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1.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(4): 544-554, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049425

RESUMEN

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring appears to be a very useful approach to hypertension management insofar it allows to obtain multiple measurements in the usual environment of each individual, allows the detection of hypertension phenotypes, such as white-coat and masked hypertension, and appears to have superior prognostic value than the conventional office BP measurements. Out-of-office BP can be obtained through either home or ambulatory monitoring, which provide complementary and not identical information. Home BP monitoring yields BP values self-measured in subjects' usual living environment; it is an essential method for the evaluation of almost all untreated and treated subjects with suspected or diagnosed hypertension, best if combined with telemonitoring facilities, also allowing long-term monitoring. There is also increasing evidence that home BP monitoring improves long-term hypertension control rates by improving patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. In Latin American Countries, it is widely available, being relatively inexpensive, and well accepted by patients. Current US, Canadian, Japanese, and European guidelines recommend out-of-office BP monitoring to confirm and refine the diagnosis of hypertension.

2.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(4): 527-543, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049441

RESUMEN

Accurate office blood pressure measurement remains crucial in the diagnosis and management of hypertension worldwide, including Latin America (LA). Office blood pressure (OBP) measurement is still the leading technique in LA for screening and diagnosis of hypertension, monitoring of treatment, and long-term follow-up. Despite this, due to the increasing awareness of the limitations affecting OBP and to the accumulating evidence on the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as a complement of OBP in the clinical approach to the hypertensive patient, a progressively greater attention has been paid worldwide to the information on daytime and nighttime BP patterns offered by 24-h ABPM in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management of hypertension. In LA countries, most of the Scientific Societies of Hypertension and/or Cardiology have issued guidelines for hypertension care, and most of them include a special section on ABPM. Also, full guidelines on ABPM are available. However, despite the available evidence on the advantages of ABPM for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in LA, availability of ABPM is often restricted to cities with large population, and access to this technology by lower-income patients is sometimes limited by its excessive cost. The authors hope that this document might stimulate health authorities in each LA Country, as well as in other countries in the world, to regulate ABPM access and to widen the range of patients able to access the benefits of this technique.

3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200501, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001429

RESUMEN

Cohort studies assessing predictive values of self-rated health (SRH) and illiteracy on mortality in low-to-middle income countries are missing in the literature. Aiming to determine if these two variables were death predictors, an observational prospective population-based cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian small city. The cohort was established in 2002 with a representative sample of adults living in the city, and re-assessed in 2015. Sociodemographic (including illiteracy), anthropometric, lifestyle, previous CVD, and SRH data were collected. Cox proportional hazard models were designed to assess SRH and illiteracy in 2002 as death (all causes, CVD and non-CVD) predictors in 2015. From a total of 1066 individuals included in this study, 95(9%) died of non-CVD causes and 53(5%) from CVD causes. Mortality rates were higher among those with worse SRH in comparison to better health status categories for all causes of death, CVD and non-CVD deaths (p<0.001 for all outcomes). Similarly, illiterate individuals had higher mortality rates in comparison to non-illiterate for all causes of death (p<0.001), CVD (p = 0.004) and non-CVD death (p<0.001). Higher SRH negatively predicted CVD death (HR 0.44; 95%CI 0.44-0.95; p = 0.027) and all causes of death (OR 0.40; 95%CI 0.20-0.78; p = 0.008) while illiteracy positively predicted Non-CVD death (OR 1.59; 95%CI 1.03-2.54; p = 0.046). In conclusion, we found in this large Brazilian cohort followed for 13 years that better health perception was a negative predictor of death from all causes and CVD deaths, while illiteracy was a positive predictor of non-CVD deaths.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Estado de Salud , Alfabetización , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(2): 184-191, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-894115

RESUMEN

Abstract Objective The management of children with low birth weight is not the same in countries with different resources. The authors assessed the association of birth weight with blood pressure and nutritional status in a representative sample of adolescents from a Brazilian state, aiming to identify possible consequences of these differences. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted with adolescents (12-18 years) enrolled in public and private schools. Birth weight, office blood pressure, home blood pressure measurements, and nutritional status (body mass index, height z-score for the age, and waist circumference) were assessed. The association of birth weight with the outcomes (blood pressure, height, body mass index, and waist circumference) was studied through univariate and multivariable linear regression models. Results A total of 829 adolescents with a mean age of 14.6 ± 1.62 years were included; 43.3% were male, and 37.0% from private schools. The prevalence of low birth weight was 8.7%. Mild low height prevalence was higher among those adolescents with low/insufficient birth weight when compared to those with normal/high birth weight (11.7 vs. 4.2%; p < 0.001). In the multiple linear regression analysis, for each increase of 100 g in birth weight, height increased by 0.28 cm (95% CI: 0.18-0.37; p < 0.01). Birth weight did not influence office blood pressure and home blood pressure, body mass index, or waist circumference of adolescents. Conclusions Birth weight was directly associated to height, but not associated to blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference in adolescents from an urban area of a developing country.


Resumo Objetivo O manejo de crianças com baixo peso ao nascer não é o mesmo em países com diferentes recursos. Investigamos a associação do peso ao nascer com a pressão arterial e o estado nutricional em uma amostra representativa de adolescentes de uma capital brasileira com o objetivo de identificar possíveis consequências destas diferenças. Métodos Estudo transversal de base escolar conduzido com adolescentes (12-18 anos) matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas. Investigou-se o peso ao nascer, a pressão arterial, e o estado nutricional, por meio do índice de massa corporal, do escore z de estatura para idade e da circunferência da cintura. Resultados Um total de 829 adolescentes com uma idade média 14.6 ± 1.62 anos foram incluídos, 43.3% do sexo feminino e 37.0% de escolas privadas. A prevalência de baixo peso ao nascer foi 8.7%. Baixa estatura leve foi mais prevalente nos adolescentes com peso ao nascer baixo/insuficiente (11.7 × 4.2% - p < 0.001). Na análise de regressão linear múltipla, para cada aumento de 100 g no peso ao nascer, a estatura aumentou em 0.28 cm (IC 95% = 0.18-0.37; p < 0.01). O peso ao nascer não influenciou a pressão arterial (casual e residencial), o índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura dos adolescentes. Conclusões O peso ao nascer esteve diretamente associado à altura, mas não associado à pressão arterial, índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura em adolescentes de uma área urbana de um país em desenvolvimento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Peso al Nacer/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Hipertensión/diagnóstico
6.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 94(2): 184-191, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843059

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The management of children with low birth weight is not the same in countries with different resources. The authors assessed the association of birth weight with blood pressure and nutritional status in a representative sample of adolescents from a Brazilian state, aiming to identify possible consequences of these differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted with adolescents (12-18 years) enrolled in public and private schools. Birth weight, office blood pressure, home blood pressure measurements, and nutritional status (body mass index, height z-score for the age, and waist circumference) were assessed. The association of birth weight with the outcomes (blood pressure, height, body mass index, and waist circumference) was studied through univariate and multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: A total of 829 adolescents with a mean age of 14.6±1.62 years were included; 43.3% were male, and 37.0% from private schools. The prevalence of low birth weight was 8.7%. Mild low height prevalence was higher among those adolescents with low/insufficient birth weight when compared to those with normal/high birth weight (11.7 vs. 4.2%; p<0.001). In the multiple linear regression analysis, for each increase of 100g in birth weight, height increased by 0.28cm (95% CI: 0.18-0.37; p<0.01). Birth weight did not influence office blood pressure and home blood pressure, body mass index, or waist circumference of adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Birth weight was directly associated to height, but not associated to blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference in adolescents from an urban area of a developing country.


Asunto(s)
Peso al Nacer/fisiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Adolescente , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Circunferencia de la Cintura
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(6): 493-501, 12/2014. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-732175

RESUMEN

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase ...


Fundamento: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs) são as principais causas de morte no mundo. O conhecimento sobre os fatores de risco cardiovasculares (FRCV) em jovens e suas alterações ao longo do tempo, podem contribuir para ações que modifiquem estes riscos e previnam o aparecimento das DCVs. Objetivos: Verificar, em diferentes profissionais da área da saúde, a presença e alterações nos fatores de risco cardiovasculares (FRCV) num intervalo de vinte anos. Métodos: Avaliados comparativamente ao ingressar na faculdade e vinte anos após, todos os alunos de medicina, enfermagem, nutrição, odontologia e farmácia de uma Universidade Federal que aceitaram participar. Utilizados questionários sobre FRCV (HAS, DM, dislipidemia e história familiar de DCV precoce, tabagismo, etilismo e sedentarismo). Determinados colesterol, glicemia, PA, peso, altura e IMC. Utilizados teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov para avaliar distribuição, Qui-Quadrado para comparação entre cursos e sexos e McNemar para FRCV. Significante p < 0,05. Resultados: Inicialmente estudados 281 indivíduos (91% do total de alunos), sendo 62,9% mulheres, idade média 19,7 anos e reavaliados 215 (76% da amostra inicial), 59,07% mulheres, idade média 39,8 anos. Maior representatividade por estudantes de medicina, predomínio do sexo masculino entre eles, e predomínio do sexo feminino nos estudantes de enfermagem, nutrição e farmácia (p < 0,05). Entre os médicos e odontólogos houve aumento de excesso de peso, HAS e dislipidemia (p < 0,05). Entre os farmacêuticos, aumento de excesso de peso e HAS e redução do sedentarismo (p < 0,05). Entre os enfermeiros, elevou-se excesso de peso e etilismo (p < 0,05). Na nutrição, houve elevação da dislipidemia (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Encontrada ...


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Dislipidemias/complicaciones , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Distribución por Sexo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 103(6): 493-501, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25590929

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. METHODS: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. RESULTS: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the population under study, despite it having adequate specialized knowledge about these risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Dislipidemias/complicaciones , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Distribución por Sexo , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
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