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1.
Can J Urol ; 31(1): 11777-11783, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401257

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Grant funding to Urology has decreased over the last decade. Documented lack of gender and race diversity at the faculty level raises concerns for funding disparities. This study sought to characterize disparities based upon race and gender in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding data to Urologic faculty. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from 145 ACGME accredited Urology residency programs incorporating faculty gender and underrepresented in medicine (URiM) status was utilized. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Report Tool was queried between 1985 and 2023 for grants related to current Urology faculty. URiM status, gender, years of practice, academic rank, and Doximity residency program rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,131 faculty were included. Three hundred one Urologists received 793 urologic grants for a total of $993,919,052 in funding. By race, grants were awarded to: White 72.9%, Asian 21.8%, Hispanic 3.0%, Black 2.1%. Men received 708 grants (89.3%) worth $917,083,475 total. Women received 85 grants (10.7%) worth $76,835,577 total. Likelihood of being awarded a grant was significantly associated with non-URiM status (p < 0.001) and men (p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, Doximity rank (p < 0.001) and academic rank (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of receiving a grant; male gender, URiM status, and years of practice were not. Academic rank was also a significant predictor of number of grants received (p = 0.04) and total funding (p = 0.04); years of practice, Doximity rank, URiM status, and gender were not. CONCLUSIONS: NIH grants were more likely awarded to higher ranked faculty from higher Doximity ranked institutions with no differences based on URiM status or gender.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Urología , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Urólogos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
2.
BJUI Compass ; 4(6): 722-728, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818018

RESUMEN

Introduction: Incontinence and urgency are common after prostatectomy. The University of Virginia prostatectomy functional outcomes program (PFOP) was developed to comprehensively assess and optimise continence outcomes following robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Patients are prospectively evaluated by a Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery specialist. This study assessed for predictors of 3- and 6-month stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency symptom outcomes following RALP. Methods: We performed a post hoc review of patients from our PFOP receiving a minimum of 6-month follow-up. Urinary symptoms are prospectively assessed using the validated International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-MLUTS) questionnaire and daily pad use (pads per day [PPD]). Primary study outcomes included ICIQ-MLUTS SUI and urgency domain scores and PPD. Multivariable linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with outcomes at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Variables included patient, oncologic and surgical factors. Each variable was run in a separate model with pelvic floor muscle therapy and surgeon to reduce confounding and prevent overfitting. Results: Forty men were included. In assessment of ICIQ-MLUTS SUI domain score, at 3 months, body mass index (BMI) was associated with worse scores, and at 6 months, BMI, hypertension and estimated blood loss (EBL) were associated with worse scores, whereas bilateral nerve-sparing technique was associated with better scores. For ICIQ-MLUTS Urgency domain score, at 3 months, preoperative use of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) medication was associated with better scores. No covariates predicted 6-month ICIQ-MLUTS Urgency domain scores. For PPD use, at both 3 and 6 months, BMI was a positive predictor, while preoperative use of BPH medication was a negative predictor. Conclusion: Increased BMI, EBL and hypertension are associated with worsened SUI outcomes following RALP, whereas bilateral nerve-sparing technique and preoperative BPH medication are associated with improved SUI outcomes. These data may inform patient counselling and help identify patients who may benefit from closer surveillance and earlier anti-incontinence intervention.

3.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 58: 62-66, 2023 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37554097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early onset facial paralysis is usually managed with cross-face nerve grafts, however the low number of axons that reach the target muscle may result in weakness or failure. Multiple-source innervation, or 'supercharging', seeks to combine the advantages of different donor nerves while minimizing their weaknesses. We propose a combination of cross-face nerve grafts with local extra-facial nerve transfers to achieve earlier facial reanimation in our patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort including all patients with early unilateral facial palsy (<12 months evolution) who underwent triple nerve transfer between 2019 and 2021 was conducted. We performed single-stage procedure including zygomatic-to-zygomatic and buccal-to-buccal cross-face grafts, a nerve-to-masseter to bucozygomatic trunk transfer, and a mini-hypoglossal to marginal branch transfer. Results were evaluated using the clinician-graded facial function scale (eFACE). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included (eight females, seven males), mean age at the time of surgery was 48.9 ± 13.3 years. Palsy was right-sided in eight cases. The mean time from palsy onset to surgery was 5.5 ± 2.8 months. Patients showed improvement in static (70.8 ± 21.9 vs. 84.15 ± 6.68, p = 0.002) and dynamic scores (20 ± 16.32 vs. 74.23 ± 7.46, p < 0.001), as well as periocular (57.33 ± 15.23 vs. 74 ± 7.18, p = 0.007), smile (54.73 ± 11.93 vs. 85.62 ± 3.86, p < 0.001), mid-face (46.33 ± 18.04 vs. 95 ± 7.21, p < 0.001) and lower face scores (67.4 ± 1.55 vs. 90.31 ± 7.54, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The triple nerve transfer technique using cross-face nerve grafts, the nerve-to-masseter, and the hypoglossal nerve, is an effective and reproducible technique to obtain middle and lower face reanimation in cases of early facial palsy.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis Facial , Transferencia de Nervios , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Parálisis Facial/cirugía , Transferencia de Nervios/métodos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nervio Facial/cirugía , Músculo Masetero , Sonrisa
4.
Urology ; 178: 54-60, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37353089

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare comprehensive continence outcomes in patients receiving pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) vs standard unsupervised home pelvic floor exercise therapy (UPFE). METHODS: As part of the UVA prostatectomy functional outcomes program, participating patients complete a 12-month PFMT program under FPMRS specialist supervision. We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected longitudinal outcomes in patients receiving PFMT vs UPFE through 12-month follow-up. Primary study outcome was ICIQ-MLUTS SUI domain score (SDS). Secondary outcomes included daily pad use (PPD), SUI Cure (SDS=0), and quality of life score (IIQ-7). Multilevel mixed effects linear regression was used to model SDS over time. RESULTS: Analysis included 40 men. No difference in patient characteristics was seen in comparison of PFMT vs UPFE cohorts (P = NS, all comparisons). Mean predicted SDS was significantly better in the PFMT vs UPFE cohorts at 6-month (0.81 ± 0.21 vs 1.75 ± 0.34, respectively) (P = .014) and 12-month (0.72 ± 0.17 vs 1.67 ± 0.30, respectively) (P = .004) time points. At 12-month follow-up, 11 (55%) vs 4 (20%) patients reported absence of SUI in PFMT vs UPFE cohorts, respectively. Predicted probabilities of SUI cure in PFMT vs UPFE cohorts at 12months were 0.52 ± 0.14 vs 0.23 ± 0.13, respectively (P = .14). At 12-month follow-up, the mean predicted PPD and IIQ score was 0.19 ± 0.10 vs 0.79 ± 0.33 and 2.86 ± 0.86 vs 2.55 ± 1.07 in PFMT vs UPFE cohorts, respectively (P = NS). CONCLUSION: In-person, FMPRS-directed PFMT is associated with improved SUI domain scores following robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, a finding durable through 12-month follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Diafragma Pélvico , Incontinencia Urinaria de Esfuerzo , Masculino , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Calidad de Vida , Terapia por Ejercicio , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Incontinencia Urinaria de Esfuerzo/etiología
5.
World J Urol ; 41(7): 1885-1889, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37296234

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a well-known adverse outcome following robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). Although postoperative SUI has been extensively studied, little focus has been placed on understanding the natural history and impact of urgency symptoms following RALP. The UVA prostatectomy functional outcomes program (PFOP) was developed to comprehensively assess and optimize continence outcomes following RALP. The present study focuses on assessing urgency outcomes in this cohort. METHODS: PFOP patients with a minimum of 6-months follow up following RALP were included. The PFOP includes prospectively assessed incontinence and quality of life outcomes utilizing ICIQ-MLUTS, Urgency Perception Score (UPS), and IIQ-7 questionnaires. The primary study outcome was urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) as determined by ICIQ-MLUTS UUI domain. Secondary outcomes included urgency (UPS score) and quality of life (IIQ-7). RESULTS: Forty patients were included with median age 63.5 years. Fourteen (35%) patients reported UUI at baseline. UUI and QOL scores worsened compared to baseline at all time-points. Urgency worsened at 3-weeks and 3-months but returned to baseline by 6-months. Notably, 63% of patients without baseline UUI reported de-novo UUI at 6 months. Although QOL was lower in patients with versus without UUI (IIQ-7 score 3.0 vs 0.0, p = 0.009), severity of UUI was not associated with QOL when controlling for SUI severity. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate significantly worsened UUI from baseline and a large incidence of de-novo UUI following RALP. Further study is needed to inform how urgency and UUI and its treatment affect health-related quality of life following RALP.


Asunto(s)
Laparoscopía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Incontinencia Urinaria de Esfuerzo , Incontinencia Urinaria , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/efectos adversos , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Incontinencia Urinaria de Esfuerzo/cirugía , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Laparoscopía/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Incontinencia Urinaria de Urgencia/diagnóstico
6.
Urology ; 178: 9-16, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37149061

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize academic productivity for underrepresented minorities (URMs) vs non-URMs and by gender in Urology. METHODS: A database was created from 145 Urology residency programs. URM status was determined by origin of name, photo, biography, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Doximity. A PubMed query was performed for publication output. URM status, gender, post-graduate year/years of practice, and Doximity residency rank were factors in multivariable analysis. RESULTS: For residents, the median total publications was 2 [1,5] for URMs and 2 [1,5] for non-URMs (P=.54). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for URMs and 1 [0,2] for non-URMs (P=.79). The median total publications was 2 [0,4] for women and 2 [1,6] for men (P=.003). The median first/last author publications was 1 [0,2] for women and 1 [0,2] for men (P=.14). For faculty, the median total publications was 12 [3,32] for URMs and 19 [6,45] for non-URMs (P=.0002). The median first/last author publications was 4.5 [1,12] for URMs and 7 [2,20] for non-URM faculty (P=.0002). The median total publications was 11 [5,25] for women and 20 [6,49] for men (P<.0001). The median first/last author publications was 4 [1,11] for women and 8 [2,22] for men (P<.0001). On multivariable analysis, there was no difference in total publications and first/last author publications for URMs vs non-URMs. There remained a difference between genders for residents and faculty with total publications but not first/last author publications (P=.002/P=.10 residents, P=.004/P=.07 faculty). CONCLUSION: Academic productivity was not different in URMs and non-URMs for both residents and faculty. Men residents and faculty had more total publications compared to women.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Urología , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estados Unidos , Urólogos , Grupos Minoritarios , Instituciones Académicas , Urología/educación , Docentes Médicos
7.
Indian J Plast Surg ; 56(2): 124-129, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37153332

RESUMEN

Background Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (CFD) is an uncommon benign condition in which a bone is replaced by fibrous tissue. An adequate clinical characterization considering the number of affected bones and functional impairment is important to determine the most effective surgical intervention for its management. This study aims to present our institution's experience in the evaluation and management of CFD. Methods This was a retrospective study that included patients with CFD managed at our institution. Data included demographic characteristics, afflicted bones, surgical procedures performed, and recurrence. Results are presented as mean and percentages. Recurrence-free years and association between the type of surgery and recurrence was evaluated. Results Eighteen patients were included (11 females, 61%). The zygomatic, maxillary, and frontal bones were the most commonly affected with eight (18%) cases each. The most common procedure was bone burring, with 36 procedures. Recurrence was more prevalent after burring (58.3%) and occurred earlier than in the bone resection group (13 vs. 15 years, p > 0.05). Conclusion Surgery continues to be the cornerstone of CFD treatment. Bone burring is effective for debulking and contouring but increases the risk for recurrence. An individualized approach should be tailored according to the anatomical location of the disease, type of CFD, behavior of the lesion, and accompanying clinical complaints.

8.
Urol Pract ; 10(2): 187-192, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37103408

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We characterize factors associated with recruitment of underrepresented in medicine urology trainees and faculty to academic institutions given the excessive disparity between urology and other fields of medicine. METHODS: A database of urology faculty and residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education programs was created. Demographic data were obtained from departmental websites, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Doximity. Program prestige was defined by U.S. News and World Report rankings. Program location and city size were determined using the U.S. Census data. Multivariable analysis was performed assessing the association of gender, AUA section, city size, and rankings on underrepresented in medicine recruitment. RESULTS: Of urologists in this study 8.7% were underrepresented in medicine status. More women urologists were underrepresented in medicine (31.4%) than non-underrepresented in medicine (21.3%; P < .001). Factors predictive of more underrepresented in medicine urologists were practice in South Central AUA section (OR 2.1, P = .04), and medium metro areas (OR 1.6, P < .01). Among residents, factors predictive of more underrepresented in medicine urologists were female gender (P < .001), living in medium metro areas (P = .03), and training in top 10 programs (P = .001). Underrepresented in medicine faculty were more likely to be women compared to non-underrepresented in medicine faculty (P = .05). Pearson correlation test found no association between the presence of underrepresented in medicine faculty and underrepresented in medicine residents (r = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Underrepresented in medicine urology residents and faculty were more likely to be women, compared to non-underrepresented in medicine residents and faculty. Underrepresented in medicine residents are more prevalent in medium metro areas and in top 10 programs. More underrepresented in medicine faculty status was not associated with more underrepresented in medicine residents.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Medicina , Urología , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Urólogos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina
9.
Microorganisms ; 10(12)2022 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557745

RESUMEN

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is the main etiological agent of cervical cancer worldwide. Mutations within the virus genome may lead to an increased risk of cancer development and decreased vaccine response, but there is a lack of information about strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa. Endocervical cytology samples were collected from 480 women attending a voluntary cervical cancer screening program at Monkole Hospital and four outpatient centers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The prevalence of HPV infection was 18.8% and the most prevalent high-risk types were HPV16 (12.2%) followed by HPV52 (8.8%) and HPV33/HPV35 (7.8% each). HPV16 strains were characterized: 57.1% were classified as C lineage; two samples (28.6%) as A1 and one sample belonged to B1 lineage. HPV33, HPV35, HPV16, and HPV58 were the most frequent types associated with low-grade intraepithelial lesion while high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were predominantly associated with HPV16. Several L1 mutations (T266A, S282P, T353P, and N181T) were common in Kinshasa, and their potential effect on vaccine-induced neutralization, especially the presence of S282P, should be further investigated. Long control region (LCR) variability was high with frequent mutations like G7193T, G7521A, and G145T that could promote malignancy of these HPV16 strains. This study provides a helpful basis for understanding HPV16 variants circulating in Kinshasa and the potential association between mutations of LCR region and malignancy and of L1 and vaccine activity.

10.
Hand (N Y) ; 17(6): 1292-1296, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Moebius syndrome is a disorder characterized by facial and abducens nerve paralysis. Patients can present a wide range of upper extremity malformations. Literature focused on orthopedic manifestations of Moebius syndrome shows variability in the prevalence and clinical presentation of upper extremity anomalies. The aim of this work is to evaluate the prevalence of upper extremity malformations in patients with Moebius syndrome, clarify its various clinical presentations, and present treatment strategies for their management. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study including patients with Moebius syndrome and upper extremity malformations between 2012 and 2019. Data include demographic characteristics, Moebius syndrome subtype, type of malformation, affected extremity, and surgical procedures underwent. Quantitative data were recorded as mean (standard deviation [SD]), and qualitative data were expressed in terms of totals and percentages. Statistical association between Moebius syndrome subtype and development of upper extremity anomalies was evaluated using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-five out of 153 patients (16.3%) presented upper extremity malformations (48% male). Mean age of presentation was 9.08 ± 9.43 years. Sixty-eight percent of the malformations were unilateral. The most common presentations included Poland syndrome and simple syndactyly with 8 cases each (32%), followed by 5 cases of brachysyndactyly (20%), 3 cases of amniotic band syndrome (12%), and 1 case of cleft hand (4%). No statistical association was found between Moebius syndrome subtype and odds ratio for development of upper extremity anomalies. Thirteen patients (52%) underwent reconstructive procedures. CONCLUSION: Poland syndrome and syndactyly are the most common anomalies in patients with Moebius syndrome. Patients may present with a wide range of hand malformations, each patient should be carefully evaluated in order to determine whether surgical treatment is needed and to optimize rehabilitation protocols.


Asunto(s)
Deformidades de la Mano , Síndrome de Mobius , Síndrome de Poland , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Femenino , Síndrome de Mobius/epidemiología , Síndrome de Mobius/cirugía , Síndrome de Mobius/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 253-260, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419584

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Currently, only 54% of the population of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) know their HIV status. The aim of this study was to detect HIV misdiagnosis from rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and to evaluate serological immunoassays using dried blood spots (DBS) from patients in Kinshasa, DRC. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2018, 365 DBS samples were collected from 363 individuals and shipped to Spain. The samples were from people with a new HIV positive (n = 123) or indeterminate (n = 23) result, known HIV-positive patients (n = 157), and a negative control group (n = 62). HIV serology was performed using Elecsys HIV combi PT (Roche), VIDAS HIV Duo Quick (BioMérieux), and Geenius (Bio-Rad). In addition, HIV RNA detection was performed in all samples using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS Taqman HIV-1 Test 2.0 (Roche). RESULTS: Overall, 272 samples were found to be positive and 93 to be negative for HIV serology. The sensitivity was 100% for both Elecsys and VIDAS techniques, but specificity was slightly higher for the VIDAS test: 100% (96.1-100%) vs 98.9% (94.1-99.9%). Of the 23 indeterminate cases using RDT, only three cases were true-positives with a detectable viral load. Eleven samples out of the 280 classified as positive by RDT corresponded to nine patients who had received a false diagnosis of HIV through RDT (3.9%); six of them had been on antiretroviral therapy for at least 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Elecsys HIV combi PT and VIDAS HIV Duo Quick immunoassays showed high sensitivity and specificity when using DBS. RDT-based serological diagnosis can lead to HIV misdiagnosis with personal and social consequences in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , República Democrática del Congo , Errores Diagnósticos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Organización Mundial de la Salud
12.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804260

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization has established an elimination plan for hepatitis C virus (HCV) by 2030. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) access to diagnostic tools is limited, and a number of genotype 4 subtypes have been shown to be resistant to some direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). This study aims to analyze diagnostic assays for HCV based on dried blood spots (DBS) specimens collected in Kinshasa and to characterize genetic diversity of the virus within a group of mainly HIV positive patients. HCV antibody detection was performed on 107 DBS samples with Vidas® anti-HCV and Elecsys anti-HCV II, and on 31 samples with INNO-LIA HCV. Twenty-six samples were subjected to molecular detection. NS3, NS5A, and NS5B regions from 11 HCV viremic patients were sequenced. HCV seroprevalence was 12.2% (72% with detectable HCV RNA). Both Elecsys Anti-HCV and INNO-LIA HCV were highly sensitive and specific, whereas Vidas® anti-HCV lacked full sensitivity and specificity when DBS sample was used. NS5B/NS5A/NS3 sequencing revealed exclusively GT4 isolates (50% subtype 4r, 30% 4c and 20% 4k). All 4r strains harbored NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) at positions 28, 30, and 31, but no NS3 RAS was detected. Elecsys Anti-HCV and INNO-LIA HCV are reliable methods to detect HCV antibodies using DBS. HCV subtype 4r was the most prevalent among our patients. RASs found in subtype 4r in NS5A region confer unknown susceptibility to DAA.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248835, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857166

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The inadequacy of HIV viraemia and resistance monitoring in Africa leads to uncontrolled circulation of HIV strains with drug resistance mutations (DRM), compromising antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness. This study describes the DRM prevalence and its therapeutic impact in HIV-infected pediatric patients from Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC). METHODS: From 2016-2018, dried blood were collected from 71 HIV-infected children and adolescents under ART in two hospitals in Kinshasa for HIV-1 DRM pol analysis, predicted ARV-susceptibility by Stanford and phylogenetic characterization. RESULTS: HIV-1 sequences were recovered from 55 children/adolescents with 14 years of median-age. All had received nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI, NNRTI), 9.1% protease inhibitors (PI) and only one integrase inhibitor (INI). Despite the use of ART, 89.1% showed virological failure and 67.3% carried viruses with major-DRM to one (12.7%), two (47.3%), or three (5.5%) ARV-families. Most children/adolescents harbored DRM to NNRTI (73.5%) or NRTI (61.2%). Major-DRM to PI was present in 8.3% and minor-DRM to INI in 15%. Dual-class-NRTI+NNRTI resistance appeared in 53.1% of patients. Viruses presented high/intermediate resistance to nevirapine (72.9% patients), efavirenz (70.9%), emtricitabine/lamivudine (47.9%), rilpivirine (41.7%), etravirine (39.6%), doravidine (33.3%), zidovudine (22.9%), among others. Most participants were susceptible to INI and PI. Great diversity of variants was found, with a high rate (40%) of unique recombinants. CONCLUSION: The high DRM prevalence observed among HIV-infected children and adolescents in Kinshasa could compromise the 95-95-95-UNAIDS targets in the DRC. It also reinforces the need for routine resistance monitoring for optimal rescue therapy election in this vulnerable population to control the spread of resistant HIV in the country.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/genética , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Adulto Joven
15.
Front Surg ; 7: 514247, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195382

RESUMEN

Objective: The goal of this study was to systematically review functional mapping and reorganization that takes place in the setting of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and its potential impact on grading and surgical decision making. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the PubMed database for studies published between 1986 and 2019. Studies assessing brain mapping and functional reorganization in AVMs were included. Results: Of the total 84 articles identified in the original literature search, 12 studies were ultimately selected. This includes studies evaluating the impact of cortical reorganization on patient outcomes and factors impacting and triggering cortical reorganization in AVM. Conclusion: These studies demonstrate the utility of preoperative brain mapping and acknowledgment of functional reorganization in the setting of AVMs. While these findings led to alterations in Spetzler-Martin grading and subsequent surgical decision making, it remains unclear the clinical utility of this information when assessing patient outcomes. While promising, more research is required before recommendations can be made regarding functional brain mapping and cortical reorganization with respect to AVM surgery involving eloquent brain tissue.

16.
Plast Surg (Oakv) ; 28(4): 210-214, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215035

RESUMEN

Carpometacarpal joint dislocations are uncommon hand injuries. These dislocations are usually misdiagnosed due to their non-specific clinical signs and tend to be difficult to identify in simple X-rays. We report our experience in the management of carpometacarpal bone dislocations at a specialized hand surgery center. Patients with carpometacarpal dislocations seen at the emergency department between 2013 and 2017 were included. All patients were treated with either closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Postoperative functional assessment was performed at 6 and 18 months using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score. Eleven patients were included, 8 (72%) were managed with CRPP and the rest required ORIF (28%). For the functional outcome, we found an average DASH score of 27.9 at the 6 months threshold and of 1.5 at the 18 months threshold. Carpometacarpal dislocations are uncommon and easy to misdiagnose; the hand surgeon should have a high clinical suspicion in patients who sustained high-energy trauma, and imaging studies should be thoroughly evaluated. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is a safe and effective treatment option, with long-term good functional results.


Les dislocations des articulations carpométacarpiennes sont des blessures peu courantes de la main. Elles sont généralement mal diagnostiquées en raison de leurs signes cliniques non spécifiques et ont tendance à être difficiles à dépister au moyen d'une simple radiographie. Les auteurs rendent compte de leur expérience dans la prise en charge des dislocations des os carpométacarpiens dans un centre spécialisé de chirurgie de la main. Les patients atteints d'une dislocation carpométacarpienne vus à l'urgence entre 2013 et 2017 étaient inclus dans l'étude. Tous les patients ont subi une réduction fermée et un embrochage percutané (RFEP) ou une réduction ouverte et une fixation interne (ROFI). L'évaluation fonctionnelle postopératoire a eu lieu au bout de six et 18 mois au moyen du score d'incapacité du bras, de l'épaule et de la main (DASH). Onze patients ont participé : huit (72 %) ont subi une RFEP et les autres ont dû subir une ROFI (28 %). Le score DASH moyen du résultat fonctionnel s'établissait à 27,9 au seuil de six mois et à 1,5 à celui de 18 mois. Puisque les dislocations carpométacarpiennes sont rares et faciles à mal diagnostiquer, le chirurgien de la main devrait en présumer la possibilité chez les patients victimes d'un traumatisme de forte énergie, et les études d'imagerie devraient faire l'objet d'une évaluation approfondie. La RFEP est une possibilité de traitement sécuritaire et efficace qui donne de bons résultats fonctionnels à long terme.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18461, 2020 10 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116151

RESUMEN

HIV-1 diversity may impact monitoring and vaccine development. We describe the most recent data of HIV-1 variants and their temporal trends in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from 1976 to 2018 and in Kinshasa from 1983-2018. HIV-1 pol sequencing from dried blood collected in Kinshasa during 2016-2018 was done in 340 HIV-infected children/adolescents/adults to identify HIV-1 variants by phylogenetic reconstructions. Recombination events and transmission clusters were also analyzed. Variant distribution and genetic diversity were compared to historical available pol sequences from the DRC in Los Alamos Database (LANL). We characterized 165 HIV-1 pol variants circulating in Kinshasa (2016-2018) and compared them with 2641 LANL sequences from the DRC (1976-2012) and Kinshasa (1983-2008). During 2016-2018 the main subtypes were A (26.7%), G (9.7%) and C (7.3%). Recombinants accounted for a third of infections (12.7%/23.6% Circulant/Unique Recombinant Forms). We identified the first CRF47_BF reported in Africa and four transmission clusters. A significant increase of subtype A and sub-subtype F1 and a significant reduction of sub-subtype A1 and subtype D were observed in Kinshasa during 2016-2018 compared to variants circulating in the city from 1983 to 2008. We provide unique and updated information related to HIV-1 variants currently circulating in Kinshasa, reporting the temporal trends of subtypes/CRF/URF during 43 years in the DRC, and providing the most extensive data on children/adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1/genética , Epidemiología Molecular , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5679, 2019 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952893

RESUMEN

Point-of-Care (POC) molecular assays improve HIV infant diagnosis and viral load (VL) quantification in resource-limited settings. We evaluated POC performance in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), with high diversity of HIV-1 recombinants. In 2016, 160 dried blood samples (DBS) were collected from 85 children (60 HIV-, 18 HIV+, 7 HIV-exposed) and 75 HIV+ adults (65 treated, 10 naive) at Monkole Hospital (Kinshasa). We compared viraemia with Cepheid-POC-Xpert-HIV-1VL and the non-POC-COBAS®AmpliPrep/COBAS®TaqMan®HIV-1-Testv2 in all HIV+, carrying 72.4%/7.2% HIV-1 unique/complex recombinant forms (URF/CRF). HIV-1 infection was confirmed in 14 HIV+ children by Cepheid-POC-Xpert-HIV-1Qual and in 70 HIV+ adults by both Xpert-VL and Roche-VL, identifying 8 false HIV+ diagnosis performed in DRC (4 adults, 4 children). HIV-1 was detected in 95.2% and 97.6% of 84 HIV+ samples by Xpert-VL and Roche-VL, respectively. Most (92.9%) HIV+ children presented detectable viraemia by both VL assays and 74.3% or 72.8% of 70 HIV+ adults by Xpert or Roche, respectively. Both VL assays presented high correlation (R2 = 0.89), but showing clinical relevant ≥0.5 log VL differences in 15.4% of 78 cases with VL within quantification range by both assays. This is the first study confirming the utility of Xpert HIV-1 tests for detection-quantification of complex recombinants currently circulating in Kinshasa.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/genética , Niño , República Democrática del Congo , Pruebas con Sangre Seca/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , ARN Viral/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Carga Viral/genética , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/virología
19.
Ann Maxillofac Surg ; 7(2): 319-321, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264308

RESUMEN

Parotid gland hemangiomas represent <0.6% of the total tumors of the gland and there are <50 tumors reported during adult age, so there is no standard treatment. A 18-year-old female presents with a mass in the right parotid gland of 18 months of a slow progressive asymptomatic growth; on physical examination, only the mass was detected. An angiography was performed, and it reported a possible hemangioma that depends on the right internal maxillary artery and right facial artery and was not suitable for embolization. Total parotidectomy was performed with prior ligation of the right external carotid artery, complete resection was achieved and preservation of the facial nerve and all branches with minimal loss of blood (150 cc). External carotid artery ligation is a safe technique that can be considered in carefully selected patients with vascular tumors that affect the head and neck to achieve a clean and safe surgery with minimal sequels.

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