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1.
J Nat Prod ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124806

RESUMEN

Synthetic analogues of the marine natural product sintokamides have been prepared in order to investigate the structure-activity relationships for the androgen receptor N-terminal domain (AR NTD) antagonist activity of the sintokamide scaffold. An in vitro LNCaP cell-based transcriptional activity assay with an androgen-driven luciferase (Luc) reporter was used to monitor the potency of analogues. The data have shown that the chlorine atoms on the leucine side chains are essential for potent activity. Analogues missing the nonchlorinated methyl groups of the leucine side chains (C-1 and C-17) are just as active and in some cases more active than the natural products. Analogues with the natural R configuration at C-10 and the unnatural R configuration at C-4 are most potent. Replacing the natural propionamide N-terminus cap with the more sterically hindered pivaloylamide N-terminus cap leads to enhanced potency. The tetramic acid fragment and the methyl ether on the tetramic acid fragment are essential for activity. The SAR optimized analogue 76 is more selective, easier to synthesize, more potent, and presumed to be more resistant to proteolysis than the natural sintokamides.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708219

RESUMEN

Blocking androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves the response to radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Unfortunately, ADT, antiandrogens, and abiraterone increase expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR (AR-Vs) which regulate DNA damage repair leading to resistance to radiotherapy. Here we investigate whether blocking the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-Vs with ralaniten leads to enhanced sensitivity to radiotherapy. Combination therapies using ralaniten with ionizing radiation were evaluated for effects on proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, DNA damage, and Western blot analyses in human prostate cancer cells that express both full-length AR and AR-Vs. Ralaniten and a potent next-generation analog (EPI-7170) decreased expression of DNA repair genes whereas enzalutamide had no effect. FACS analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease of BrdU incorporation with increased accumulation of γH2AX with a combination of ionizing radiation with ralaniten. An additive inhibitory effect on proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant cells was achieved with a combination of ralaniten compounds with ionizing radiation. Ralaniten and EPI-7170 sensitized prostate cancer cells that express full-length AR and AR-Vs to radiotherapy whereas enzalutamide had no added benefit.

3.
Org Lett ; 22(11): 4053-4057, 2020 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283033

RESUMEN

Methods for the focused isolation of low-abundance natural products with specific chemical substructures could expand known bioactive chemical diversity for drug discovery. Here we report the combined use of genome mining and an 15N NMR-based screening method for the targeted isolation of the low-abundance piperazic-acid-containing peptides incarnatapeptins A (1) and B (3). Incarnatapeptin B (3) shows in vitro cytotoxicity to LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 291(42): 22231-22243, 2016 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576691

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). All current hormone therapies for CRPC target the C-terminal ligand-binding domain of AR and ultimately all fail with resumed AR transcriptional activity. Within the AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is activation function-1 (AF-1) that is essential for AR transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of AR AF-1 would potentially block most AR mechanisms of resistance including constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the ligand-binding domain. Here we provide evidence that sintokamide A (SINT1) binds AR AF-1 region to specifically inhibit transactivation of AR NTD. Consistent with SINT1 targeting AR AF-1, it attenuated transcriptional activities of both full-length AR and constitutively active AR splice variants, which correlated with inhibition of growth of enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells expressing AR splice variants. In vivo, SINT1 caused regression of CRPC xenografts and reduced expression of prostate-specific antigen, a gene transcriptionally regulated by AR. Inhibition of AR activity by SINT1 was additive to EPI-002, a known AR AF-1 inhibitor that is in clinical trials (NCT02606123). This implies that SINT1 binds to a site on AF-1 that is unique from EPI. Consistent with this suggestion, these two compounds showed differences in blocking AR interaction with STAT3. This work provides evidence that the intrinsically disordered NTD of AR is druggable and that SINT1 analogs may provide a novel scaffold for drug development for the treatment of prostate cancer or other diseases of the AR axis.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Pirrolidinonas/farmacología , Receptores Androgénicos/biosíntesis , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Dominios Proteicos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacocinética , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/metabolismo
5.
JCI Insight ; 1(11)2016 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525313

RESUMEN

Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone. Both EPI-506 (NCT02606123) and galeterone (NCT02438007) are in clinical trials and are proposed to have efficacy against lesions that are positive for AR-Vs. AR activation function-1 (AF-1) is common to the N-terminal domains of full-length AR and AR-Vs. Here, we provide proof of concept for developing imaging compounds that directly bind AR AF-1 to detect both AR-Vs and full-length AR. 123I-EPI-002 had specific binding to AR AF-1, which enabled direct visualization of CRPC xenografts that express full-length AR and AR-Vs. Our findings highlight the potential of 123I-EPI-002 as an imaging agent for the detection of full-length AR and AR-Vs in CRPC.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(11): 2744-54, 2016 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712685

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in most castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC). Transcriptionally active androgen receptor (AR) plays a role in the majority of CRPCs. Therefore, cotargeting full-length (FL) AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling has been proposed as a possible, more effective therapeutic approach for CRPC. However, truncated AR-splice variants (AR-V) that are constitutively active and dominant over FL-AR are associated with tumor progression and resistance mechanisms in CRPC. It is currently unknown how blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impacts prostate cancer driven by AR-Vs. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of combination therapy to block mTOR activity together with EPI-002, an AR N-terminal domain (NTD) antagonist that blocks the transcriptional activities of FL-AR and AR-Vs in models of CRPC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To determine the functional roles of FL-AR, AR-Vs, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, we employed EPI-002 or enzalutamide and BEZ235 (low dose) or everolimus in human prostate cancer cells that express FL-AR or FL-AR and AR-Vs (LNCaP95). Gene expression and efficacy were examined in vitro and in vivo RESULTS: EPI-002 had antitumor activity in enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP95 cells that was associated with decreased expression of AR-V target genes (e.g., UBE2C). Inhibition of mTOR provided additional blockade of UBE2C expression. A combination of EPI-002 and BEZ235 decreased the growth of LNCaP95 cells in vitro and in vivo CONCLUSIONS: Cotargeting mTOR and AR-NTD to block transcriptional activities of FL-AR and AR-Vs provided maximum antitumor efficacy in PTEN-null, enzalutamide-resistant CRPC. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2744-54. ©2015 AACR.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Empalme Alternativo , Animales , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Everolimus/administración & dosificación , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glicerol/farmacología , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Feniltiohidantoína/administración & dosificación , Feniltiohidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Quinolinas/administración & dosificación , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
7.
Mol Oncol ; 2014 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25432105

RESUMEN

Taxane-based chemotherapy is an effective treatment for castration-resistant-prostate cancer (CRPC) via stabilization of microtubules. Previous studies identified that the inhibitory effect of microtubule-targeting chemotherapy on androgen receptor (AR) activity was conferred by interfering with AR intracellular trafficking. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of AR was identified as a tubulin-interacting domain that can be effectively targeted by the novel small molecule inhibitor, EPI. Taken together this evidence provided the rationale that targeting AR nuclear translocation and activity via a combination of an antagonist of the AR NTD and taxane-based chemotherapy may enhance the therapeutic response in CRPC. The present study investigated the anti-tumor efficacy of a combination of EPI with Docetaxel chemotherapy, in cell models of CRPC, harboring the AR splice variants in addition to the full length AR. Our findings demonstrate that there was no significant effect on the androgen-mediated nuclear transport of AR variants and AR transcriptional activity by Docetaxel. The therapeutic response to Docetaxel was enhanced by inhibition of the NTD of AR (by EPI) through cycling of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) to mesenchymal-epithelial-transition (MET) among prostate cancer epithelial cells. These results support that transient "programming" of EMT by the AR NTD inhibitor, potentially drives the sensitivity of prostate tumors with differential distribution of AR variants to microtubule-targeting chemotherapy. This study is of major significance in dissecting mechanisms to overcome taxane resistance in advanced CRPC.

8.
PLoS One ; 9(9): e107991, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268119

RESUMEN

Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S)-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R)-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1) region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Metribolona/farmacología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Receptores Androgénicos/fisiología , Estereoisomerismo , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos
9.
J Clin Invest ; 123(7): 2948-60, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23722902

RESUMEN

Hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD), but these ultimately fail and the disease progresses to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The mechanisms that drive CRPC are incompletely understood, but may involve constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD. The AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is essential for AR activity, but targeting this domain with small-molecule inhibitors is complicated by its intrinsic disorder. Here we investigated EPI-001, a small-molecule antagonist of AR NTD that inhibits protein-protein interactions necessary for AR transcriptional activity. We found that EPI analogs covalently bound the NTD to block transcriptional activity of AR and its splice variants and reduced the growth of CRPC xenografts. These findings suggest that the development of small-molecule inhibitors that bind covalently to intrinsically disordered proteins is a promising strategy for development of specific and effective anticancer agents.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Clorhidrinas/farmacología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/química , Animales , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/química , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/química , Células COS , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clorhidrinas/química , Química Clic , Expresión Génica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Genes Reporteros , Humanos , Luciferasas/biosíntesis , Luciferasas/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Orquiectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Unión Proteica , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Estereoisomerismo , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
10.
J Med Chem ; 55(1): 503-14, 2012 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22148427

RESUMEN

Extracts of the marine sponge Niphates digitalis collected in Dominica showed strong activity in a cell-based assay designed to detect antagonists of the androgen receptor (AR) that could act as lead compounds for the development of a new class of drugs to treat castration recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). Assay-guided fractionation showed that niphatenones A (3) and B (4), two new glycerol ether lipids, were the active components of the extracts. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data and confimed via total synthesis. Biological evaluation of synthetic analogues of the niphatenones has shown that the enantiomers 7 and 8 are more potent than the natural products in the screening assay and defined preliminary SAR for the new AR antagonist pharmacophore, including the finding that the Michael acceptor enone functionality is not required for activity. Niphatenone B (4) and its enantiomer 8 blocked androgen-induced proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation of PC3 prostate cancer cells that do not express functional AR, consistent with activity as AR antagonists. Use of the propargyl ether 44 and Click chemistry showed that niphatenone B binds covalently to the activation function-1 (AF1) region of the AR N-terminus domain (NTD).


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/química , Éteres de Glicerilo/química , Poríferos/química , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Animales , Antineoplásicos/síntesis química , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Éteres de Glicerilo/síntesis química , Éteres de Glicerilo/aislamiento & purificación , Éteres de Glicerilo/farmacología , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Conformación Molecular , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Estereoisomerismo , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Transcripción Genética/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Cancer Cell ; 17(6): 535-46, 2010 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20541699

RESUMEN

Castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC) is suspected to depend on androgen receptor (AR). The AF-1 region in the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of AR contains most, if not all, of the transcriptional activity. Here we identify EPI-001, a small molecule that blocked transactivation of the NTD and was specific for inhibition of AR without attenuating transcriptional activities of related steroid receptors. EPI-001 interacted with the AF-1 region, inhibited protein-protein interactions with AR, and reduced AR interaction with androgen-response elements on target genes. Importantly, EPI-001 blocked androgen-induced proliferation and caused cytoreduction of CRPC in xenografts dependent on AR for growth and survival without causing toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/uso terapéutico , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/uso terapéutico , Castración , Clorhidrinas/uso terapéutico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Andrógenos/farmacología , Animales , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/efectos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonales/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/efectos adversos , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Proteína de Unión a CREB/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhidrinas/efectos adversos , Clorhidrinas/farmacología , ADN/genética , ADN/metabolismo , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Ligandos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Estructura Molecular , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Próstata/anatomía & histología , Próstata/efectos de los fármacos , Próstata/patología , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangre , Antígeno Prostático Específico/genética , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Unión Proteica/efectos de los fármacos , Unión Proteica/genética , Conformación Proteica/efectos de los fármacos , Dominios y Motivos de Interacción de Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , Multimerización de Proteína/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/efectos de los fármacos , Elementos de Respuesta/genética , Serina Endopeptidasas/genética , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 13(22 Pt 1): 6816-26, 2007 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18006784

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: PCI-24781 is a novel broad spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor that is currently in phase I clinical trials. The ability of PCI-24781 to act as a radiation sensitizer and the mechanisms of radiosensitization were examined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Exponentially growing human SiHa cervical and WiDr colon carcinoma cells were exposed to 0.1 to 10 micromol/L PCI-24781 in vitro for 2 to 20 h before irradiation and 0 to 4 h after irradiation. Single cells and sorted populations were analyzed for histone acetylation, H2AX phosphorylation, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic fraction, and clonogenic survival. RESULTS: PCI-24781 treatment for 4 h increased histone H3 acetylation and produced a modest increase in gammaH2AX but negligible cell killing or radiosensitization. Treatment for 24 h resulted in up to 80% cell kill and depletion of cells in S phase. Toxicity reached maximum levels at a drug concentration of approximately 1 micromol/L, and cells in G(1) phase at the end of treatment were preferentially spared. A similar dose-modifying factor (DMF(0.1) = 1.5) was observed for SiHa cells exposed for 24 h at 0.1 to 3 micromol/L, and more radioresistant WiDr cells showed less sensitization (DMF(0.1) = 1.2). Limited radiosensitization and less killing were observed in noncycling human fibroblasts. Cell sorting experiments confirmed that depletion of S-phase cells was not a major mechanism of radiosensitization and that inner noncycling cells of SiHa spheroids could be sensitized by nontoxic doses. PCI-24781 pretreatment increased the fraction of cells with gammaH2AX foci 24 h after irradiation but did not affect the initial rate of loss of radiation-induced gammaH2AX or the rate of rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks. CONCLUSIONS: PCI-24781 shows promise as a radiosensitizing agent that may compromise the accuracy of repair of radiation damage.


Asunto(s)
Benzofuranos/farmacología , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Inhibidores de Histona Desacetilasas , Ácidos Hidroxámicos/farmacología , Tolerancia a Radiación/efectos de los fármacos , Fármacos Sensibilizantes a Radiaciones/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Roturas del ADN de Doble Cadena/efectos de los fármacos , Histonas/análisis , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos
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