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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(9): 5652-5657, 2020 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101212

RESUMEN

Using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) to image ferromagnetism in polycrystalline Ni disks, and ferroelectricity in their single-crystal BaTiO3 substrates, we find that voltage-driven 90° ferroelectric domain switching serves to reversibly annihilate each magnetic vortex via uniaxial compressive strain, and that the orientation of the resulting bi-domain reveals the chirality of the annihilated vortex. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that only 60% of this strain is required for annihilation. Voltage control of magnetic vortices is novel, and should be energetically favourable with respect to the use of a magnetic field or an electrical current. In future, stray field from bi-domains could be exploited to read vortex chirality. Given that core polarity can already be read via stray field, our work represents a step towards four-state low-power memory applications.

2.
Nat Mater ; 18(8): 840-845, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110346

RESUMEN

Large changes in the magnetization of ferromagnetic films can be electrically driven by non-180° ferroelectric domain switching in underlying substrates, but the shear components of the strains that mediate these magnetoelectric effects have not been considered so far. Here we reveal the presence of these shear strains in a polycrystalline film of Ni on a 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 substrate in the pseudo-cubic (011)pc orientation. Although vibrating sample magnetometry records giant magnetoelectric effects that are consistent with the hitherto expected 90° rotations of a global magnetic easy axis, high-resolution vector maps of magnetization (constructed from photoemission electron microscopy data, with contrast from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism) reveal that the local magnetization typically rotates through smaller angles of 62-84°. This shortfall with respect to 90° is a consequence of the shear strain associated with ferroelectric domain switching. The non-orthogonality represents both a challenge and an opportunity for the development and miniaturization of magnetoelectric devices.

3.
Ultramicroscopy ; 198: 26-32, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639772

RESUMEN

The apex region of a capped (5,5) carbon nanotube (CNT) has been modelled with the DFT package ONETEP, using boundary conditions provided by a classical calculation with a conducting surface in place of the CNT. Results from the DFT solution include the Fermi level and the physical distribution and energies of individual orbitals for the CNT tip. Application of an external electric field changes the orbital number of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and consequently changes its distribution on the CNT.

4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(23): 235001, 2018 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701602

RESUMEN

In this article we describe the bulk and interface quantum states of electrons in multi-layer heterostructures in one dimension, consisting of topological insulators (TIs) and topologically trivial materials. We use and extend an effective four-band continuum Hamiltonian by introducing position dependence to the eight material parameters of the Hamiltonian. We are able to demonstrate complete conduction-valence band mixing in the interface states. We find evidence for topological features of bulk states of multi-layer TI heterostructures, as well as demonstrating both complete and incomplete conduction-valence band inversion at different bulk state energies. We show that the linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian, arising from overlap of p z orbitals between different atomic layers in the case of chalcogenides, control the amount of tunneling from TIs to trivial insulators. Finally, we show that the same linear k z terms in the low-energy Hamiltonian affect the material's ability to form the localised interface state, and we demonstrate that due to this effect the spin and probability density localisation in a thin film of Sb2Te3 is incomplete. We show that changing the parameter that controls the magnitude of the overlap of p z orbitals affects the transport characteristics of the topologically conducting states, with incomplete topological state localisation resulting in increased backscattering.

5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41732, 2017 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165012

RESUMEN

We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.

6.
Nat Mater ; 13(10): 932-7, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108612

RESUMEN

Controlling spin-related material properties by electronic means is a key step towards future spintronic technologies. The spin Hall effect (SHE) has become increasingly important for generating, detecting and using spin currents, but its strength--quantified in terms of the SHE angle--is ultimately fixed by the magnitude of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) present for any given material system. However, if the electrons generating the SHE can be controlled by populating different areas (valleys) of the electronic structure with different SOC characteristic the SHE angle can be tuned directly within a single sample. Here we report the manipulation of the SHE in bulk GaAs at room temperature by means of an electrical intervalley transition induced in the conduction band. The spin Hall angle was determined by measuring an electromotive force driven by photoexcited spin-polarized electrons drifting through GaAs Hall bars. By controlling electron populations in different (Γ and L) valleys, we manipulated the angle from 0.0005 to 0.02. This change by a factor of 40 is unprecedented in GaAs and the highest value achieved is comparable to that of the heavy metal Pt.

7.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5338, 2014 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24939804

RESUMEN

Low dimensionality, broken symmetry and easily-modulated carrier concentrations provoke novel electronic phase emergence at oxide interfaces. However, the spatial extent of such reconstructions - i.e. the interfacial "depth" - remains unclear. Examining LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures at previously unexplored carrier densities n(2D) ≥ 6.9 × 10(14) cm(-2), we observe a Shubnikov-de Haas effect for small in-plane fields, characteristic of an anisotropic 3D Fermi surface with preferential dxz,yz orbital occupancy extending over at least 100 nm perpendicular to the interface. Quantum oscillations from the 3D Fermi surface of bulk doped SrTiO3 emerge simultaneously at higher n(2D). We distinguish three areas in doped perovskite heterostructures: narrow (<20 nm) 2D interfaces housing superconductivity and/or other emergent phases, electronically isotropic regions far (>120 nm) from the interface and new intermediate zones where interfacial proximity renormalises the electronic structure relative to the bulk.

8.
Ultramicroscopy ; 134: 160-6, 2013 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23953735

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p-n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p-n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices.


Asunto(s)
Holografía/métodos , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión/métodos , Electrones , Holografía/instrumentación , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión/instrumentación , Semiconductores , Electricidad Estática
9.
Ultramicroscopy ; 120: 78-85, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22842114

RESUMEN

Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small.

10.
Nature ; 477(7365): 439-42, 2011 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21938065

RESUMEN

Single-electron circuits of the future, consisting of a network of quantum dots, will require a mechanism to transport electrons from one functional part of the circuit to another. For example, in a quantum computer decoherence and circuit complexity can be reduced by separating quantum bit (qubit) manipulation from measurement and by providing a means of transporting electrons between the corresponding parts of the circuit. Highly controlled tunnelling between neighbouring dots has been demonstrated, and our ability to manipulate electrons in single- and double-dot systems is improving rapidly. For distances greater than a few hundred nanometres, neither free propagation nor tunnelling is viable while maintaining confinement of single electrons. Here we show how a single electron may be captured in a surface acoustic wave minimum and transferred from one quantum dot to a second, unoccupied, dot along a long, empty channel. The transfer direction may be reversed and the same electron moved back and forth more than sixty times-a cumulative distance of 0.25 mm-without error. Such on-chip transfer extends communication between quantum dots to a range that may allow the integration of discrete quantum information processing components and devices.

11.
Nat Mater ; 10(9): 655-9, 2011 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21706009

RESUMEN

Injection of spin currents into solids is crucial for exploring spin physics and spintronics. There has been significant progress in recent years in spin injection into high-resistivity materials, for example, semiconductors and organic materials, which uses tunnel barriers to circumvent the impedance mismatch problem; the impedance mismatch between ferromagnetic metals and high-resistivity materials drastically limits the spin-injection efficiency. However, because of this problem, there is no route for spin injection into these materials through low-resistivity interfaces, that is, Ohmic contacts, even though this promises an easy and versatile pathway for spin injection without the need for growing high-quality tunnel barriers. Here we show experimental evidence that spin pumping enables spin injection free from this condition; room-temperature spin injection into GaAs from Ni(81)Fe(19) through an Ohmic contact is demonstrated through dynamical spin exchange. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this exchange can be controlled electrically by applying a bias voltage across a Ni(81)Fe(19)/GaAs interface, enabling electric tuning of the spin-pumping efficiency.

12.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 48(10): 977-98, 2010 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20574723

RESUMEN

In this review we discuss conventional methods of performing biological assays and molecular identification and highlight their advantages and limitations. An alternative approach based on magnetic nanotechnology is then presented. Firstly, magnetic carriers are introduced and their biocompatibility and functionalisation discussed, with spotlights on functionalisation via self assembled monolayers and on methods of reducing nonspecific binding. In addition an introduction is provided to the basic physical concepts behind the various types of sensors used to detect magnetic labels. Finally, progress in the field of magnetic biosensors and the outlook for the future are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Magnetismo , Bioensayo/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Nanotecnología/métodos , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos/métodos
13.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(17): 5723-8, 2010 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20380401

RESUMEN

The structure of graphite oxide (GO) has been systematically studied using various tools such as SEM, TEM, XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), (13)C solid-state NMR, and O K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The TEM data reveal that GO consists of amorphous and crystalline phases. The XPS data show that some carbon atoms have sp(3) orbitals and others have sp(2) orbitals. The ratio of sp(2) to sp(3) bonded carbon atoms decreases as sample preparation times increase. The (13)C solid-state NMR spectra of GO indicate the existence of -OH and -O- groups for which peaks appear at 60 and 70 ppm, respectively. FT-IR results corroborate these findings. The existence of ketone groups is also implied by FT-IR, which is verified by O K-edge XANES and (13)C solid-state NMR. We propose a new model for GO based on the results; -O-, -OH, and -C=O groups are on the surface.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(15): 156801, 2009 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19518665

RESUMEN

Observation of coherent single-electron dynamics is severely limited by experimental bandwidth. We present a method to overcome this using moving quantum dots defined by surface acoustic waves. Each dot holds a single electron, and travels through a static potential landscape. When the dot passes abruptly between regions of different confinement, the electron is excited into a superposition of states, and oscillates unitarily from side to side. We detect these oscillations by using a weak, repeated measurement of the current across a tunnel barrier, and find close agreement with simulations.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(15): 156802, 2007 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17995201

RESUMEN

We measure the electron escape rate from surface-acoustic-wave dynamic quantum dots (QDs) through a tunnel barrier. Rate equations are used to extract the tunneling rates, which change by an order of magnitude with tunnel-barrier-gate voltage. We find that the tunneling rates depend on the number of electrons in each dynamic QD because of Coulomb energy. By comparing this dependence to a saddle-point-potential model, the addition energies of the second and third electron in each dynamic QD are estimated. The scale ( approximately a few meV) is comparable to those in static QDs as expected.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(4): 046801, 2007 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17358796

RESUMEN

We use a pulse of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to control the electron population and depopulation of a quantum dot. The barriers between the dot and reservoirs are set high to isolate the dot. Within a time scale of approximately 100 s the dot can be set to a nonequilibrium charge state, where an empty (occupied) level stays below (above) the Fermi energy. A pulse containing a fixed number of SAW periods is sent through the dot, controllably changing the potential, and hence the tunneling probability, to add (remove) an electron to (from) the dot.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(12): 126804, 2004 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15447298

RESUMEN

We show that the one-way channel formalism of quantum optics has a physical realization in electronic systems. In particular, we show that magnetic edge states form unidirectional quantum channels capable of coherently transporting electronic quantum information. Using the equivalence between one-way photonic channels and magnetic edge states, we adapt a proposal for quantum state transfer to mesoscopic systems using edge states as a quantum channel, and show that it is feasible with reasonable experimental parameters. We discuss how this protocol may be used to transfer information encoded in number, charge, or spin states of quantum dots, so it may prove useful for transferring quantum information between parts of a solid-state quantum computer.

18.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 361(1808): 1487-92, 2003 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12869323

RESUMEN

A modification to the surface-acoustic-wave quantum computer is described. The use of pseudo-spin qubits is introduced as a way to simplify the fabrication and programming of the computer. A form of optical readout that relies on the electrons in each surface-acoustic-wave minimum recombining with holes in a two-dimensional hole gas is suggested as a means to measure the output. The suggested modification would allow the quantum computer to be made smaller and to operate faster.

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