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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133979, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998494

RESUMEN

The changes of capsaicinoids in the pericarp and placenta of Jeromin pepper fruits, collected at two different stages of plant's maturity (young and adult), has been studied throughout the ripening process. This variety is used in the production of "Pimentón de La Vera" and recognized under a Protected Designation of Origin, so it is of great importance to determine their optimum harvesting time to get the most of its beneficial health effects. Capsaicinoids reached the maximum concentration on the 30th days post-anthesis (dpa) for the young plant, while in the adult plant it was later, specifically on 40th and 60th dpa for the placenta and pericarp, respectively. From this moment on, a sharp decrease in their content is observed. In addition, higher amounts of total capsaicinoids have been found in the second stage of plant maturity with respect to the first one, both in the placenta and in the pericarp.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Capsaicina/análisis , Frutas/química
2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(6)2022 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736081

RESUMEN

Hallucinogenic fungi, mainly those from the Psilocybe genus, are being increasingly consumed even though there is no control on their culture conditions. Due to the therapeutic potential as antidepressants and anxiolytics of the alkaloids that they produce (psilocin and psilocybin), some form of control on their production would be highly recommended. Prior to identifying their optimal culture condition, a methodology that allows their study is required. Microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE) is a technique that has proven its efficiency to extract different compounds from solid matrices. For this reason, this study intends to optimize a MAE method to extract the alkaloids found in Psylocibe cubensis. A surface-response Box-Behnken design has been employed to optimize such extraction method and significantly reduce time and other resources in the extraction process. Based on the Box-Behnken design, 50 °C temperature, 60% methanol as extraction solvent, 0.6 g:10 mL sample mass:solvent ratio and 5 min extraction time, were established as optimal conditions. These mild conditions, combined with a rapid and efficient UHPLC analysis result in a practical and economical methodology for the extraction of psilocin and psilocybin from Psylocibe cubensis.

3.
Food Chem X ; 13: 100192, 2022 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498970

RESUMEN

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) is a fruit rich in vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, essential oils and phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins. In the present work, two anthocyanin extraction methods from blackcurrant samples based on Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Enzyme-Assisted Extraction (EAE) have been developed. A Plackett-Burman design with seven variables has been preliminary used for both UAE and EAE in order to determine the most influential variables in each methodology. After that, a Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction methods. The composition of the extraction solvent (% EtOH in water) has been the most influential variable for both UAE and EAE. The optimal extraction times have been 5 min for UAE and 10 min for EAE. No differences have been observed in anthocyanin extraction with both methodologies. Both methods have been applied to blackcurrant-derived products and proven their suitability for quality control analysis.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624711

RESUMEN

Despite the excellent beneficial properties that anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds give to the red onion bulbs, few articles have investigated modern extraction techniques or experimental designs in this field. For this reason, the present study proposes the development and optimization of alternative methods for the extraction of these compounds based on microwave-assisted extraction and the Box-Behnken experiment design. The optimal values for the extraction of total anthocyanins have been established at 62% methanol composition as a solvent, pH 2, 56 °C temperature, and 0.2:13 g:mL sample-solvent ratio. Regarding the extraction of total phenolic compounds, the optimal conditions have been established at 100% pure methanol as a solvent with pH 2, 57 °C temperature, and 0.2:8.8 g:mL sample-solvent ratio. Short extraction times (min), good recoveries (mg of bioactive compound g-1 of dry onion), and high repeatability and intermediate precision (coefficient of variation (%)) have been confirmed for both methods. Regarding total anthocyanins, the following results have been obtained: 2 min, 2.64 ± 0.093 mg of total anthocyanins g-1 of dry onion, and 2.51% and 3.12% for precision. Regarding phenolic compounds, the following results have been obtained: 15 min, 7.95 ± 0.084 mg of total phenolic compound g-1 of dry onion, and 3.62% and 4.56% for precision. Comparing these results with those of other authors and with those obtained in a previous study of ultrasound-assisted extraction, it can be confirmed that microwave-assisted extraction is a quantitative, repeatable, and very promising method for the extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, which offers similar and even superior results with little solvent expense, time, and costs.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829626

RESUMEN

Allium cepa L. is one of the most abundant vegetable crops worldwide. In addition to its versatile culinary uses, onion also exhibits quite interesting medicinal uses. Bulbs have a high content of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. This study intends to develop and optimize two appropriate ultrasound-assisted methods for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in red onion. A response surface methodology was employed and, specifically, a Box-Behnken design, for the optimization of the methods. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the phenolic compounds were the follows: 53% MeOH as solvent, pH 2.6, 60 °C temperature, 30.1% amplitude, 0.43 s cycle, and 0.2:11 g sample/mL solvent ratio. On the other hand, the optimal conditions for the anthocyanins were as follows: 57% MeOH as solvent, pH 2, 60 °C temperature, 90% amplitude, 0.64 s cycle, and 0.2:15 g sample/mL solvent ratio. Both methods presented high repeatability and intermediate precision, as well as short extraction times with good recovery yields. These results illustrate that the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction, when properly optimized, is suitable for the extraction and quantification of the compounds of interest to determine and improve the quality of the raw material and its subproducts for consumers.

6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573008

RESUMEN

Purple potato is one of the least known and consumed potato varieties. It is as rich in nutrients, amino acids and starches as the rest of the potato varieties, but it also exhibits a high content of anthocyanins, which confer it with some attractive health-related properties, such as antioxidant, pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory and other promising properties regarding the treatment of certain diseases. A novel methodology based on ultrasound-assisted extraction has been optimized to achieve greater yields of anthocyanins. Optimal extraction values have been established at 70 °C using 20 mL of a 60% MeOH:H2O solution, with a pH of 2.90 and a 0.5 s-1 cycle length at 70% of the maximum amplitude for 15 min. The repeatability and intermediate precision of the extraction method have been proven by its relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5%. The method has been tested on Vitelotte, Double Fun, Highland and Violet Queen potatoes and has demonstrated its suitability for the extraction and quantification of the anthocyanins found in these potato varieties, which exhibit notable content differences. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of these potato varieties has been determined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) radical scavenging and the values obtained were similar to those previously reported in the literature.

7.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207095

RESUMEN

Sherry wine vinegar is a Spanish gourmet product under Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Before a vinegar can be labeled as Sherry vinegar, the product must meet certain requirements as established by its PDO, which, in this case, means that it has been produced following the traditional solera and criadera ageing system. The quality of the vinegar is determined by many factors such as the raw material, the acetification process or the aging system. For this reason, mainly producers, but also consumers, would benefit from the employment of effective analytical tools that allow precisely determining the origin and quality of vinegar. In the present study, a total of 48 Sherry vinegar samples manufactured from three different starting wines (Palomino Fino, Moscatel, and Pedro Ximénez wine) were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data were combined with unsupervised exploratory techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), as well as other nonparametric supervised techniques, namely, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), for the characterization of the samples. The HCA and PCA results present a clear grouping trend of the vinegar samples according to their raw materials. SVM in combination with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) successfully classified 100% of the samples, according to the type of wine used for their production. The RF method allowed selecting the most important variables to develop the characteristic fingerprint ("spectralprint") of the vinegar samples according to their starting wine. Furthermore, the RF model reached 100% accuracy for both LOOCV and out-of-bag (OOB) sets.

8.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068086

RESUMEN

Erica australis plants have been used in infusions and folk medicine for years for its diuretic and antiseptic properties and even for the treatment of infections. In addition, a recently published thorough study on this species has demonstrated its antioxidant, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and even antitumoral activities. These properties have been associated with the high content of anthocyanins in E. australis leaves and flowers. The aim of the present research is to optimize an ultrasound-assisted extraction methodology for the recovery of the anthocyanins present in E. australis flowers. For that purpose, a Box Behnken design with response surface methodology was employed, and the influence of four variables at different values was determined: namely, the composition of the extraction solvents (0-50% MeOH in water), the pH level of those solvents (3-7), the extraction temperature (10-70 °C), and the sample:solvent ratio (0.5 g:10 mL-0.5 g:20 mL). UHPLC-UV-vis has been employed to quantify the two major anthocyanins detected in the samples. The extraction optimum conditions for 0.5 g samples were: 20 mL of solvent (50% MeOH:H2O) at 5 pH, with a 15 min extraction time at 70 °C. A precision study was performed and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) obtained were 3.31% and 3.52%, respectively. The developed methodology has been successfully applied to other Erica species to validate the suitability of the method for anthocyanin extraction.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/análisis , Ericaceae/química , Flores/química , Ultrasonido/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Metanol/química , Estándares de Referencia , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
9.
Food Chem ; 356: 129688, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812187

RESUMEN

Capsaicinoids and capsinoids compounds have been a focus of special attention for their health benefits. An effective and rapid Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC-PDA) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of the major capsaicinoids and capsinoids present in peppers. The separation of all the compounds of interest was achieved in less than 2 min by means of an ACQUITY UPLC BEH rp-C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.7 µm particle size). The variables that have been optimized are the mobile phase (water as solvent A and acetonitrile as solvent B, both acidified by adding 0.1% acetic acid), separation gradient, column temperature (35-70 °C), flow rate (0.6-0.95 mL min-1), and injection volume (2.5-3.5 µL). The evaluation of the chromatographic performance revealed excellent resolution, retention factor, and selectivity. The method was satisfactorily validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision, and robustness.


Asunto(s)
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/análisis , Capsicum/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Límite de Detección , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Temperatura
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808571

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study is to develop an optimized method where headspace-ion mobility spectrometry is applied for the detection and discrimination between four petroleum-derived products (PDPs) in water. A Box-Behnken design with a response surface methodology was used, and five variables (incubation temperature, incubation time, agitation, sample volume, and injection volume) with influences on the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) response were optimized. An IMS detector was used as a multiple sensor device, in which, each drift time acts as a specific sensor. In this way, the total intensity at each drift time is equivalent to multiple sensor signals. According to our results, 2.5 mL of sample incubated for 5 min at 31 °C, agitated at 750 rpm, and with an injection volume of 0.91 mL were the optimal conditions for successful detection and discrimination of the PDPs. The developed method has exhibited good intermediate precision and repeatability with a coefficient of variation lower than 5%, (RSD (Relative Standard Deviation): 2.35% and 3.09%, respectively). Subsequently, the method was applied in the context of the detection and discrimination of petroleum-derived products added to water samples at low concentration levels (2 µL·L-1). Finally, the new method was applied to determine the presence of petroleum-derived products in seawater samples.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578861

RESUMEN

The onion is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetables, and is a very valuable source of antioxidant substances. Every onion variety is rich in flavonols-mainly quercetin derivatives which makes onions the main dietary source of these compounds. This study intends to develop an ultrasound-assisted extraction method (UAE), an economical, green, and efficient technique, that allows us to determine the quality of onion extracts in terms of flavonol composition and antioxidant activity. For this purpose, an ultrasound-assisted extraction method has been optimized to obtain extracts with a high amount of flavonols, as well as with a high antioxidant activity, not only separately using a Box-Behnken design, but also simultaneously, based on multi-response optimization. Multiple response optimization has not only demonstrated an efficacy level similar to that of the individual ones, but it also represents a considerable reduction in terms of cost, time and work. The optimal conditions for simultaneous extractions were determined as follows: 76.8% methanol as an extraction solvent at pH 2 and 58.5 °C temperature, 85% amplitude, 0.9 s cycle, and 0.2:13 g:mL sample mass/solvent volume ratio. Furthermore, the developed method exhibited a high precision level and great recoveries in a rather short extraction time (2 min). These results, together with the development of a fast and simple UHPLC analysis method, lead us to consider the developed UAE method as a suitable technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from onion matrices.

12.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(1): 73-86, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417071

RESUMEN

Most carnivorous plants show a conspicuous separation between flowers and leaf-traps, which has been interpreted as an adaptive response to minimize pollinator-prey conflicts which will reduce fitness. Here, we used the carnivorous subshrub Drosophyllum lusitanicum (Drosophyllaceae) to explore if and how carnivorous plants with minimal physical separation of flower and trap avoid or reduce a likely conflict of pollinator and prey. We carried out an extensive field survey in the Aljibe Mountains, at the European side of the Strait of Gibraltar, of pollinating and prey insects of D. lusitanicum. We also performed a detailed analysis of flower and leaf volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs, respectively) by direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) to ascertain whether this species shows different VOC/SVOC profiles in flowers and leaf-traps that might attract pollinators and prey, respectively. Our results show a low overlap between pollinator and prey groups as well as clear differences in the relative abundance of VOCs and SVOCs between flowers and leaf-traps. Coleopterans and hymenopterans were the most represented groups of floral visitors, whereas dipterans were the most diverse group of prey insects. Regarding VOCs and SVOCs, while aldehydes and carboxylic acids presented higher relative contents in leaf-traps, alkanes and plumbagin were the main VOC/SVOC compounds detected in flowers. We conclude that D. lusitanicum, despite its minimal flower-trap separation, does not seem to present a marked pollinator-prey conflict. Differences in the VOCs and SVOCs produced by flowers and leaf-traps may help explain the conspicuous differences between pollinator and prey guilds.


Asunto(s)
Planta Carnívora/química , Insectos , Polinización , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Animales , Planta Carnívora/fisiología , Flores/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Mucílago de Planta/química
13.
Foods ; 9(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260750

RESUMEN

In recent years, consumers' preference for fruits such as blueberry has increased noticeably. This fact is probably related to their bioactive components such as anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and tannins that have been found in blueberries by the latest research studies. Both total anthocyanins (TA) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) are known for their multiple beneficial effects on our health, due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties. This is the reason why the development of new methodologies for the quality control analysis of raw materials or derived products from blueberry has a great relevance. Two ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (UAE) have been optimized for the quantification of TA and TPC in blueberry samples. The six variables to be optimized were: solvent composition, temperature, amplitude, cycle, extraction solvent pH, and sample/solvent ratio using response surface methodology. The optimized methods have proven to be suitable for the extraction of the TPC and TA with good precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%) and potentially for application in commercial samples. This fact, together with the multiple advantages of UAE, makes these methods a good alternative to be used in quality control analysis by both industries and laboratories.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486481

RESUMEN

Aroma is one of the main characteristics of coffee specimens. Different mixtures of Arabica and Robusta coffees are usually found in the market to offer specific aroma or flavor profiles to consumers. However, the mixed samples or their proportions are not always identified in the product labels. Since the price of Arabica is much higher than that of Robusta, this lack of information is not only an economical issue but a possible fraud to consumers, besides the potential allergic reaction that these mixtures may trigger in some individuals. In this paper, two sample preparation techniques were compared before the analysis of the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in Robusta, Arabica, and in the mixture from both coffee types. The comparison of the signals obtained from the analyses showed that the VOCs concentration levels obtained from the headspace (HS) analyses were clearly higher than those obtained from the pre-concentration step where an adsorbent, an active charcoal strip (ACS + HS), was used. In the second part of this study, the possibility of using the headspace gas-chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) for the discrimination between Arabica, Robusta, and mixed coffee samples (n = 30) was evaluated. The ion mobility sum spectrum (IMSS) obtained from the analysis of the HS was used in combination with pattern recognition techniques, namely linear discrimination analysis (LDA), as an electronic nose. The identification of individual compounds was not carried out since chromatographic information was not used. This novel approach allowed the correct discrimination (100%) of all of the samples. A characteristic fingerprint for each type of coffee for a fast and easy identification was also developed. In addition, the developed method is ecofriendly, so it is a good alternative to traditional approaches.

15.
Food Chem ; 318: 126450, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151921

RESUMEN

The objective of this work was the development of an on-line extraction/fractionation method based on the coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the separation of phenolic compounds from apple pomace. Several variables of the process were evaluated, including the amount of water of the first stage (0-120 mL), temperature (60-80 °C), solid-phase extraction adsorbent (Sepra, Isolute, Strata X and Oasis) and activation/elution solvent (methanol and ethanol). The best results were observed with the adsorbent Sepra. The temperature had a small effect on recovery, but significant differences were observed for phlorizin and a quercetin derivative. Results indicate that ethanol can be used to replace methanol as an activation, extraction/elution solvent. While using mostly green solvents (water, ethanol, and a small amount of methanol that could be reused), the developed method produced higher or similar yields of acids (2.85 ± 0.19 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.97 ± 0.11 mg/g) than conventional methods.


Asunto(s)
Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Malus/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Flavonoides/análisis , Ácido Gálico/análisis , Ácido Gálico/aislamiento & purificación , Malus/metabolismo , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Florizina/análisis , Florizina/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Presión , Quercetina/análisis , Quercetina/aislamiento & purificación , Solventes/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Temperatura
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1549, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid progress in information and communication technologies has promoted the development of smartphone applications (apps) for a wide variety of purposes including workplace safety. However, no specific apps for occupational risk prevention in the police domain seemingly exist as yet. In this work, an app running under the iOS and Android operating systems was developed to help police officers become acquainted with policing-related occupational risks and to prevent their damaging consequences. RESULTS: The proposed app, which uses an iterative user-centered design to avoid occupational risks in policing activities, was assessed for performance by a group of users and experts through a System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. The mean overall score for the questionnaire was 82.3. The app has backend support to facilitate continual improvement through contributions from users and administrators. A field test revealed increased awareness of policing occupational risks after using the app in many users. CONCLUSIONS: A novel product that covers the needs of ORP requirements of police officers has been developed.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Salud Laboral , Policia , Humanos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMEN

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Asunto(s)
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análisis , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aromatizantes/análisis , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genotipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alineación de Secuencia
18.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491917

RESUMEN

Myrtus communis L. is an evergreen shrub that produces berries with a high content in antioxidant compounds. Since these compounds have demonstrated a positive effect on human health, the interest on berries and their usages has increased. However, environmental conditions may affect the productivity of these species and consequently the quality of wild myrtle. Ecotypes from diverse geographical origins may result in significant variations in terms of bioactive compounds content as well as in chemical traits. For this reason, in this work ecotypes from two different localizations have been studied to determine if their differences in morphological and anthocyanins traits can be attributed to their origin and the environmental characteristics of these locations. For this, chemometric analyses such as Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, were employed. The results showed differences between the ecotypes depending on their location. In particular, myrtle berries from maritime zones present greater fruit size and amount of bioactive compounds, which means an improvement in the quality of the final product based on this raw material. It can be concluded that both morphological and anthocyanins traits are related to the location of the ecotype and allow selecting the best ecotype for the required applications.

19.
Talanta ; 203: 235-241, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202332

RESUMEN

According to European Union regulations, honey is a pure product and adding to or removing from it any kind of substance is illegal. Nevertheless, its adulteration by adding inexpensive and artificial adulterants is a common practice. This paper deals with the use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with chemometric tools as a screening technique for the identification and quantification of different types of adulterants (inverted sugar, rice syrup, brown cane sugar and fructose syrup) added to high-quality honey (Granada Protected Designation of Origin, Spain) at different levels (5%-50%). A complete discrimination between non-adulterated and adulterated samples was achieved. A general regression model to quantify the adulteration levels was developed as well as specific models for each adulterant. The coefficients of determination were higher than 0.96 for all the models. These results demonstrate the capacity of Vis-NIRS combined with chemometric tools for honey quality control.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Miel/análisis , Fructosa/análisis , Glucosa/análisis , Análisis Multivariante , Oryza/química , Saccharum/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Sacarosa/análisis
20.
Talanta ; 199: 189-194, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952245

RESUMEN

The destructive nature of fire together with a variety of interfering products from pyrolysis or background compounds among others, still offer a challenge on the proper identification of ignitable liquid residues (ILRs) in fire investigations. Nowadays, analysts use chromatography-mass spectrometry to try and classify ignitable liquids (IL) into one of the classes in the American Standards Testing Material method (ASTM E1618). In this study, an alternative approach is proposed to such analysis of fire debris. The proposed method would be based on ion mobility spectrometry sum spectrum (IMSSS) from headspace analysis, in combination with pattern recognition tools (Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA). Four different substrates (pinewood, cork, paper, and cotton sheet) were burnt with and without different ILs (gasoline, diesel, ethanol, and paraffin). According to LDA, 100% of fire debris samples were correctly classified for presence/absence and type of IL. A characteristic fingerprint for each ILR was created for quick discrimination. These results demonstrate the potential of using IMSSS for a fast, objective and easy interpretation of fire debris data. In addition, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) presents some advantages over traditional techniques such as its real-time monitoring capability and its capacity to work at atmospheric pressure, which allow the development of portable devices that would perform the analysis at the fire scene.

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