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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722808

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the US, prominent sources of vaping products are specialty vape shops, which are subject to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. This study interviewed vape shop owners/managers to assess: 1) reasons for entering into or engaging in vape shop retail; 2) personnel training, particularly with regard to FDA and state regulations; and 3) how existing regulations are perceived and the anticipated impact of future regulation. METHODS: The current study involved phone-based semi-structured interviews of 45 vape shop owners/managers in six metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs; Atlanta, Boston, Minneapolis, Oklahoma City, San Diego, and Seattle) during Summer 2018 as FDA regulations regarding minimum age verification, bans on product sampling, and health warnings (among others) were first being implemented. RESULTS: Vape shop owners/managers reported: 1) entering the industry with positive intentions for their customers; 2) training their personnel to adhere to regulations and provide good customer service; and 3) significant concerns about the impact of FDA regulations. With regard to the latter, participants reported mistrust of the intentions of the FDA regulations, financial implications of the regulations (particularly for small businesses), difficulty understanding and interpreting the regulations, insufficient evidence to support the regulations, negative impact on customer service, negative impact on product offerings and product innovation/advancement, and negative implications of flavor bans and/or restrictions on sale of flavors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the complexities in implementing tobacco regulations, particularly from the perspective of the vape shop industry. Current findings should inform future regulatory actions and efforts to assess compliance with regulations. IMPLICATIONS: Current and impending FDA regulation of vaping products presents a critical period for examining regulatory impact on the vape shop industry. Current results indicated that many vape shop owners/managers reporting positive intentions for engaging in the vaping product industry and in training vape shop personnel to adhere to regulations. However, the majority reported concerns about FDA regulation and other state/local regulations that could have negative implications for their industry. Particular concerns include difficulty understanding the regulations due to complexity, vagueness, and changes in language and/or interpretation over time. These issues have implications for compliance that must be addressed.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149340

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vape shops represent prominent, unique retailers, subject to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation in the US. This study assessed compliance of US vape shop retail marketing strategies with new regulations (e.g., required age verification, prohibited free samples) and pre-implementation conditions for other regulations (e.g., health warning labels on all nicotine products, required disclosures of e-liquid contents). METHODS: In May-July 2018, trained research assistants (ages 23-25) conducted mystery shopper (alone, n=174) and point-of-sale audits (in pairs, n=179) on different occasions in 30 randomly-selected vape shops in each of six US metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Boston, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Oklahoma City, San Diego, and Seattle). RESULTS: 95.0% of shops displayed minimum-age signage; however, mystery shoppers were asked for age verification at 35.6% upon entry and at 23.4% upon purchase. Although 85.5% of shops had some evidence of implementing FDA health warnings, 29.1% had signage indicating prohibited health claims, 16.3% offered free e-liquid samples, 27.4% had signage with cartoon imagery, and 33.3% were within two blocks of schools. All shops sold open-system devices, 64.8% sold closed-system devices, 68.2% sold their own brand of e-liquids, 42.5% sold e-liquids containing cannabidiol (CBD), 83.2% offered price promotions of some kind, and 89.9% had signage for product and price promotions. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that most shops complied with some implementation of FDA health warnings and with free sampling bans and minimum-age signage. Other findings indicated concerns related to underage access, health claims, promotional strategies, and CBD product offerings, which call for further FDA and state regulatory/enforcement efforts. IMPLICATIONS: Current and impending FDA regulation of vaping products presents a critical period for examining regulatory impact on vape shop marketing and point-of-sale practices. Findings from the current study indicate that vape shops are complying with several regulations (e.g., minimum-age signage, FDA health warnings, free sampling bans). However, results also highlight the utility of mystery shoppers in identifying noncompliance (e.g., age verification, health claims, sampling, CBD product offerings). This study provides baseline data for comparison with future surveillance efforts in order to document the impact of full implementation of the FDA regulations on vape shop practices and marketing.

3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25(3): E11-E18, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595578

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: In recent years, several states have adopted new regulations concerning nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early care and education (ECE) settings to help prevent childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: To disseminate a menu of factors that facilitate and/or impede implementation of obesity prevention regulations in ECE settings. DESIGN: To create the menu, we condensed and categorized factors identified in the literature and through field work by placing them within domains. We applied the menu by conducting semistructured interviews during a pilot test assessing implementation of ECE regulations in Colorado. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We first interviewed state and local government agency leaders responsible for policy oversight, and state employees and contractors who acted as intermediaries to direct implementers. We then interviewed directors at ECE centers in the Denver, Colorado, area. We selected 21 ECE centers for a site visit on the basis of feasibility, percentage of low-income families, and diversity in race and ethnicity at each center. Seven centers participated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minor and major facilitators and impediments to implementation of childhood obesity prevention regulations in ECE settings. RESULTS: The resulting menu includes 7 domains and 39 factors influential for implementation of ECE regulations. Of these 39 factors, interviewees identified 7 facilitating factors (4 major and 3 minor) and 2 impeding factors (both major). Major facilitating factors were buy-in from parents/caregivers, training and communication provided by governing authority and their contractors, and low level of change required by the regulations themselves. Major impeding factors were timing of implementation and balancing the demands of the regulations against other priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The menu developed by our research team, combined with existing frameworks in dissemination and implementation research, can be used by researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to anticipate factors that facilitate and/or impede implementation of ECE policies to prevent childhood obesity.


Asunto(s)
Manejo de la Obesidad/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/legislación & jurisprudencia , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Colorado , Promoción de la Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Manejo de la Obesidad/tendencias , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/tendencias , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Servicios de Salud Escolar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Salud Escolar/tendencias
4.
Health Educ Res ; 33(2): 114-124, 2018 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590316

RESUMEN

While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts. Many vape shop operators viewed regulations requiring safe production of e-liquids, child-resistant bottles and listing e-juice ingredients as acceptable. They disagreed with the elimination of free samples and bans on flavored e-liquid sales, which generate significant revenue for their stores. Many held negative perceptions of pre-market review of new product lines and EVP-specific taxes. All agreed that EVPs should not be sold to minors, but most felt that owners should not be fined if minors visited vape shops. Findings from this study offer insights into the acceptability of proposed regulations, as well as barriers to effective regulation implementation.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Vapeo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , Femenino , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Seguridad , Impuestos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
Tob Induc Dis ; 162018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687532

RESUMEN

Introduction: This study characterizes the retail environment for Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) near public universities in California, assesses marketing in the first random sample of ENDS retailers, and compares ENDS retailer density and retail marketing near campuses with and without tobacco-free policies. Methods: Two data sources were used to construct a sampling frame of possible ENDS retailers, which were mapped within 1 to 4 miles of the 33 University of California and California State University campuses. To assess retailer density, a telephone survey of possible ENDS retailers (n=1186) determined which sold e-cigarettes or e-liquids (completion rate=72.9%). To assess retail marketing, trained data collectors completed observations in a random sample (n=438, M=13.3 stores per campus, SD=11.2) in fall 2015. Results: In a telephone survey, 59.1% of retailers reported selling e-cigarettes or e-liquids. Half of the campuses had 10 or more ENDS retailers nearby. Most ENDS retailers were convenience stores (42.5%), and more were head shops (8.4%) than smoke shops (6.8%) or vape shops (6.2%). Nearly half (43.6%) of ENDS retailers sold products marketed as zero-nicotine and 13.9% sold NRT. ENDS advertising was visible in 72.1% and on the exterior of 28.1% of retailers. However, the presence of exterior advertising for ENDS was significantly lower near campuses with established tobacco-free policies than campuses with recent or no tobacco-free policies (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.22, 0.94). Conclusions: The large number of tobacco retailers that sell ENDS near colleges suggests a need for better monitoring and regulations of ENDS availability and marketing. The widespread availability of zero-nicotine products suggests a need to examine whether nicotine-free products are as advertised and safe to use. Longitudinal research is needed to understand how retail marketing for ENDS responds to change in tobacco-free policies at nearby campuses.

6.
Tob Control ; 25(Suppl 1): i38-i43, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697946

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A number of recent studies document the proportion of all cigarette packs that are 'contraband' using discarded packs to measure tax avoidance and evasion, which we call tax non-compliance. To date, academic studies using discarded packs focused on relatively small geographical areas such as a city or a neighbourhood. METHODS: We visited 160 communities across 38 US states in 2012 and collected data from littered cigarette packs as part of the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative and the Bridging the Gap Community Obesity Measures Project (BTG-COMP). Data collectors were trained in a previously tested littered pack data collection protocol. RESULTS: Field teams collected 2116 packs with cellophane across 132 communities. We estimate a national tax non-compliance rate of 18.5% with considerable variation across regions. Suburban areas had lower non-compliance than urban areas as well as areas with high and low median household income areas compared with middle income areas. DISCUSSION: We present the first academic national study of tax non-compliance using littered cigarette packs. We demonstrate the feasibility of meaningful large-scale data collection using this methodology and document considerable variation in tax non-compliance across areas, suggesting that both policy differences and geography may be important in control of illicit tobacco use. Given the geography of open borders among countries with varying tax rates, this simple methodology may be appropriate to estimate tax non-compliance in countries that use tax stamps or other pack markings, such as health warnings.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Impuestos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Crimen/economía , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Humanos , Renta , Áreas de Pobreza , Embalaje de Productos , Estados Unidos
7.
Am J Public Health ; 106(10): 1858-64, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552272

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine disparities in the price of tobacco and nontobacco products in pharmacies compared with other types of stores. METHODS: We recorded the prices of Marlboro, Newport, the cheapest cigarettes, and bottled water in a random sample of licensed tobacco retailers (n = 579) in California in 2014. We collected comparable data from retailers (n = 2603) in school enrollment zones for representative samples of US 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in 2012. Ordinary least squares regressions modeled pretax prices as a function of store type and neighborhood demographics. RESULTS: In both studies, the cheapest cigarettes cost significantly less in pharmacies than other stores; the average estimated difference was $0.47 to $1.19 less in California. We observed similar patterns for premium-brand cigarettes. Conversely, bottled water cost significantly more in pharmacies than elsewhere. Newport cost less in areas with higher proportions of African Americans; other cigarette prices were related to neighborhood income and age. Neighborhood demographics were not related to water prices. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other stores, pharmacies charged customers less for cigarettes and more for bottled water. State and local policies to promote tobacco-free pharmacies would eliminate an important source of discounted cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/clasificación , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Farmacias/economía , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Comercio/economía , Agua Potable , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Farmacias/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
8.
Eval Health Prof ; 39(3): 379-88, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25967071

RESUMEN

At least three factors may be driving the evolution of the vape shop industry, a rapidly growing market sector that specializes in the sales of electronic cigarettes: (1) the tobacco industry, (2) the public health sector and its diverse stakeholders, and (3) consumer demand. These influences and the responses of the vape shop sector have resulted in a rapidly changing landscape. This commentary briefly discusses these three factors and the implications for the health professions, as they address the vape shop industry and its consequences for public health.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/economía , Rol Profesional , Salud Pública , Industria del Tabaco/organización & administración , Vapeo/economía , Personal de Salud , Humanos
9.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 115(12): 1975-85, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26048532

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National surveillance data identify disparities in low-fat milk consumption by race/ethnicity and income. Some localized studies have shown disparities in access to low-fat milk by community characteristics. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the availability and price of low-fat and higher-fat milk in food stores throughout the United States and examine associations with community characteristics. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving observational data collection in 2010, 2011, and 2012. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: The study included 8,959 food stores in 468 communities where nationally representative samples of students attending traditional public middle and high schools resided. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We studied the availability and price of whole, 2%, 1%, and skim milk. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multivariate logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression analyses were performed. Models included store type, race/ethnicity, median household income, urbanicity, US Census division, and year of data collection. RESULTS: Less than half of all stores carried 1% and skim milk, and more than three-quarters of stores carried whole and 2% milk. Regression results indicated that the odds of carrying any type of milk were 31% to 67% lower in stores in majority black and 26% to 45% lower in other/mixed race compared with majority white communities. The odds of carrying specifically low-fat milk were 50% to 58% lower in majority Hispanic compared with majority white communities, and 32% to 44% lower in low-income compared with high-income communities. Some significant differences in milk prices by community characteristics were observed in grocery and limited-service stores. On average, low-fat milk options were more expensive in grocery stores in majority black and rural and suburban communities compared with such stores in majority white and urban communities. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first nationwide study to examine the availability and price of low-fat and higher-fat milk in food stores and show disparities in access by community characteristics. Policies and programs can play a role in increasing accessibility of low-fat milk in stores in nonwhite and low-income communities.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Leche/economía , Leche/provisión & distribución , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Renta , Modelos Logísticos , Leche/química , Política Nutricional , Encuestas Nutricionales , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Población Urbana
10.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(4): 553-62, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25913149

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Prepared, ready-to-eat foods comprise a significant part of Americans' diets and are increasingly obtained from food stores. Yet, little is known about the availability and healthfulness of prepared, ready-to-eat food offerings at stores. This study examines associations among community characteristics (racial/ethnic composition, poverty level, urbanicity) and availability of both healthier and less-healthy prepared foods in U.S. supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores. METHODS: Observational data were collected from 4,361 stores in 317 communities spanning 42 states in 2011 and 2012. Prepared food availability was assessed via one healthier food (salads or salad bar), three less-healthy items (pizza, hot dog/hamburger, taco/burrito/taquito), and one cold sandwich item. In 2014, multivariable generalized linear models were used to test associations with community characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 63.6% of stores sold prepared foods, with 20.0% offering prepared salads and 36.4% offering at least one less-healthy item. Rural stores were 26% less likely to carry prepared salads (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.74, 95% CI=0.62, 0.88) and 14% more likely to carry at least one less-healthy prepared food item (PR=1.14, 95% CI=1.00, 1.30). Convenience stores in high-poverty communities were less likely to carry prepared salads than those in low-poverty communities (PR=0.64, 95% CI=0.47, 0.87). Among supermarkets, prepared salads were more likely to be carried in majority-white, low-poverty communities than in non-white, high-poverty communities. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the healthfulness of prepared foods within stores may offer an important opportunity to improve the food environment.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Health Promot ; 30(1): 9-18, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24819996

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To develop a reliable observational data collection instrument to measure characteristics of the fast-food restaurant environment likely to influence consumer behaviors, including product availability, pricing, and promotion. DESIGN: The study used observational data collection. SETTING: Restaurants were in the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area. SUBJECTS: A total of 131 chain fast-food restaurant outlets were included. MEASURES: Interrater reliability was measured for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a fast-food restaurant observational data collection instrument. ANALYSIS: Analysis was done with Cohen's κ coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables. RESULTS: Interrater reliability, as measured by average κ coefficient, was .79 for menu characteristics, .84 for kids' menu characteristics, .92 for food availability and sizes, .85 for beverage availability and sizes, .78 for measures on the availability of nutrition information,.75 for characteristics of exterior advertisements, and .62 and .90 for exterior and interior characteristics measures, respectively. For continuous measures, average ICC was .88 for food pricing measures, .83 for beverage prices, and .65 for counts of exterior advertisements. CONCLUSION: Over 85% of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some measures required revision or protocol clarification, results from this study suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the fast-food restaurant environment.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/métodos , Comida Rápida/clasificación , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Publicidad , Chicago , Comida Rápida/economía , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Restaurantes/economía
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 48(1): 22-30, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25441231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children who eat fast food have poor diet and health outcomes. Fast food is heavily marketed to youth, and exposure to such marketing is associated with higher fast food consumption. PURPOSE: To examine the extent of child-directed marketing (CDM) inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants. METHODS: Data were collected from 6,716 fast food restaurants located in a nationally representative sample of public middle- and high-school enrollment areas in 2010, 2011, and 2012. CDM was defined as the presence of one or more of seven components inside or on the exterior of the restaurant. Analyses were conducted in 2014. RESULTS: More than 20% of fast food restaurants used CDM inside or on their exterior. In multivariate analyses, fast food restaurants that were part of a chain, offered kids' meals, were located in middle- (compared to high)-income neighborhoods, and in rural (compared to urban) areas had significantly higher odds of using any CDM; chain restaurants and those located in majority black neighborhoods (compared to white) had significantly higher odds of having an indoor display of kids' meal toys. Compared to 2010, there was a significant decline in use of CDM in 2011, but the prevalence increased close to the 2010 level in 2012. CONCLUSIONS: CDM inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants is prevalent in chain restaurants; majority black communities, rural areas, and middle-income communities are disproportionately exposed. The fast food industry should limit children's exposure to marketing that promotes unhealthy food choices.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño/economía , Dieta/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/economía , Mercadotecnía/economía , Restaurantes/economía , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Multivariante , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Características de la Residencia , Restaurantes/clasificación , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Public Health ; 104(11): 2170-8, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25211721

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between the relative and absolute availability of healthier food and beverage alternatives at food stores and community racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and urban-rural characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed pooled, annual cross-sectional data collected in 2010 to 2012 from 8462 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 US states. Relative availability was the ratio of 7 healthier products (e.g., whole-wheat bread) to less healthy counterparts (e.g., white bread); we based absolute availability on the 7 healthier products. RESULTS: The mean healthier food and beverage ratio was 0.71, indicating that stores averaged 29% fewer healthier than less healthy products. Lower relative availability of healthier alternatives was associated with low-income, Black, and Hispanic communities. Small stores had the largest differences: relative availability of healthier alternatives was 0.61 and 0.60, respectively, for very low-income Black and very low-income Hispanic communities, and 0.74 for very high-income White communities. We found fewer associations between absolute availability of healthier products and community characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Policies to improve the relative availability of healthier alternatives may be needed to improve population health and reduce disparities.


Asunto(s)
Abastecimiento de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas/provisión & distribución , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/normas , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Tob Control ; 23 Suppl 3: iii10-6, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24935892

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette ('e-cigarette') awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. METHODS: In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). RESULTS: In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African-American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Mercadotecnía , Características de la Residencia , Instituciones Académicas , Política para Fumadores , Fumar , Impuestos , Adolescente , Afroamericanos , Comercio , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/economía , Electrónica , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Fumar/economía , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Prev Med ; 46(2): 208-15, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24439356

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Active Living Research (ALR) program commissioned an evaluation of its initiative to assess 10 years (2001-2011) of progress in establishing a new interdisciplinary field to develop and translate research focused on policy and environmental factors affecting physical activity in children and families. PURPOSE: The second-phase evaluation (ALR-2) was conducted from March to July 2011 to measure progression from evidence- and field-building (Goals 1 and 2) to policy and practice contributions (Goal 3) to inform childhood obesity strategies, and to develop recommendations for a third phase (ALR-3). METHODS: The evaluation was a retrospective, in-depth descriptive study utilizing qualitative and quantitative methods. Key informant interviews (N=100) across seven stakeholder groups were conducted and analyzed in 2011. Data from web-based surveys of grantee investigators conducted from 2007 to 2011 and analyzed in 2011 served as the primary quantitative source. RESULTS: Key indicators of ALR's overall progress confirmed ALR's success across its three goals: (1) establishing a strong research base: 309 publications filling major knowledge gaps; (2) building an interdisciplinary and diverse field: grantees represented 31 disciplines, with more than one quarter (28%) of investigators having ≤5 years of experience, of which 39% were people of color; and (3) using research to inform policy and practice: 62 examples, of which slightly more than one half (n=32) resulted in actual policy or practice change. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, ALR met its three goals during ALR-2 and was well positioned to implement a third phase of the program to further accelerate the translation of its research into policy and practice.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Ejercicio Físico , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Niño , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Política de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 45(6): 540-8, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23726894

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable food store observational data collection instrument to be used for measuring product availability, pricing, and promotion. DESIGN: Observational data collection. SETTING: A total of 120 food stores (26 supermarkets, 34 grocery stores, 54 gas/convenience stores, and 6 mass merchandise stores) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inter-rater reliability for product availability, pricing, and promotion measures on a food store observational data collection instrument. ANALYSIS: Cohen's kappa coefficient and proportion of overall agreement for dichotomous variables and intra-class correlation coefficient for continuous variables. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability, as measured by average kappa coefficient, was 0.84 for food and beverage product availability measures, 0.80 for interior store characteristics, and 0.70 for exterior store characteristics. For continuous measures, average intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.82 for product pricing measures; 0.90 for counts of fresh, frozen, and canned fruit and vegetable options; and 0.85 for counts of advertisements on the store exterior and property. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The vast majority of measures demonstrated substantial or almost perfect agreement. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the instrument may be used to reliably measure the food store environment.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/métodos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Chicago , Alimentos/clasificación , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadotecnía , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
17.
Am J Prev Med ; 44(2): 164-8, 2013 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23332334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood design features have been associated with health outcomes, including the prevalence of obesity. PURPOSE: This study examined the association between walkability and adolescent weight in a national sample of public secondary school students and the communities in which they live. METHODS: Data were collected through student surveys and community observations between February and August 2010, and analyses were conducted in Spring 2012. The sample size was 154 communities and 11,041 students. A community walkability index and measures of the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity were constructed. Multivariable analyses from a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 8th-, 10th- and 12th-grade public school students in the U.S. were run. RESULTS: The odds of students being overweight (AOR 0.98, 95% CI=0.95, 0.99) or obese (AOR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95, 0.99) decreased if they lived in communities with higher walkability index scores. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that living in more-walkable communities is associated with reduced prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Caminata , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Prevalencia , Estudiantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Am J Public Health ; 102(7): 1310-2, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594728

RESUMEN

This study examines patterns of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette use from 2003 to 2005 in a cohort of smokers, aged 16 to 24 years in the National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey. At follow-up, 15.0% of baseline menthol smokers had switched to nonmentholated cigarettes; by contrast, 6.9% of baseline nonmenthol smokers had switched to mentholated cigarettes. Differences in switching patterns were evident by gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and smoking frequency. These data support previous evidence that young smokers start with mentholated cigarettes and progress to nonmentholated cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol , Adulto Joven
19.
Health Place ; 17(5): 1122-31, 2011 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21741875

RESUMEN

This study used direct field observations with interior assessments of outlets to validate food store and restaurant data from two commercial business lists conditional on classification of outlet type, including supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, full-service restaurants and fast food restaurants. The study used a stratified random sample that included 274 urban census tracts across 9 counties from the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and 46 suburban and 61 rural census tracts across 13 counties from a 50-mile buffer surrounding the MSA. Results showed that agreement between the field observations and the commercial business lists for the food store and restaurant outlets was generally moderate (ranging from fair to good). However, when the listed data were validated based on an exact classification match, agreement was only fair (ranging from poor to moderate) and, in particular, poor for fast food restaurants. The study also found that agreement levels for some outlet types differed by tract characteristics. Commercial databases must be used with caution as substitutes for on the ground data collection.


Asunto(s)
Comida Rápida/provisión & distribución , Observación , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Chicago , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Obesidad , Estados Unidos
20.
Eval Rev ; 35(2): 153-88, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21558278

RESUMEN

Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental design to compare 14 communities that participated in the FTG intervention with 14 matched comparison communities. Telephone surveys were conducted with two cohorts of the primary caregivers of children in HS at baseline and then annually for 2 years. The survey was also administered to repeated cross-sectional samples of primary caregivers of young children who were not enrolled in HS. No consistent evidence was found in changes in family functioning or neighborhood conditions when the 14 FTG sites were compared to 14 matched sites. However, caregivers of young children who were not in HS in three high-implementing FTG sites showed evidence of improvements in neighborhood organization, neighborhood norms against substance abuse, and child disciplinary practices. Results provide highly limited support for the concept that family and neighborhood conditions that are likely to affect child development and well-being can be changed through organized efforts implemented by local HS programs.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Conducta Cooperativa , Intervención Educativa Precoz/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos , Intervención Educativa Precoz/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante , Desarrollo de Programa , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Mercadeo Social , Factores de Tiempo
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