Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 118
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
2.
Nano Lett ; 22(14): 5689-5697, 2022 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839312

RESUMEN

Ca2RuO4 is a transition-metal oxide that exhibits a Mott insulator-metal transition (IMT) concurrent with a symmetry-preserving Jahn-Teller distortion (JT) at 350 K. The coincidence of these two transitions demonstrates a high level of coupling between the electronic and structural degrees of freedom in Ca2RuO4. Using spectroscopic measurements with nanoscale spatial resolution, we interrogate the interplay of the JT and IMT through the temperature-driven transition. Then, we introduce photoexcitation with subpicosecond temporal resolution to explore the coupling of the JT and IMT via electron-hole injection under ambient conditions. Through the temperature-driven IMT, we observe phase coexistence in the form of a stripe phase existing at the domain wall between macroscopic insulating and metallic domains. Through ultrafast carrier injection, we observe the formation of midgap states via enhanced optical absorption. We propose that these midgap states become trapped by lattice polarons originating from the local perturbation of the JT.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3719, 2022 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764651

RESUMEN

Polaritons in hyperbolic van der Waals materials-where principal axes have permittivities of opposite signs-are light-matter modes with unique properties and promising applications. Isofrequency contours of hyperbolic polaritons may undergo topological transitions from open hyperbolas to closed ellipse-like curves, prompting an abrupt change in physical properties. Electronically-tunable topological transitions are especially desirable for future integrated technologies but have yet to be demonstrated. In this work, we present a doping-induced topological transition effected by plasmon-phonon hybridization in graphene/α-MoO3 heterostructures. Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to image hybrid polaritons in graphene/α-MoO3. We demonstrate the topological transition and characterize hybrid modes, which can be tuned from surface waves to bulk waveguide modes, traversing an exceptional point arising from the anisotropic plasmon-phonon coupling. Graphene/α-MoO3 heterostructures offer the possibility to explore dynamical topological transitions and directional coupling that could inspire new nanophotonic and quantum devices.

4.
Adv Mater ; 34(27): e2201000, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504841

RESUMEN

2D materials can host long-range magnetic order in the presence of underlying magnetic anisotropy. The ability to realize the full potential of 2D magnets necessitates systematic investigation of the role of individual atomic layers and nanoscale inhomogeneity (i.e., strain) on the emergence of stable magnetic phases. Here, spatially dependent magnetism in few-layer CrSBr is revealed using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and Monte Carlo-based simulations. Nanoscale visualization of the magnetic sheet susceptibility is extracted from MFM data and force-distance curves, revealing a characteristic onset of both intra- and interlayer magnetic correlations as a function of temperature and layer-thickness. These results demonstrate that the presence of a single uncompensated layer in odd-layer terraces significantly reduces the stability of the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase and gives rise to multiple coexisting magnetic ground states at temperatures close to the bulk Néel temperature (TN ). Furthermore, the AFM phase can be reliably suppressed using modest fields (≈16 mT) from the MFM probe, behaving as a nanoscale magnetic switch. This prototypical study of few-layer CrSBr demonstrates the critical role of layer parity on field-tunable 2D magnetism and validates MFM for use in nanomagnetometry of 2D materials (despite the ubiquitous absence of bulk zero-field magnetism in magnetized sheets).

5.
Opt Express ; 30(7): 11228-11242, 2022 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473071

RESUMEN

The modeling of the near-field interaction in the scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) is rapidly advancing, although an accurate yet versatile modeling framework that can be easily adapted to various complex situations is still lacking. In this work, we propose a time-efficient numerical scheme in the quasi-electrostatic limit to capture the tip-sample interaction in the near field. This method considers an extended tip geometry, which is a significant advantage compared to the previously reported method based on the point-dipole approximation. Using this formalism, we investigate, among others, nontrivial questions such as uniaxial and biaxial anisotropy in the near-field interaction, the relationship between various experimental parameters (e.g. tip radius, tapping amplitude, etc.), and the tip-dependent spatial resolution. The demonstrated method further sheds light on the understanding of the contrast mechanism in s-SNOM imaging and spectroscopy, while also representing a valuable platform for future quantitative analysis of the experimental observations.

6.
Nano Lett ; 22(5): 1946-1953, 2022 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226804

RESUMEN

The ability to create nanometer-scale lateral p-n junctions is essential for the next generation of two-dimensional (2D) devices. Using the charge-transfer heterostructure graphene/α-RuCl3, we realize nanoscale lateral p-n junctions in the vicinity of graphene nanobubbles. Our multipronged experimental approach incorporates scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) and scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) to simultaneously probe the electronic and optical responses of nanobubble p-n junctions. Our STM/STS results reveal that p-n junctions with a band offset of ∼0.6 eV can be achieved with widths of ∼3 nm, giving rise to electric fields of order 108 V/m. Concurrent s-SNOM measurements validate a point-scatterer formalism for modeling the interaction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with nanobubbles. Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations corroborate our experimental data and reveal the dependence of charge transfer on layer separation. Our study provides experimental and conceptual foundations for generating p-n nanojunctions in 2D materials.

7.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982529

RESUMEN

When two atomic layers are brought into contact at a relative twist angle, a large-scale pattern, called a moiré superlattice, emerges due to the (angular or lattice) mismatch between the layers. This has profound consequences in terms of the Hamiltonian of the system but was also considered in several publications as a means to extract the local strain tensor. While extracting the twist angle based on knowledge of the periodicity of the moiré is trivial in the case of a regular moiré pattern, in many examples in the literature, that is not the case. In particular, extracting the strain tensor and twist angle maps from a spatially varying moiré pattern is not straightforward. This article aims to provide a practical tool to extract the strain tensor and twist angle from an experimentally observable pattern. It further addresses the limitation of any such approach in the absence of additional experimental information beyond the moiré superlattice pattern.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 542, 2022 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087038

RESUMEN

Excitons play a dominant role in the optoelectronic properties of atomically thin van der Waals (vdW) semiconductors. These excitons are amenable to on-demand engineering with diverse control knobs, including dielectric screening, interlayer hybridization, and moiré potentials. However, external stimuli frequently yield heterogeneous excitonic responses at the nano- and meso-scales, making their spatial characterization with conventional diffraction-limited optics a formidable task. Here, we use a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) to acquire exciton spectra in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide microcrystals with previously unattainable 20 nm resolution. Our nano-optical data revealed material- and stacking-dependent exciton spectra of MoSe2, WSe2, and their heterostructures. Furthermore, we extracted the complex dielectric function of these prototypical vdW semiconductors. s-SNOM hyperspectral images uncovered how the dielectric screening modifies excitons at length scales as short as few nanometers. This work paves the way towards understanding and manipulation of excitons in atomically thin layers at the nanoscale.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(48)2021 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819380

RESUMEN

Chiral Weyl fermions with linear energy-momentum dispersion in the bulk accompanied by Fermi-arc states on the surfaces prompt a host of enticing optical effects. While new Weyl semimetal materials keep emerging, the available optical probes are limited. In particular, isolating bulk and surface electrodynamics in Weyl conductors remains a challenge. We devised an approach to the problem based on near-field photocurrent imaging at the nanoscale and applied this technique to a prototypical Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4 As a first step, we visualized nano-photocurrent patterns in real space and demonstrated their connection to bulk nonlinear conductivity tensors through extensive modeling augmented with density functional theory calculations. Notably, our nanoscale probe gives access to not only the in-plane but also the out-of-plane electric fields so that it is feasible to interrogate all allowed nonlinear tensors including those that remained dormant in conventional far-field optics. Surface- and bulk-related nonlinear contributions are distinguished through their "symmetry fingerprints" in the photocurrent maps. Robust photocurrents also appear at mirror-symmetry breaking edges of TaIrTe4 single crystals that we assign to nonlinear conductivity tensors forbidden in the bulk. Nano-photocurrent spectroscopy at the boundary reveals a strong resonance structure absent in the interior of the sample, providing evidence for elusive surface states.

10.
Opt Express ; 29(24): 39648-39668, 2021 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809324

RESUMEN

The scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) has emerged as a powerful tool for resolving nanoscale inhomogeneities in laterally heterogeneous samples. However, most analytical models used to predict the scattering near-field signals are assuming homogenous landscapes (bulk materials), resulting in inconsistencies when applied to samples with more complex configurations. In this work, we combine the point-dipole model (PDM) to the finite-element method (FEM) to account for the lateral and vertical heterogeneities while keeping the computation time manageable. Full images, spectra, or hyperspectral line profiles can be simulated by calculating the self-consistent dipole radiation demodulated at higher harmonics of the tip oscillation, mimicking real experimental procedures. Using this formalism, we clarify several important yet puzzling experimental observations in near-field images on samples with rich typography and complex material compositions, heterostructures of two-dimensional material flakes, and plasmonic antennas. The developed method serves as a basis for future investigations of nano-systems with nontrivial topography.

11.
Nano Lett ; 21(21): 9052-9060, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724612

RESUMEN

We investigate transient nanotextured heterogeneity in vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films during a light-induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT). Time-resolved scanning near-field optical microscopy (Tr-SNOM) is used to study VO2 across a wide parameter space of infrared frequencies, picosecond time scales, and elevated steady-state temperatures with nanoscale spatial resolution. Room temperature, steady-state, phonon enhanced nano-optical contrast reveals preexisting "hidden" disorder. The observed contrast is associated with inequivalent twin domain structures. Upon thermal or optical initiation of the IMT, coexisting metallic and insulating regions are observed. Correlations between the transient and steady-state nano-optical textures reveal that heterogeneous nucleation is partially anchored to twin domain interfaces and grain boundaries. Ultrafast nanoscopic dynamics enable quantification of the growth rate and bound the nucleation rate. Finally, we deterministically anchor photoinduced nucleation to predefined nanoscopic regions by locally enhancing the electric field of pump radiation using nanoantennas and monitor the on-demand emergent metallicity in space and time.

12.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714043

RESUMEN

Deep learning (DL) is an emerging analysis tool across the sciences and engineering. Encouraged by the successes of DL in revealing quantitative trends in massive imaging data, we applied this approach to nanoscale deeply subdiffractional images of propagating polaritonic waves in complex materials. Utilizing the convolutional neural network (CNN), we developed a practical protocol for the rapid regression of images that quantifies the wavelength and the quality factor of polaritonic waves. Using simulated near-field images as training data, the CNN can be made to simultaneously extract polaritonic characteristics and material parameters in a time scale that is at least 3 orders of magnitude faster than common fitting/processing procedures. The CNN-based analysis was validated by examining the experimental near-field images of charge-transfer plasmon polaritons at graphene/α-RuCl3 interfaces. Our work provides a general framework for extracting quantitative information from images generated with a variety of scanning probe methods.

13.
Nano Lett ; 21(21): 9256-9261, 2021 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709832

RESUMEN

Topological spin textures are field arrangements that cannot be continuously deformed to a fully polarized state. In particular, merons are topological textures characterized by half-integer topological charge ±1/2 and vortex-like swirling patterns at large distances. Merons have been studied previously in the context of cosmology, fluid dynamics, condensed matter physics and plasmonics. Here, we visualized optical spin angular momentum of phonon polaritons that resembles nanoscale meron spin textures. Phonon polaritons, hybrids of infrared photons and phonons in hexagonal boron nitride, were excited by circularly polarized light incident on a ring-shaped antenna and imaged using infrared near-field techniques. The polariton field reveals a half-integer topological charge determined by the handedness of the incident beam. Our phonon polaritonic platform opens up new pathways to create, control, and visualize topological textures.


Asunto(s)
Fonones , Fotones , Simulación por Computador
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5741, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593793

RESUMEN

Twisted two-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have unlocked a new means for manipulating the properties of quantum materials. The resulting mesoscopic moiré superlattices are accessible to a wide variety of scanning probes. To date, spatially-resolved techniques have prioritized electronic structure visualization, with lattice response experiments only in their infancy. Here, we therefore investigate lattice dynamics in twisted layers of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), formed by a minute twist angle between two hBN monolayers assembled on a graphite substrate. Nano-infrared (nano-IR) spectroscopy reveals systematic variations of the in-plane optical phonon frequencies amongst the triangular domains and domain walls in the hBN moiré superlattices. Our first-principles calculations unveil a local and stacking-dependent interaction with the underlying graphite, prompting symmetry-breaking between the otherwise identical neighboring moiré domains of twisted hBN.

15.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 7921-7928, 2021 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534432

RESUMEN

The hyperbolic phonon polaritons supported in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) with long scattering lifetimes are advantageous for applications such as super-resolution imaging via hyperlensing. Yet, hyperlens imaging is challenging for distinguishing individual and closely spaced objects and for correlating the complicated hyperlens fields with the structure of an unknown object underneath. Here, we make significant strides to overcome each of these challenges. First, we demonstrate that monoisotopic h11BN provides significant improvements in spatial resolution, experimentally resolving structures as small as 44 nm and those with sub 25 nm spacings at 6.76 µm free-space wavelength. We also present an image reconstruction algorithm that provides a structurally accurate, visual representation of the embedded objects from the complex hyperlens field. Further, we offer additional insights into optimizing hyperlens performance on the basis of material properties, with an eye toward realizing far-field imaging modalities. Thus, our results significantly advance label-free, high-resolution, spectrally selective hyperlens imaging and image reconstruction methodologies.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía , Fonones , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5594, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552072

RESUMEN

Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is an atomically layered transition metal dichalcogenide whose physical properties change systematically from monolayer to bilayer and few-layer versions. In this report, we use apertureless scattering-type near-field optical microscopy operating at Terahertz (THz) frequencies and cryogenic temperatures to study the distinct THz range electromagnetic responses of mono-, bi- and trilayer WTe2 in the same multi-terraced micro-crystal. THz nano-images of monolayer terraces uncovered weakly insulating behavior that is consistent with transport measurements. The near-field signal on bilayer regions shows moderate metallicity with negligible temperature dependence. Subdiffractional THz imaging data together with theoretical calculations involving thermally activated carriers favor the semimetal scenario with [Formula: see text] over the semiconductor scenario for bilayer WTe2. Also, we observed clear metallic behavior of the near-field signal on trilayer regions. Our data are consistent with the existence of surface plasmon polaritons in the THz range confined to trilayer terraces in our specimens. Finally, data for microcrystals up to 12 layers thick reveal how the response of a few-layer WTe2 asymptotically approaches the bulk limit.

17.
Opt Lett ; 46(15): 3572-3575, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329227

RESUMEN

By sampling terahertz waveforms emitted from InAs surfaces, we reveal how the entire, realistic geometry of typical near-field probes drastically impacts the broadband electromagnetic fields. In the time domain, these modifications manifest as a shift in the carrier-envelope phase and emergence of a replica pulse with a time delay dictated by the length of the cantilever. This interpretation is fully corroborated by quantitative simulations of terahertz emission nanoscopy based on the finite element method. Our approach provides a solid theoretical framework for quantitative nanospectroscopy and sets the stage for a reliable description of subcycle, near-field microscopy at terahertz frequencies.

18.
Nature ; 594(7864): 513-516, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163054

RESUMEN

Dragging of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel1 and verified by Fizeau's celebrated experiments2 with flowing water. This momentous discovery is among the experimental cornerstones of Einstein's special relativity theory and is well understood3,4 in the context of relativistic kinematics. By contrast, experiments on dragging photons by an electron flow in solids are riddled with inconsistencies and have so far eluded agreement with the theory5-7. Here we report on the electron flow dragging surface plasmon polaritons8,9 (SPPs): hybrid quasiparticles of infrared photons and electrons in graphene. The drag is visualized directly through infrared nano-imaging of propagating plasmonic waves in the presence of a high-density current. The polaritons in graphene shorten their wavelength when propagating against the drifting carriers. Unlike the Fizeau effect for light, the SPP drag by electrical currents defies explanation by simple kinematics and is linked to the nonlinear electrodynamics of Dirac electrons in graphene. The observed plasmonic Fizeau drag enables breaking of time-reversal symmetry and reciprocity10 at infrared frequencies without resorting to magnetic fields11,12 or chiral optical pumping13,14. The Fizeau drag also provides a tool with which to study interactions and nonequilibrium effects in electron liquids.

19.
Nano Lett ; 21(13): 5767-5773, 2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142555

RESUMEN

Natural hyperbolic materials with dielectric permittivities of opposite signs along different principal axes can confine long-wavelength electromagnetic waves down to the nanoscale, well below the diffraction limit. Confined electromagnetic waves coupled to phonons in hyperbolic dielectrics including hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and α-MoO3 are referred to as hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPPs). HPP dissipation at ambient conditions is substantial, and its fundamental limits remain unexplored. Here, we exploit cryogenic nanoinfrared imaging to investigate propagating HPPs in isotopically pure hBN and naturally abundant α-MoO3 crystals. Close to liquid-nitrogen temperatures, losses for HPPs in isotopic hBN drop significantly, resulting in propagation lengths in excess of 8 µm, with lifetimes exceeding 5 ps, thereby surpassing prior reports on such highly confined polaritonic modes. Our nanoscale, temperature-dependent imaging reveals the relevance of acoustic phonons in HPP damping and will be instrumental in mitigating such losses for miniaturized mid-infrared technologies operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

20.
Sci Adv ; 7(19)2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962941

RESUMEN

Efficient control of photons is enabled by hybridizing light with matter. The resulting light-matter quasi-particles can be readily programmed by manipulating either their photonic or matter constituents. Here, we hybridized infrared photons with graphene Dirac electrons to form surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and uncovered a previously unexplored means to control SPPs in structures with periodically modulated carrier density. In these periodic structures, common SPPs with continuous dispersion are transformed into Bloch polaritons with attendant discrete bands separated by bandgaps. We explored directional Bloch polaritons and steered their propagation by dialing the proper gate voltage. Fourier analysis of the near-field images corroborates that this on-demand nano-optics functionality is rooted in the polaritonic band structure. Our programmable polaritonic platform paves the way for the much-sought benefits of on-the-chip photonic circuits.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...