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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 19(12): 2750-2759, 2024 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595292

RESUMEN

JOURNAL/nrgr/04.03/01300535-202412000-00030/figure1/v/2024-04-08T165401Z/r/image-tiff Memory loss and dementia are major public health concerns with a substantial economic burden. Oxidative stress has been shown to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hippocampal damage-induced memory impairment. To investigate whether the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound vanillylacetone (zingerone) can protect against hippocampal damage and memory loss induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) administration in rats, we explored the potential involvement of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, which is known to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: vehicle-treated (control), vanillylacetone, CdCl2, vanillylacetone + CdCl2, vanillylacetone + CdCl2 + brusatol (a selective pharmacological Nrf2 inhibitor) groups. Vanillylacetone effectively attenuated CdCl2-induced damage in the dental gyrus of the hippocampus and improved the memory function assessed by the Morris Water Maze test. Additionally, vanillylacetone markedly decreased the hippocampal tissue levels of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesive molecules) and apoptosis biomarkers (Bax and cleaved caspase-3). The control and CdCl2-treated groups treated with vanillylacetone showed reduced generation of reactive oxygen species, decreased malondialdehyde levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities, along with significant elevation of nuclear Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression in hippocampal tissue. All the protective effects of vanillylacetone were substantially blocked by the co-administration of brusatol (a selective Nrf2 inhibitor). Vanillylacetone mitigated hippocampal damage and memory loss induced by CdCl2, at least in part, by activating the nuclear transcription factor Nrf2. Additionally, vanillylacetone exerted its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Acacia , Goma Arábiga/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Electrónica , Biomarcadores , Administración Oral , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Riñón/ultraestructura
4.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 125(2): 104-113, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436859

RESUMEN

This study investigated if a combination of resveratrol (RES) and insulin could reverse type 1 diabetic mellitus-induced (T1DM) nephropathy and illustrates mechanism of action. Rats were divided into six groups (n = 10/group) as follows: control, control + RES (20 mg/kg), T1DM, T1DM + RES, T1DM + insulin (1 U/g), and T1DM + RES + insulin and treated for eight weeks. While individual administrations of both drugs significantly but partially restored renal function and cortex architectures, combination therapy of both RES and insulin produced the maximum improvements. Mechanism of actions revealed a synergist effect of both drugs due to hypoglycaemic effect of insulin and the ability of both drugs to increase renal cortex antioxidant enzymes activities, inhibit lipid peroxidation, and up-regulate Na+/K+-ATPase, independent of each others. In conclusion, these data suggest the combined therapy with insulin and RES could provide an excellent combined drug therapy against T1DM-induced nephropathy.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patología , Insulina/farmacología , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacología , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glucemia/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangre , Citoprotección/efectos de los fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatología , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Femenino , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hemoglobina Glucada/metabolismo , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/metabolismo , Riñón/patología , Riñón/fisiopatología , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Potasio/sangre , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Resveratrol/administración & dosificación , Sodio/sangre , Urea/sangre
5.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 122(3): 148-54, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26939846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Diabetic complications such as cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis (OA) are among the common public health problems. The effect of insulin on OA secondary to diabetes has not been investigated before in animal models. Therefore, we sought to determine whether insulin and the insulin-mimicking agent, vanadium can protect from developing OA in diabetic rats. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with insulin and/or vanadium. Tissues harvested from the articular cartilage of the knee joint were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and blood samples were assayed for oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Eight weeks following the induction of diabetes, a profound damage to the knee joint compared to the control non-diabetic group was observed. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin and/or vanadium differentially protected from diabetes-induced cartilage damage and deteriorated fibrils of collagen fibers. The relative biological potencies were insulin + vanadium >> insulin > vanadium. Furthermore, there was about 2- to 5-fold increase in TNF-α (from 31.02 ± 1.92 to 60.5 ± 1.18 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) and IL-6 (from 64.67 ± 8.16 to 338.0 ± 38.9 pg/ml, p < 0.0001) cytokines and free radicals measured as TBARS (from 3.21 ± 0.37 to 11.48 ± 1.5 µM, p < 0.0001) in the diabetic group, which was significantly reduced with insulin and or vanadium. Meanwhile, SOD decreased (from 17.79 ± 8.9 to 8.250.29, p < 0.0001) and was increased with insulin and vanadium. The relative potencies of the treating agents on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were insulin + vanadium >> insulin > vanadium. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that co-administration of insulin and vanadium to T1DM rats protect against diabetes-induced OA possibly by lowering biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicaciones , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Osteoartritis/prevención & control , Vanadio/uso terapéutico , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatología , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Osteoartritis/etiología , Osteoartritis/patología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Oligoelementos/uso terapéutico
6.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 26(6): 1135-41, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586050

RESUMEN

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is almost a constant feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients maintained on hemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetic agents appear to offer an alternative to surgery in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism in these patients. Recent studies provide conflicting data on the benefits, efficacy and tolerance of cinacalcet as first-line therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerance of a low dose of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet in patients on long-term HD having moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty five adult male patients on HD for more than three years were included in the study. All had moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >50 pmol/L, resistant to conventional treatment. We used the targets of Chronic Kidney Disease: Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) clinical guidelines as optimal target of serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate. Patients were administered cinacalcet as a single oral daily dose of 30 mg and were followed-up for six months. Cinacalcet treatment for six months resulted in a significant reduction in the serum phosphate and iPTH levels while the serum calcium levels remained unchanged. Thirty-six percent of the patients attained the recommended serum iPTH levels, 40% achieved significant reduction of the serum iPTH levels and 24% showed no favorable response. Only one patient dropped out because of severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Our results suggest that treatment of CKD patients, having moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, with low-dose cinacalcet is effective and well tolerated.


Asunto(s)
Calcimiméticos/administración & dosificación , Cinacalcet/administración & dosificación , Hiperparatiroidismo Secundario/prevención & control , Calcio/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Hormona Paratiroidea/sangre , Fosfatos/sangre , Diálisis Renal
7.
J. physiol. biochem ; 69(3): 487-496, sept. 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-121668

RESUMEN

Ischemic-reperfusion procedures targeting a specific organ often results in remote multiple organ injuries mediated possibly by heightened oxidative stress levels. As the kidney is one of the most vulnerable organs for ischemic oxidative stress, the aim of the present study was to confirm the occurrence of renal complication secondary to spinal cord ischemic-reperfusion injury (SC-IRI) induced by aortic clamping. The study also investigated the possible prophylactic effect of long-term administration of α-tocopherol (Alpha -TOL) against high level of renal oxidative stress and inflammatory processes induced by SC-IRI. In this study, a total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five equal groups: C group underwent no surgery; CE group received α-TOL 600 mg/kg intramuscular twice weekly for 6 weeks; S group were subjected to laparotomy without clamping of the aorta; SE group were handled as S group and treated with Alpha-TOL as group CE; SC-IRI group were subjected to laparotomy with clamping of the aorta just above the bifurcation of the aorta for 45 min, then the clamp was released for 48 h for reperfusion. SC-IRIE group was subjected to IRI as in group SC-IRI and was injected with Alpha-TOL in the same dose and route as Alpha-TOL-treated control group. SC-IRI resulted in increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, plasma nitrite/nitrate level, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha, renal tissue homogenate level for malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and prostaglandin E2. Long-term prophylactic treatment with α-TOL resulted in amelioration of the renal functional disturbances and all measured parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ischemic reperfusion injury of the spinal cord induced some remote renal functional disturbances although some of the observed changes may have resulted from decreased renal blood flow due to the hypotension induced during the procedure. Prophylactic long-term α-TOL administration guards against the renal function disturbances an effect that can be attributed, at least partially, to improvement of the renal pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and inhibition of the inflammatory processes


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacocinética , Estrés Oxidativo , Daño por Reperfusión/tratamiento farmacológico , Regeneración de la Medula Espinal , Mielitis/prevención & control , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacocinética , Lesión Renal Aguda/prevención & control
8.
J Physiol Biochem ; 69(3): 487-96, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23345003

RESUMEN

Ischemic-reperfusion procedures targeting a specific organ often results in remote multiple organ injuries mediated possibly by heightened oxidative stress levels. As the kidney is one of the most vulnerable organs for ischemic oxidative stress, the aim of the present study was to confirm the occurrence of renal complication secondary to spinal cord ischemic-reperfusion injury (SC-IRI) induced by aortic clamping. The study also investigated the possible prophylactic effect of long-term administration of α-tocopherol (α-TOL) against high level of renal oxidative stress and inflammatory processes induced by SC-IRI. In this study, a total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five equal groups: C group underwent no surgery; CE group received α-TOL 600 mg/kg intramuscular twice weekly for 6 weeks; S group were subjected to laparotomy without clamping of the aorta; SE group were handled as S group and treated with α-TOL as group CE; SC-IRI group were subjected to laparotomy with clamping of the aorta just above the bifurcation of the aorta for 45 min, then the clamp was released for 48 h for reperfusion. SC-IRIE group was subjected to IRI as in group SC-IRI and was injected with α-TOL in the same dose and route as α-TOL-treated control group. SC-IRI resulted in increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, plasma nitrite/nitrate level, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha, renal tissue homogenate level for malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and prostaglandin E2. Long-term prophylactic treatment with α-TOL resulted in amelioration of the renal functional disturbances and all measured parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ischemic reperfusion injury of the spinal cord induced some remote renal functional disturbances although some of the observed changes may have resulted from decreased renal blood flow due to the hypotension induced during the procedure. Prophylactic long-term α-TOL administration guards against the renal function disturbances an effect that can be attributed, at least partially, to improvement of the renal pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and inhibition of the inflammatory processes.


Asunto(s)
Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Daño por Reperfusión/tratamiento farmacológico , Médula Espinal/efectos de los fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacología , Animales , Aorta/lesiones , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangre , Dinoprostona/sangre , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Riñón/irrigación sanguínea , Riñón/metabolismo , Riñón/fisiopatología , Pruebas de Función Renal , Masculino , Malondialdehído/sangre , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Daño por Reperfusión/sangre , Daño por Reperfusión/fisiopatología , Médula Espinal/irrigación sanguínea , Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Superóxido Dismutasa/sangre , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre
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