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1.
Int Braz J Urol ; 50(2): 192-198, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386789

RESUMEN

PURPOUSE: One of the many artificial intelligence based tools that has gained popularity is the Chat-Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT). Due to its popularity, incorrect information provided by ChatGPT will have an impact on patient misinformation. Furthermore, it may cause misconduct as ChatGPT can mislead physicians on the decision-making pathway. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ChatGPT answers regarding urological diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ChatGPT 3.5 version was used. The questions asked for the program involved Primary Megaureter (pMU), Enuresis and Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR). There were three queries for each topic. The queries were inserted twice, and both responses were recorded to examine the reproducibility of ChatGPT's answers. Afterwards, both answers were combined. Finally, those rwere evaluated qualitatively by a board of three specialists. A descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: ChatGPT simulated general knowledge on the researched topics. Regarding Enuresis, the provided definition was partially correct, as the generic response allowed for misinterpretation. For VUR, the response was considered appropriate. For pMU it was partially correct, lacking essential aspects of its definition such as the diameter of the dilatation of the ureter. Unnecessary exams were suggested, for Enuresis and pMU. Regarding the treatment of the conditions mentioned, it specified treatments for Enuresis that are ineffective, such as bladder training. Therefore, ChatGPT responses present a combination of accurate information, but also incomplete, ambiguous and, occasionally, misleading details.


Asunto(s)
Enuresis Nocturna , Médicos , Urología , Humanos , Inteligencia Artificial , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
2.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 39(3): 681-697, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501019

RESUMEN

The average worldwide prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is 1.0 per 1000 births. Its development is multifactorial due to genetic and non-genetic factors. Spina bifida (SB) is one of main representatives of NTD. The spinal cord lesion level is the main determinant of the level of paralysis, numbness, and difficulties with bladder/bowel functions. Myelomeningocele prenatal repair reduces hydrocephalus and hindbrain herniation and improves motor function. The severity of hydrocephalus is associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes whether operated on prenatally or after birth. People with SB tend to have a lower IQ and cognitive difficulties. Early diagnosis, proactivity, and lifelong multidisciplinary follow-up are key protective issues. Invasive urological interventions should be considered in selected patients after failure of conservative treatment. Transition to adult care should be well planned as it is challenging. Health literacy is directly associated with success at transition. Sexuality and fertility should be addressed before/during puberty. Overall, the rates of fecal and urinary continence and skin breakdown increase with age, whereas the ability to ambulate declines with age. Bowel and urinary incontinence are independent predictors of lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with SB. Bowel incontinence has negative impact on HRQoL regardless of frequency or amount. Long-term caregiver support should be offered at diagnosis. Survival at a mean of 50 years is poor, at 32%, due to central nervous system deaths, cancer, urological disease, and sepsis. Challenges to implementation of recommended practices exist, especially in low and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocefalia , Disrafia Espinal , Incontinencia Urinaria , Adulto , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad , Calidad de Vida , Disrafia Espinal/complicaciones , Disrafia Espinal/terapia , Hidrocefalia/complicaciones
3.
Int Braz J Urol ; 49(6): 688-699, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37903006

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Parasacral Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TENS) is one of the treatments for children with Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction (BBD). Some studies showed that children with increased Rectal Diameter (RD) have more Functional Constipation (FC). However, RD prediction in maintenance of BBD after treatment was never evaluated. Our aim is to evaluate the association between RD and response to treatment in children and adolescents with BBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated patients from 5-17 years old with BBD. Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS), Rome IV criteria, and the Constipation Score were used. RD was measured using abdominal ultrasound before treatment according to the technique established by Klijn et al. and was considered enlarged when >3cm. No laxatives were used during treatment. Descriptive analysis and binary regression were performed and the area under the ROC curve was calculated. RESULTS: Forty children were included (mean age 8.4±2.8 years, 52.5% male). Before treatment, RD was enlarged in 15 children (37.5%) (mean diameter 3.84±0.6cm), with FC persisting post-treatment in 11/15(73.3%). Those patients also required more laxatives following treatment and had more severe FC. Binary regression showed pretreatment RD to be an independent predictor of the persistence of FC post-treatment (OR=9.56; 95%CI:2.05-44.60). In ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity was 100% (95%CI: 0.49-1.0) and specificity 77.14% (95%CI:0.60-0.90) for rectal diameter >3 cm. The likelihood ratio was 4.38 (95%CI:2.40-8.0) for the persistence of BBD following treatment. CONCLUSION: RD appears to be relevant in the evaluation of children with BBD, not only as a diagnostic tool but also as a predictor of treatment outcome.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Enfermedades de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Niño , Masculino , Adolescente , Preescolar , Femenino , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio/métodos , Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Estreñimiento/terapia , Estreñimiento/diagnóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
J Pediatr Urol ; 2023 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195295

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Rome IV criteria are used to characterize constipation and its subtypes, but not its severity. Conversely, the constipation scoring system (CSS) is a tool designed to assess the level of constipation severity and assist clinicians in selecting suitable therapeutic strategies. Although validated for adults, this score has yet to be validated for children. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate the CSS for the pediatric population. METHODS: Children and adolescents of 4-17 years of age with no morphological or neurological abnormalities of the gastrointestinal system were randomly selected during general consultation with a pediatrician and evaluated between November 2021 to April 2022. The Rome IV criteria were considered the gold-standard detection method. The adapted version was initially assessed on 30 children to assess comprehension and then administered to another 100 children. The internal consistency of the adapted questionnaire was assessed in a test-retest procedure with a two-week interval. RESULTS: One hundred patients with a mean age of 8.61 ± 3.25 years were assessed. Of these, 51 (51 %) were male. Most children (n = 91) received a score of 1-10 (the total CSS score can range from 0 to 30 points). The correlation between the pediatric version of the CSS and the Rome IV criteria was substantial, as shown by a positive Spearman correlation (r2) of 0.553 (p < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha between the test-retest responses was 0.97. When each item of the questionnaire was assessed individually, a greater level of internal consistency was found, indicating adequate internal reliability. DISCUSSION: The current study broadens the horizon with the emergence of new diagnostic aid for FC in Brazilian children and adolescents. In addition, this study provides the cornerstone for future research to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the CSS and its prognostic value for monitoring the treatment. The loss of a follow-up rate (26 %) during the telephone "test-retest" phase was a limitation. Using a subjective questionnaire such as the Rome IV criteria as the gold standard method may also represent a limitation. Further research is required on the use of objective diagnostic tools for FC including colonic transit time, anal manometry, cine-defecography, and electromyography. CONCLUSION: The CSS was successfully adapted for use with the pediatric population and was well accepted, confirming its language and psychometric validity in aiding the diagnosis of functional constipation. This was the first step towards validating the use of this score in other countries and cultures to assess the severity of constipation in children.

6.
J Pediatr Urol ; 18(6): 739.e1-739.e6, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336620

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (parasacral TENS) on quality of life (QoL) and psychological aspects in children treated for overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: This international, multicenter, prospective cohort study involved individuals of 6-16 years of age under TENS treatment for OAB. The study was conducted between June 2016 and December 2019 in four participating centers: two in Australia, one in Germany and one in Brazil. Patients with anatomical and/or neurological abnormalities of the urinary tract were excluded. Questionnaires were applied before and after parasacral TENS treatment: the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS), used in Brazil, or the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-CLUTS), used in Germany and Australia, to analyze urinary symptoms; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to assess emotional and behavioral aspects; and the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire (PinQ) for bladder-specific Qol. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (28 girls and 25 boys) with a mean age of 8.64 ± 2.63 years were included. Median DVSS was 11 (range 6-13.5) and 3 (range 0-7), (p < 0.001), and median ICIQ-CLUTS was 12 (range 9-14) and 9 (range 5.7-12), (p < 0.001), before and after treatment, respectively. Median PinQ score decreased from 47.8 (range 38.9-59.7) to 39 (range 29-53.15) following treatment (p = 0.04). Median total SDQ score before and after treatment was 17 (range 13.5-21) and 15 (range 12-21), respectively (p = 0.939). CONCLUSION: Parasacral TENS was associated with a significant improvement in urinary symptoms and QoL; however, there was no change in psychological symptoms, as measured using the SDQ.


Asunto(s)
Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Incontinencia Urinaria , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/terapia , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento , Incontinencia Urinaria/terapia , Síntomas del Sistema Urinario Inferior/terapia
7.
J Pediatr Urol ; 18(6): 740.e1-740.e8, 2022 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123285

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electrical nerve stimulation is one of the most commonly used and well-tolerated treatments for overactive bladder (OAB); however, different studies have used different instruments to assess patients' response to treatment. OBJECTIVE: To analyze agreement between use of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS) for assessing improvement in urinary symptoms following electrical nerve stimulation treatment in children and adolescents with OAB. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analytical study including children and adolescents of 4-17 years of age diagnosed with OAB who underwent 20 sessions of transcutaneous (TENS) or percutaneous (PENS) electrical nerve stimulation. The DVSS and the VAS were used to assess daytime urinary symptoms before and following treatment. While the DVSS was always applied by a physician, the VAS was applied separately by a physiotherapist and then by a physician. Treatment was considered successful when the DVSS score was zero and the VAS score was ≥90%. Correlations between post-treatment VAS and DVSS scores were evaluated using the kappa coefficient. The VAS scores evaluated by the different professionals were compared for agreement using intraclass correlation and the Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: Data from 49 cases were available for analysis. Of these, 27 (55.1%) were girls. Mean age was 7.1 ± 2.6 years. There was agreement between the two instruments used, the DVSS and the VAS, in 36/49 patients (73.5%), with a moderate Kappa of 0.44. There was moderate agreement between the VAS scores applied by the two different professionals. DISCUSSION: imitations of the present study include the small sample size and the fact that the inter-observer evaluation was conducted following a single sequence, i.e. all the patients were first evaluated by the physiotherapist and then by the physician, which may have biased answers and the post-treatment VAS scores. Furthermore, although the child participated actively in completing the questionnaires, in cases of divergent answers, the questions were redirected to the responsible adult, and the final answer may not fully represent the patient's true situation. CONCLUSION: The present study found moderate agreement between the DVSS and the VAS, and moderate agreement between VAS scores when the instrument was applied by two different professionals. Although both tools appear to be important, and possibly complementary, a DVSS score of zero precludes the need to apply the VAS.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Escala Visual Analógica , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/diagnóstico , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/fisiopatología , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/terapia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(5): 878-879, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838516

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Total corpora mobilization (TCM) is a novel technique that is used for penile reconstruction in cases of micropenis and penile amputation. Its principle is based on Kelly's procedure for bladder exstrophy (1). In contrast to the Kelly procedure, TCM is performed entirely through the perineum with the patient in the lithotomy position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TCM was performed on three patients. The first was a boy who suffered trauma from a dog bite at an age of eight months. At 23 years old he underwent TCM. The second patient had genital self-amputation induced by psychiatric disorder. After treatment, at 27 years old, he desired surgery for penile reconstruction. The third patient had partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) with a micropenis and at 23 years old had TCM procedure. The patients were placed in the lithotomy position with a perineal incision in the midline. A subperiosteal incision was made and the corpora cavernosa were detached from the pubic arch and the ischial rami. The periosteum and the neurovascular bundles were preserved. Subsequently the corpora cavernosa was mobilized upward and the periosteum that was left attached to them was sutured to the pubis. RESULTS: At twenty-four, nine, and six months, respectively, in the follow-up process, all patients expressed satisfaction with the final cosmetic appearance, penile length, and erectile function. CONCLUSION: TCM may prove to be an alternative for patients with a functional disturbance because of small penile length, though a higher number of cases and a more extended follow-up are needed to draw a more definitive conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Extrofia de la Vejiga , Enfermedades del Pene , Animales , Extrofia de la Vejiga/cirugía , Perros , Enfermedades de los Genitales Masculinos , Humanos , Masculino , Erección Peniana , Pene/anomalías , Pene/cirugía
10.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(4): 726-727, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263057

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Clitoroplasty constitutes an important step in feminizing surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (1). In this video we present a technique that aims to preserve clitoral sensitivity and engorgement while minimizing the risk of neurovascular lesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a video of a three-year-old girl with history of CAH classical form, PRADER-III, who underwent clitoroplasty. After an initial endoscopic evaluation of the urogenital sinus, the clitoris was degloved and a rectangular incision was made on the ventral corpora cavernosa 15mm above the corpora bifurcation and 0.5 mm below the coronal sulcus. The cavernous tissue was partially resected. The upper and lower borders of the rectangular gap were closed by a 5-0 PDS running suture similar to the Mikulicz technique. Next, the edge of the glans was deepithelialized to reduce its size. For improved clitoral positioning, the clitoris was sutured to the pubic fat. From that point onward the procedure followed that of a standard vaginoplasty using the en-bloc technique (2-4). Thus far we have performed this technique in 33 patients, with 31 of them being girls with CAH and 2 being women with clitoral hypertrophy. CONCLUSION: Corporoplasty is a simplified technique for clitoroplasty, with the advantage being that is faster and safer than the technique that involves the dissection of the neurovascular bundle. In addition, corporoplasty has the possible benefit of preserving the cavernosal blood flow that permits the engorgement of the clitoris during sexual arousal.


Asunto(s)
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita , Procedimientos de Cirugía Plástica , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita/patología , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita/cirugía , Preescolar , Clítoris/patología , Clítoris/cirugía , Femenino , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ginecológicos , Humanos , Hipertrofia/cirugía , Masculino , Procedimientos de Cirugía Plástica/métodos
11.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 31-51, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861059

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Defective closure of the neural tube affects different systems and generates sequelae, such as neurogenic bladder (NB). Myelomeningocele (MMC) represents the most frequent and most severe cause of NB in children. Damage of the renal parenchyma in children with NB acquired in postnatal stages is preventable given adequate evaluation, follow-up and proactive management. The aim of this document is to update issues on medical management of neurogenic bladder in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Pediatric Urologists joined a group of experts and reviewed all important issues on "Spina Bifida, Neurogenic Bladder in Children" and elaborated a draft of the document. All the members of the group focused on the same system of classification of the levels of evidence (GRADE system) in order to assess the literature and the recommendations. During the year 2020 the panel of experts has met virtually to review, discuss and write a consensus document. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The panel addressed recommendations on up to date choice of diagnosis evaluation and therapies. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) should be implemented during the first days of life, and antimuscarinic drugs should be indicated upon results of urodynamic studies. When the patient becomes refractory to first-line therapy, receptor-selective pharmacotherapy is available nowadays, which leads to a reduction in reconstructive procedures, such as augmentation cystoplasty.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Uretral Intermitente , Meningomielocele , Disrafia Espinal , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica , Niño , Humanos , Meningomielocele/complicaciones , Meningomielocele/terapia , Vejiga Urinaria Neurogénica/terapia , Urodinámica
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 540-545, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340154

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Childhood Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction Questionnaire (CBBDQ) for use in Brazilian Portuguese. The CBBDQ is an 18-item tool covering 10 bladder and 8 bowel symptoms that was developed for use with children of 5 to 12 years of age with bowel and bladder dysfunction (BBD). The instrument has already been validated for use in Dutch and English. Method: In the process of translation and cultural adaptation from English to Portuguese, the CBBDQ was submitted to undergo the required steps as established by the international methodological criteria: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert panel review and pre-testing. Results: Ninety-three parents of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the children was 7.6 ± 2.1 years and 54 were female. Internal consistency was excellent, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 to 0.96. Additionally, reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95%CI: 0.85-0.93; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The translation and cultural adaptation of the CBBDQ enabled a quantitative evaluation of bladder and bowel symptoms to be performed in Brazilian children. The scores achieved allow the severity of BBD to be evaluated, as well as the patient's progress during treatment. The use of this questionnaire in clinical practice and research will allow more consistent data on BBD to be obtained.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Vejiga Urinaria , Comparación Transcultural , Psicometría , Traducciones , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
13.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(6): 1178-1188, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472767

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate autonomic activity in children/adolescents with isolated overactive bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive, analytical, non-interventional, cross-sectional study conducted between February 2017 and January 2018 with individuals aged between 5 and 17 years old, with overactive bladder (OAB group) or asymptomatic (control). Neurological or anatomical abnormalities, diabetes mellitus and kidney failure constituted exclusion criteria. The DVSS and the Rome III questionnaire were applied, and heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed. The chi-square test, Student's t-test, ANOVA and the Mann Whitney U test were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: 41 patients with OAB and 20 controls were included. In the OAB group, there were more girls (p=0.23), more overweight/obese and constipated patients. The DVSS score was higher in the OAB group. HRV showed a higher heart rate variability at the frequency domain and LF/HF variation in the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.05 respectively). In the intergroup evaluation, LF (Hz) was predominant in the control group at the post-voiding evaluation moment (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: The control group demonstrated a physiological heart rate variation during the voiding process, with a predominance of sympathetic activity during urinary storage.


Asunto(s)
Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Adolescente , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Micción
14.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 472.e1-472.e5, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229976

RESUMEN

AIM: To analyze uroflowmetry as a predictor of the outcome of treatment with parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with pure overactive bladder. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients of 5-16 years of age were included in this prospective cohort study. All the patients had been seen at a referral clinic between 2006 and 2015. All had a diagnosis of pure overactive bladder and were treated with TENS. Parameters established at pretreatment uroflowmetry were evaluated, with patients then being separated into two groups based on their visual analogue scale (VAS) score immediately following TENS. The variables analyzed at uroflowmetry were: maximum flow rate, curve pattern (bell or tower-shaped), time until maximum flow and voided volume. RESULTS: The mean age of the children evaluated was 7.26 years (SD: 2.62) (95%CI: 6.4-8.13) and 73.7% were girls. No association was found between maximum flow rate, curve pattern (bell or tower-shaped) or voided volume and the complete resolution of symptoms following treatment. Nevertheless, a shorter time until maximum flow was associated with a greater likelihood of treatment failure. CONCLUSION: The time until maximum flow rate before treatment is a potential predictor of the outcome of TENS treatment.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/diagnóstico , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/terapia , Micción
16.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 481.e1-481.e7, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092513

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic disease characterized by defective cortisol synthesis and excessive levels of sex hormones, can cause precocious puberty in both sexes in untreated individuals and virilization in female patients with a 46, XX karyotype. The female paraurethral (Skene's) gland has been reported as prostate analogous. Growth of prostate tissue is associated with androgen production; therefore, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels may represent a marker of virilization in 46, XX patients with CAH. OBJECTIVES: To describe PSA levels in 46, XX patients and evaluate whether higher PSA levels are associated with androgenization and the severity of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-six patients with CAH and a 46, XX karyotype were included, irrespective of age. Serum PSA, testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione levels were measured. Patients' age, age at diagnosis, forms of the disease, Prader classification, bone age assessment, sex of rearing, surgery, and the presence of clinical complications were obtained from their medical records. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 11.45 ± 10.74 years. Forty-three patients (65%) were diagnosed neonatally at a median of 0.08 years (mean 1.47 ± 2.34 years), with registers of 17-OHP measurements (Guthrie test) being available in 51%. Testosterone, 17-OHP and androstenedione were significantly high. PSA was detectable in 25% of cases (levels >0.01 ng/ml), with a mean of 0.03 ± 0.09 ng/ml, and only in patients over five years of age. A correlation was found between PSA and age (p < 0.001), age at diagnosis (p = 0.002), testosterone (p = 0.001) and androstenedione (p = 0.023). There was no correlation between PSA and the forms of CAH or Prader classification. A sub-analysis of the patients over five years of age in whom PSA was detectable also showed that there was a correlation between PSA (p < 0.05) and age at analysis, age at diagnosis, testosterone and androstenedione levels. DISCUSSION: Limitations of this study include the small sample size due to the rareness of the disease, its retrospective nature, the absence of a control group, the fact that the sample was selected at two referral centers, which could have resulted in a selection bias, and the use of different reference values in the different laboratories conducting the PSA tests. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is detectable in 25% of 46, XX patients with CAH, only after five years of age. PSA level increases significantly with age, age at diagnosis, and testosterone and androstenedione levels, confirming a correlation between PSA levels and elevated androgen levels.


Asunto(s)
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita , Antígeno Prostático Específico , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congénita/diagnóstico , Andrógenos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 448.e1-448.e8, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839033

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Overactive bladder (OAB) and voiding postponement (VP) can share the same symptom of urgency, but with different pathophysiology, including the cerebral interpretation of bladder filling. The objective of the present study was to compare the clinical, psychological and sociodemographic features of children with urgency for OAB with those who presented urgency for VP (UrVP). METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was conducted with patients of 5-14 years of age with urinary urgency between January, 2014, and January, 2019. Urinary symptoms were evaluated using the Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS) questionnaire, constipation using the Rome IV criteria and psychological symptoms using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). All the patients had bell-shaped or tower-shaped curves at uroflowmetry and no significant post-void residual volume at ultrasonography. Patients were classified as having OAB or UrVP depending on whether they voided >3 or ≤3 times/day, respectively. RESULTS: Median age of the 101 children/adolescents included was 9 years, with no significant difference between the groups. The prevalence of OAB was 60.4%. Girls constituted 57.4% of the sample but 67.5% of the postponement group, although no independent association was found between sex and diagnosis. The prevalence of constipation was 75.2%, with no difference between the groups. The children with OAB had higher behavioral hyperactivity scores and more intense externalizing symptoms, although there was no significant difference between the groups for the SDQ total difficulties score. In the multivariate analysis, the independent clinical factors associated with a diagnosis of OAB were behavioral hyperactivity (OR = 5.134), urge incontinence (OR = 4.694) and MVV/EBC (%) (OR = 0.983). CONCLUSION: More behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity, were found in children with OAB compared to those with UrVP. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups evaluated insofar as their sociodemographic characteristics are concerned. Furthermore, as expected, there was a strong association between the symptom of urge incontinence and lower MVV/EBC in the children and adolescents with OAB compared to those with voiding postponement.


Asunto(s)
Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/diagnóstico , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/epidemiología , Micción
19.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(4): 787-793, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848070

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study compares the results achieved following parasacral TENS administered using two different weekly schedules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of at least four years of age with a diagnosis of pure overactive bladder were included in this randomized clinical trial and treated with parasacral TENS (2 versus 3 sessions per week). All the participants also underwent standard urotherapy. RESULTS: Sixteen children were included in the twice-weekly group and eighteen in the three times weekly group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex; however, there was a difference in age. There were no significant differences regarding complete resolution of urinary symptoms, with 8 children (50%) in the twice-weekly group and 11 children (61%) in the three times weekly group having their symptoms completely resolved (p=0.73). There was a significant difference in the DVSS score in both groups following TENS treatment compared to baseline (p=0.0001 for both groups), but not between groups. Evaluation of the bladder diary showed no difference between the groups before or after treatment. CONCLUSION: For children with overactive bladder who are unable to undergo parasacral TENS treatment three times weekly, the method can be administered successfully at twice-weekly sessions.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Proyectos de Investigación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/terapia
20.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(4): 856-860, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848080

RESUMEN

The management of complex urethral stenosis may involve different surgical techniques. As retraction of the graft may account for surgical failure, this risk increases in patients with more extensive stenosis requiring a graft of greater diameter. Although double grafts have already been used to maximize success in these cases, we propose a modified technique for urethroplasty with longitudinal urethral incision. The hypothesis was that this technique would increase the lumen by using only a urethral incision on the dorsal surface. Two patients presenting with recurrent urethral stenosis underwent urethroplasty using a double graft of oral mucosa that preserves the integrity of the spongy tissue and allows ventral inlay graft fixation using a midline relaxing incision in the portion of the urethra with stenosis. In both cases, the urethrocystoscopy and uroflowmetry performed after surgery showed a pervious and complacent urethra. After four and six months of follow-up, the postoperative outcomes were satisfactory for both patients. Further studies involving larger numbers of patients and long-term follow-up are required to evaluate the effectiveness of this method.


Asunto(s)
Estrechez Uretral , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uretra/cirugía , Estrechez Uretral/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos
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