspecies transmission that may affect humans or other species.

3.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114178

RESUMEN

Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne zoonotic pathogen, which is endemic in Africa, causing large epidemics, characterized by severe diseases in ruminants but also in humans. As in vitro and field investigations proposed amphibians and reptiles to potentially play a role in the enzootic amplification of the virus, we experimentally infected African common toads and common agamas with two RVFV strains. Lymph or sera, as well as oral, cutaneous and anal swabs were collected from the challenged animals to investigate seroconversion, viremia and virus shedding. Furthermore, groups of animals were euthanized 3, 10 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) to examine viral loads in different tissues during the infection. Our data show for the first time that toads are refractory to RVFV infection, showing neither seroconversion, viremia, shedding nor tissue manifestation. In contrast, all agamas challenged with the RVFV strain ZH501 carried virus genomes in the spleens at 3 dpi, but the animals displayed neither viremia nor virus shedding. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that amphibians are not susceptible and reptiles are only susceptible to a low extent to RVFV, indicating that both species play, if at all, rather a subordinate role in the RVF virus ecology.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 2982-2985, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089771

RESUMEN

Raccoon dogs might have been intermediate hosts for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in 2002-2004. We demonstrated susceptibility of raccoon dogs to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and transmission to in-contact animals. Infected animals had no signs of illness. Virus replication and tissue lesions occurred in the nasal conchae.

5.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3023-3072, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888050

RESUMEN

In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.


Asunto(s)
Mononegavirales/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto
6.
Lancet Microbe ; 1(5): e218-e225, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838346

RESUMEN

Background: In December, 2019, a novel zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus emerged in China. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became pandemic within weeks and the number of human infections and severe cases is increasing. We aimed to investigate the susceptibilty of potential animal hosts and the risk of anthropozoonotic spill-over infections. Methods: We intranasally inoculated nine fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), ferrets (Mustela putorius), pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), and 17 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) with 105 TCID50 of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate per animal. Direct contact animals (n=3) were included 24 h after inoculation to test viral transmission. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and for virus shedding by nucleic acid extraction from nasal washes and rectal swabs (ferrets), oral swabs and pooled faeces samples (fruit bats), nasal and rectal swabs (pigs), or oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs (chickens) on days 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 21 after infection by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). On days 4, 8, and 12, two inoculated animals (or three in the case of chickens) of each species were euthanised, and all remaining animals, including the contacts, were euthanised at day 21. All animals were subjected to autopsy and various tissues were collected for virus detection by RT-qPCR, histopathology immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 reactive antibodies was tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralisation test in samples collected before inoculation and at autopsy. Findings: Pigs and chickens were not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. All swabs, organ samples, and contact animals were negative for viral RNA, and none of the pigs or chickens seroconverted. Seven (78%) of nine fruit bats had a transient infection, with virus detectable by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridisation in the nasal cavity, associated with rhinitis. Viral RNA was also identified in the trachea, lung, and lung-associated lymphatic tissue in two animals euthanised at day 4. One of three contact bats became infected. More efficient virus replication but no clinical signs were observed in ferrets, with transmission to all three direct contact animals. Mild rhinitis was associated with viral antigen detection in the respiratory and olfactory epithelium. Prominent viral RNA loads of 0-104 viral genome copies per mL were detected in the upper respiratory tract of fruit bats and ferrets, and both species developed SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies reaching neutralising titres of up to 1/1024 after 21 days. Interpretation: Pigs and chickens could not be infected intranasally by SARS-CoV-2, whereas fruit bats showed characteristics of a reservoir host. Virus replication in ferrets resembled a subclinical human infection with efficient spread. Ferrets might serve as a useful model for further studies-eg, testing vaccines or antivirals. Funding: German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture.

7.
J Gen Virol ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589123

RESUMEN

While the presence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infectivity in the blood of clinically affected sheep has been proven by intraspecies blood-transfusion experiments, this question has remained open in the case of BSE-affected cattle. Although the absence of infectivity can be anticipated from the restriction of the agent to neuronal tissues in this species, evidence for this was still lacking. This particularly concerns the production and use of medicinal products and other applications containing bovine blood or preparations thereof. We therefore performed a blood-transfusion experiment from cattle in the clinical end stage of disease after experimental challenge with either classical (C-BSE) or atypical (H- and l-) BSE into calves at 4-6 months of age. The animals were kept in a free-ranging group for 10 years. Starting from 24 months post-transfusion, a thorough clinical examination was performed every 6 weeks in order to detect early symptoms of a BSE infection. Throughout the experiment, the clinical picture of all animals gave no indication of a BSE infection. Upon necropsy, the brainstem samples were analysed by BSE rapid test as well as by the highly sensitive Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA), all with negative results. These results add resilient data to confirm the absence of BSE infectivity in the donor blood collected from C-, H- and l-BSE-affected cattle even in the final clinical phase of the disease. This finding has important implications for the risk assessment of bovine blood and blood products in the production of medicinal products and other preparations.

8.
J Gen Virol ; 100(12): 1593-1594, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609197

RESUMEN

The family Paramyxoviridae consists of large enveloped RNA viruses infecting mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Many paramyxoviruses are host-specific and several, such as measles virus, mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and several parainfluenza viruses, are pathogenic for humans. The transmission of paramyxoviruses is horizontal, mainly through airborne routes; no vectors are known. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Paramyxoviridae. which is available at ictv.global/report/paramyxoviridae.


Asunto(s)
Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Paramyxoviridae/clasificación , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Paramyxoviridae/fisiología , Paramyxoviridae/ultraestructura , Navegador Web
9.
Prion ; 13(1): 160-172, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476957

RESUMEN

After the discovery of two atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) forms in France and Italy designated H- and L-BSE, the question arose whether these new forms differed from classical BSE (C-BSE) in their pathogenesis. Samples collected from cattle in the clinical stage of BSE during an intracranial challenge study with L- and H-BSE were analysed using biochemical and histological methods as well as in a transgenic mouse bioassay. Our results generally confirmed what had been described for C-BSE to be true also for both atypical BSE forms, namely the restriction of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc) and BSE infectivity to the nervous system. However, analysis of samples collected under identical conditions from both atypical H- and L-BSE forms allowed us a more precise assessment of the grade of involvement of different tissues during the clinical end stage of disease as compared to C-BSE. One important feature is the involvement of the peripheral nervous and musculoskeletal tissues in both L-BSE and H-BSE affected cattle. We were, however, able to show that in H-BSE cases, the PrPSc depositions in the central and peripheral nervous system are dominated by a glial pattern, whereas a neuronal deposition pattern dominates in L-BSE cases, indicating differences in the cellular and topical tropism of both atypical BSE forms. As a consequence of this cell tropism, H-BSE seems to spread more rapidly from the CNS into the periphery via the glial cell system such as Schwann cells, as opposed to L-BSE which is mostly propagated via neuronal cells.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos , Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina/diagnóstico , Proteínas PrPSc/análisis , Animales , Bovinos/fisiología , Sistema Nervioso Central/patología , Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina/patología , Femenino , Ratones , Neuroglía/patología , Neuronas/patología , Médula Espinal/patología , Ganglio del Trigémino/patología
10.
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(7): 455-465, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985268

RESUMEN

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are closely related members within the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, for which fruit bats serve as the reservoir. The initial emergence of NiV infections in pigs and humans in Malaysia, and HeV infections in horses and humans in Australia, posed severe impacts on human and animal health, and continues threatening lives of humans and livestock within Southeast Asia and Australia. Recently, henipavirus-specific antibodies have also been detected in fruit bats in a number of sub-Saharan African countries and in Brazil, thereby considerably increasing the known geographic distribution of henipaviruses. Africa is progressively being recognized as a new high prevalence zone for henipaviruses, as deduced from serological and molecular evidence of past infections in Madagascar, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Gulf of Guinea, Zambia, Tanzania, Cameroon, and Nigeria lately. Serological data suggest henipavirus spillover from bats to livestock and human populations in Africa without reported clinical disease in any of these species. All virus isolation attempts have been abortive, highlighting the need for further investigations. The genome of the Ghanaian bat henipavirus designated Ghana virus (GhV), which was detected in a pteropid Eidolon helvum bat, is the only African henipavirus that has been completely sequenced limiting our current knowledge on the genetic diversity and pathogenesis of African henipaviruses. In this review, we summarize the available data on the circulation of henipaviruses in Africa, discuss potential sources for virus spillover, and highlight existing research gaps.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/epidemiología , Henipavirus , África/epidemiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Henipavirus/virología , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Zoonosis/virología
12.
Arch Virol ; 164(4): 1233-1244, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663023

RESUMEN

In October 2018, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the establishment of three new families and three new genera, abolishment of two genera, and creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).


Asunto(s)
Mononegavirales/clasificación , Mononegavirales/genética , Mononegavirales/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Virología/organización & administración
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(2): 921-928, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576076

RESUMEN

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), belonging to the genus Henipavirus, are among the most pathogenic of viruses in humans. Old World fruit bats (family Pteropodidae) are the natural reservoir hosts. Molecular and serological studies found evidence of henipavirus infection in fruit bats from several African countries. However, little is known about the potential for spillover into domestic animals in East Africa, particularly pigs, which served as amplifying hosts during the first outbreak of NiV in Malaysia and Singapore. We collected sera from 661 pigs presented for slaughter in Uganda between December 2015 and October 2016. Using HeV G and NiV G indirect ELISAs, 14 pigs (2%) were seroreactive in at least one ELISA. Seroprevalence increased to 5.4% in October 2016, when pigs were 9.5 times more likely to be seroreactive than pigs sampled in December 2015 (p = 0.04). Eight of the 14 ELISA-positive samples reacted with HeV N antigen in Western blot. None of the sera neutralized HeV or NiV in plaque reduction neutralization tests. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibodies, our results suggest that pigs in Uganda are exposed to henipaviruses or henipa-like viruses. Pigs in this study were sourced from many farms throughout Uganda, suggesting multiple (albeit rare) introductions of henipaviruses into the pig population. We postulate that given the widespread distribution of Old World fruit bats in Africa, spillover of henipaviruses from fruit bats to pigs in Uganda could result in exposure of pigs at multiple locations. A higher risk of a spillover event at the end of the dry season might be explained by higher densities of bats and contact with pigs at this time of the year, exacerbated by nutritional stress in bat populations and their reproductive cycle. Future studies should prioritize determining the risk of spillover of henipaviruses from pigs to people, so that potential risks can be mitigated.


Asunto(s)
Virus Hendra/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Virus Nipah/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Infecciones por Henipavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/virología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Uganda/epidemiología
14.
Viruses ; 10(12)2018 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513679

RESUMEN

Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), the causative agent of an emerging zoonotic disease in Africa and Arabia, can infect a variety of species, predominantly ruminants, camelids, and humans. While clinical symptoms are mostly absent in adult ruminants and camelids, RVFV infection may lead to a serious, sometimes fatal disease in humans. Virus transmissions between individuals and between species mainly occur through mosquito bites, but direct or even indirect contact with infectious materials may also result in infection. Although the main reservoir of the virus is not yet identified, small mammals such as rodents and bats may act as amplifying hosts. We therefore inoculated Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats that are abundant in northern Africa with the vaccine strain MP-12, in order to elucidate the general competence of this species for virus propagation and transmission. We were able to detect the RVFV genome in the spleen of each of these animals, and re-isolated the virus from the spleen and liver of some animals. Moreover, we were able to identify the Gc RVFV surface antigen in mild subacute multifocal necrotizing hepatic lesions of one bat which was sacrificed 7 days post exposure. These findings demonstrate that Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats can propagate RVFV.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/inmunología , Quirópteros/virología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/prevención & control , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Línea Celular , Femenino , Hígado/inmunología , Hígado/patología , Hígado/virología , Masculino , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/sangre , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/inmunología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/patología , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/clasificación , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/genética , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/aislamiento & purificación , Pruebas Serológicas
15.
Comp Med ; 68(6): 489-495, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486920

RESUMEN

Here we report a case of severe growth retardation and neurologic abnormalities in a female gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a small NHP species for which the genomic sequence recently became available. The female lemur we present here died on postnatal day 125. This lemur had impaired development of motor skills and showed severe ataxia and tremors. In addition, hearing seemed normal whereas ophthalmic examination revealed incipient bilateral cataracts, abnormal pigmentation in the lens of the left eye, and a missing optokinetic nystagmus, which indicated impaired vision. Most prominently, the lemur showed severe growth retardation. Necropsy revealed maldevelopment of the left reproductive organs and unilateral dilation of the right lateral ventricle, which was confirmed on brain MRI. Brain histology further revealed large, bilateral areas of vacuolation within the brainstem, but immunohistochemistry indicated no sign of pathologic prion protein deposition. Full genomic sequencing of the lemur revealed a probably pathologic mutation in LARGE2 of the LARGE gene family, which has been associated with congenital muscular dystrophies. However, potentially functional mutations in other genes were also present. The observed behavioral and motor signs in the presented animal might have been linked to spongiform degeneration and resulting brainstem dysfunction and progressive muscle weakness. The macroscopic developmental abnormalities and ophthalmic findings might be genetic in origin and linked to the mutation in LARGE2.


Asunto(s)
Cheirogaleidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Trastornos del Crecimiento/veterinaria , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Primates/patología , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/veterinaria , Animales , Conducta Animal , Tronco Encefálico/patología , Cheirogaleidae/anatomía & histología , Cheirogaleidae/genética , Ojo/patología , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/patología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/patología , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/genética , Síndrome de Walker-Warburg/patología
16.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S305-S311, 2018 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982580

RESUMEN

Many human ebolavirus outbreaks have been linked to contact with wildlife including nonhuman primates and bats, which are assumed to serve as host species. However, it is largely unknown to what extent other animal species, particularly livestock, are involved in the transmission cycle or act as additional hosts for filoviruses. Pigs were identified as a susceptible host for Reston virus with subsequent transmission to humans reported in the Philippines. To date, there is no evidence of natural Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in pigs, although pigs were shown to be susceptible to EBOV infection under experimental settings. To investigate the potential role of pigs in the ecology of EBOV, we analyzed 400 porcine serum samples from Sierra Leone for the presence of ebolavirus-specific antibodies. Three samples reacted with ebolavirus nucleoproteins but had no neutralizing antibodies. Our results (1) suggest the circulation of ebolaviruses in swine in Sierra Leone that are antigenically related but not identical to EBOV and (2) could represent undiscovered ebolaviruses with unknown pathogenic and/or zoonotic potential.


Asunto(s)
Ebolavirus/genética , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Porcinos/virología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/sangre , Animales Salvajes/inmunología , Animales Salvajes/virología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Ebolavirus/inmunología , Femenino , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/sangre , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Nucleoproteínas/inmunología , Filipinas , Suero/inmunología , Suero/virología , Sierra Leona
17.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194385, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708971

RESUMEN

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990's causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans. Bats of the genus Pteropus have been identified as the reservoir hosts for henipaviruses. Molecular and serological indications for the presence of henipa-like viruses in African fruit bats, pigs and humans have been published recently. In our study, truncated forms of HeV and NiV attachment (G) proteins as well as the full-length NiV nucleocapsid (N) protein were expressed using different expression systems. Based on these recombinant proteins, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) were developed for the detection of HeV or NiV specific antibodies in porcine serum samples. We used the NiV N ELISA for initial serum screening considering the general reactivity against henipaviruses. The G protein based ELISAs enabled the differentiation between HeV and NiV infections, since as expected, the sera displayed higher reactivity with the respective homologous antigens. In the future, these assays will present valuable tools for serosurveillance of swine and possibly other livestock or wildlife species in affected areas. Such studies will help assessing the potential risk for human and animal health worldwide by elucidating the distribution of henipaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Virus Hendra/metabolismo , Virus Nipah/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Infecciones por Henipavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/patología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Leishmania/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Microscopía Fluorescente , Pruebas de Neutralización , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/genética , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biosíntesis , Proteínas Recombinantes/inmunología , Proteínas Recombinantes/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo
18.
Vet Res ; 48(1): 88, 2017 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258602

RESUMEN

In classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), an orally acquired prion disease of cattle, the ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) represents the main entry port for the BSE agent. In earlier C-BSE pathogenesis studies, cattle at 4-6 months of age were orally challenged, while there are strong indications that the risk of infection is highest in young animals. In the present study, unweaned calves aged 4-6 weeks were orally challenged to determine the earliest time point at which newly formed PrPBSE and BSE infectivity are detectable in the IPP. For this purpose, calves were culled 1 week as well as 2, 4, 6 and 8 months post-infection (mpi) and IPPs were examined for BSE infectivity using a bovine PrP transgenic mouse bioassay, and for PrPBSE by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) assays. For the first time, BSE prions were detected in the IPP as early as 2 mpi by transgenic mouse bioassay and PMCA and 4 mpi by IHC in the follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) of the IPP follicles. These data indicate that BSE prions propagate in the IPP of unweaned calves within 2 months of oral uptake of the agent.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina/etiología , Ganglios Linfáticos Agregados/metabolismo , Proteínas Priónicas/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos
19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0173873, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403205

RESUMEN

A retrospective study was carried out to define the spectrum of spontaneous diseases in ostriches and few other captive ratites, order Struthioniformes, in northwestern Germany. The investigation included 71 ratites necropsied between 1968 and 2014. They consisted of 54 ostriches, 5 emus, and 12 rheas with 37 adults, 23 juveniles and 11 neonates and embryonated eggs. Necropsy reports were reviewed, histologic preparations were re-examined and additional histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were carried out in selected cases. In many animals more than one morphologic diagnosis attributable to different disease processes was found. In adult animals (n = 37), the most commonly altered organ systems were the musculoskeletal system (49%), the digestive system (46%), and the cardiovascular system (46%) affected by traumatic lesions, inflammatory and degenerative changes, respectively. A spongy degeneration was found in the brain (35%); however, immunohistochemistry and western blotting failed to detect pathological prion protein. In juvenile animals (n = 23), the musculoskeletal (44%) and the digestive system (43%) were mainly affected by traumatic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. In embryonated eggs and neonates (n = 11) the major cause of death was circulatory failure associated with generalized subcutaneous edema as described for improper incubation conditions (64%). Summarized, most of the findings observed in adult and juvenile ratites in northwestern Germany are related to trauma, inflammatory and degenerative disorders, whereas death in embryonated eggs and neonates was most likely related to breeding conditions. A spongy encephalopathy awaits further studies to elucidate cause and pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Struthioniformes , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/etiología , Femenino , Alemania , Masculino
20.
Viruses ; 9(2)2017 02 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230787

RESUMEN

Bats belong to the order Chiroptera that represents the second largest order of mammals with more than 1200 species and an almost global distribution. Environmental changes and deforestation have severely influenced many ecosystems, intensifying the contact between wildlife and humans. In recent years, bats have been found to harbor a number of different viruses with zoonotic potential, as well as a great diversity of astroviruses, for which the question of zoonotic potential remains unanswered to date. Human astroviruses have been identified as the causative agent for diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. For a long time, astroviruses have been considered to be strictly species-specific. However, a great genetic diversity has recently been discovered among animal and human astroviruses that might indicate the potential of these viruses to cross species barriers. Furthermore, our knowledge about the tissue tropism of astroviruses has been expanded to some neurotropic strains that have recently been shown to be responsible for encephalitis in humans and livestock. This review gives an overview on what is known about astroviruses in bats, humans and livestock, especially bovines and pigs. Future research activities are suggested to unravel astrovirus infection dynamics in bat populations to further assess the zoonotic potential of these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Quirópteros/virología , Mamastrovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/virología , Humanos , Ganado
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...