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1.
Neurobiol Stress ; 11: 100170, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193350

RESUMEN

How individuals respond to chronic stress varies. Susceptible individuals ultimately develop depression; whereas resilient individuals live normally. In this study, our objective was to examine the effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), commonly used by athletes, on susceptibility to stress. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to daily defeat sessions by a CD1 aggressor, for 10 days. On day11, the behavior of mice was assessed using the social interaction test, elevated plus maze and open field. Mice received the BCAA leucine, isoleucine or valine before each defeat session. Furthermore, we examined whether BCAA regulate brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling by using a brain-permeable tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TRKB) inhibitor, ANA-12. We also tested the effect of voluntary exercise and high protein diets on susceptibility to stress. Mice exposed to chronic stress displayed increased susceptibility and social avoidance. BCAA promoted resilience to chronic stress, rescued social avoidance behaviors and increased hippocampal BDNF levels and TRKB activation. Inhibition of TRKB signaling abolished the ability of BCAA to promote resilience to stress and to rescue social avoidance. Interestingly, we found that BCAA activate the exercise-regulated PGC1a/FNDC5 pathway known to induce hippocampal BDNF signaling. Although both voluntary exercise and BCAA promoted resilience to stress, combining them did not yield synergistic effects confirming that they affect similar pathways. We also discovered that high protein diets mimic the effect of BCAA by rescuing social deficits induced by chronic stress and increase Bdnf expression in the hippocampus. Our data indicate that BCAA, exercise and high protein diets rescue susceptibility to stress by activating the hippocampal BDNF/TRKB signaling.

2.
Ethn Health ; 24(7): 767-778, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870122

RESUMEN

Background: Achieving and sustaining optimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is difficult because of socio-cultural and psychosocial factors including diabetes fatalism. Diabetes fatalism is 'a complex psychological cycle characterized by perceptions of despair, hopelessness, and powerlessness'. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether diabetes fatalism and other psychosocial and socio-cultural variables are correlates of glycemic control in Lebanese population with T2DM. Methods: A convenience sample of 280 adult participants with T2DM were recruited from a major hospital in greater Beirut-Lebanon area and from the community. Diabetes fatalism was assessed using the Arabic version of 12-item Diabetes Fatalism Scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between HbA1c and psychosocial and socio-cultural characteristics including diabetes fatalism. Four models were run to examine the independent association between HbA1c and diabetes fatalism and to identify which of the 3 subscales (emotional distress, spiritual coping and perceived self-efficacy) were associated with HbA1c. Results: The mean age of the participants was 58.24(SD = 13.48) and the majority were females (53.76%), while 32.73% of the sample had diabetes for more than 10 years. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that higher scores on diabetes fatalism and the emotional distress subscale (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with higher HbA1c values. In addition, having diabetes for more than 11 years (P = 0.05) and a higher number of diabetes complications (P < 0.001) were associated with higher HbA1c levels. However, advanced age (P = 0.055), female gender (P = 0.003), and diabetes education (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with lower HbA1c levels. Conclusion: This is the first study in the Arab region that identifies diabetes fatalism as an independent predictor of glycemic control among Lebanese. Future studies should further investigate this construct to guide interventions that can address it for better diabetes outcomes.

3.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(2): 313-322, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421473

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. METHODS: The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects. The variables tested for were media influence, perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and the Big Five dimensions. RESULTS: In the first model, media pressure, self-control, and extraversion predicted eating disorders via emotional eating. In the second model, media pressure and perfectionism predicted eating disorders via restrained eating. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study provide an understanding of the dynamics between DE, ED, and key personality, emotion-related, and social factors in youth. Lastly, implications and recommendations for future studies are advanced.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Personalidad/fisiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(9): 914-921, 2018 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570124

RESUMEN

Background: The Lebanese American University has a well-functioning inter-professional education (IPE) programme; this is a fundamental pedagogical approach in healthcare education in which students from different professions learn together, ultimately leading to improving the skills of the health care workforce and thus improving patient outcomes. The programme includes nursing, nutrition, medicine, pharmacy and social work students, and has now been running for 6 years. Aims: This paper aims at describing the implementation of an IPE programme in Lebanon by focusing on how to overcome the main challenges. Methods: We describe our experience using the categories of challenges developed by Sunguya et al. (2014), where they analysed published reports of IPE programmes in developed countries. We identified three additional challenges that might be relevant throughout the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region or in countries with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Results: The challenges encountered in designing and implementing the IPE programme were similar to other programmes: curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargon and accreditation as well as assessment of learning, security and logistics. Conclusions: This paper provides data and successful strategies that can be used by planned or implemented programmes in similar socioeconomic contexts in the MENA region.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Curriculum , Humanos , Líbano , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
5.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190719, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324827

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are widespread fatalistic beliefs in Arab countries, especially among individuals with diabetes. However, there is no tool to assess diabetes fatalism in this population. This study describes the processes used to create an Arabic version of the Diabetes Fatalism Scale (DFS) and examine its psychometric properties. METHODS: A descriptive correlational design was used with a convenience sample of Lebanese adults (N = 274) with type 2 diabetes recruited from a major hospital in Beirut, Lebanon and by snowball sampling. The 12- item Diabetes Fatalism Scale- Arabic (12-item DFS-Ar) was back-translated from the original version, pilot tested on 22 adults with type 2 diabetes and then administered to 274 patients to assess the validity and reliability of the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the hypothesized factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to test for reliability. RESULTS: CFA supported the existence of the three factor hypothesis of the original DFS scale. The five items measuring "emotional distress" loaded under Factor 1, the four items measuring "spiritual coping" loaded under factor 2 and the last three items measuring "perceived self-efficacy" of the original scale loaded under Factor 3 (p <0.001 for all three subscales). Goodness of fit indices confirmed adequateness of the CFA model (CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.067 and pclose = 0.05). The 12-item DFS-Ar showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.86) and significantly predicted HbA1c (ß = 0.20, p < 0.01). After adjusting for the demographic characteristics and the number of diabetes comorbid conditions, the 12-item DFS-Ar score was independently associated with HbA1c in a multivariable model (ß = 0.16, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 12-item DFS-Ar demonstrated good psychometric properties that are comparable to the original scale. It is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes fatalism. Further testing with larger and non-Lebanese Arabic population is needed.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Psicometría , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
6.
Chemosphere ; 191: 911-921, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145136

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their reported contamination in breast milk and potential harm. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination in breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. METHODS: A total of 74 breast milk samples were collected from primaparas according to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. A survey was administered to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The milk samples were analyzed for the presence of arsenic, cadmium and lead using microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Arsenic contamination was found in 63.51% of breast milk samples (mean 2.36 ± 1.95 µg/L) whereas cadmium and lead were detected in 40.54% and 67.61% of samples respectively (means 0.87 ± 1.18 µg/L and 18.18 ± 13.31 µg/L). Regression analysis indicated that arsenic contamination was associated with cereal and fish intake (p = 0.013 and p = 0.042 respectively). Residence near cultivation activities (p = 0.008), smoking status before pregnancy (p = 0.046), potato consumption (p = 0.046) and education level (p = 0.041) were associated with lead contamination. Cadmium contamination was significantly associated with random smoke exposure (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Our study is the first in Lebanon to report toxic metal contamination in breast milk. Although estimated weekly infant intake of these metals from breast milk was found to be lower than the limit set by international guidelines, our results highlight the need for developing strategies to protect infants from exposure to these hazardous substances.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Leche Humana/química , Adulto , Demografía , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Líbano , Estilo de Vida , Madres , Embarazo , Fumar , Espectrofotometría Atómica
7.
J Relig Health ; 57(3): 858-868, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597199

RESUMEN

Fatalism is a grounded cultural belief that is common among Arabs and is known to hinder self-care in chronic diseases including diabetes (Nabolsi and Carson in Scand J Caring Sci 25(4):716-724, 2011). The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of diabetes fatalism in this population. Data on 280 Lebanese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 58.24 ± 13.48 years; mean HbA1c 7.90 ± 1.90%; 53.76% females) recruited from one hospital in greater Beirut, Lebanon, and from the community using snowballing technique were examined. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the independent association between diabetes fatalism and demographic and patient characteristics. Age (ß = -.14, 95% CI -.27, -.002), BMI (ß = .35, 95% CI .15; .54), level of education (ß = -3.98, 95% CI -7.64; -.32) and number of diabetes problems (ß = -5.03, 95% CI -9.89; -.18) were significantly associated with diabetes fatalism in the regression model. The combination of demographic and patient characteristics accounted for 14.5% of the variance in diabetes fatalism scores' change. Patients with type 2 diabetes who exhibited more fatalistic attitudes were younger, of lower education levels, had higher BMI and had fewer diabetes comorbidities. Such findings are crucial for healthcare practitioners to identify fatalistic patients and to tailor culturally appropriate strategies in diabetes management. Further studies are warranted to explore other potential determinants of diabetes fatalism with larger sample and non-Lebanese Arabic population.


Asunto(s)
Árabes/estadística & datos numéricos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Árabes/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
J Endocr Soc ; 1(7): 861-873, 2017 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264537

RESUMEN

Context: Specific plasma amino acid (AA) profiles including elevated postabsorptive branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with insulin resistance (IR), mostly estimated by homeostatic model assessment. This study assessed the associations of postabsorptive AAs with IR directly measured by insulin-mediated glucose disposal and determined the quantitative value of AAs and conventional IR predictors. Design: Fifty-one healthy, 31 overweight or obese (Ow/Ob), and 52 men and women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were studied retrospectively. The main outcome measures were the glucose disposal (M/I) index (using 3-[3H]-glucose) during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and whole-body protein turnover (using 1-[13C]-leucine). Results: Compared with healthy participants, M/I was lower in Ow/Ob participants and lowest in those with T2D. BCAAs, glutamate, and lysine were higher in the Ow/Ob and T2D groups than in healthy participants; glycine and threonine were lower. Most AAs were higher in men. Principal component analysis identified component 1 (C1: BCAAs, methionine) and C3 (glycine, threonine, serine). Glutamate, C1, ornithine, lysine, methionine, and tyrosine correlated negatively with M/I; C3 and glycine correlated positively. Waist circumference and sex strongly influenced AA-IR relationships; only glutamate correlated after these factors were controlled for. From regression analysis, waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFAs) negatively predicted 64% of the M/I variance; glutamate added 2% more. In nondiabetic participants, IR was predicted by waist circumference, insulin, and FFAs, without contribution from AAs. Conclusion: Several postabsorptive AAs correlated with IR but added limited predictive value to conventional markers because levels were determined largely by abdominal adiposity. Data suggest a sex-specific regulation of AA metabolism by excess adiposity, particularly the BCAAs, warranting investigation.

9.
J Food Prot ; 80(10): 1737-1741, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922028

RESUMEN

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of the dietary aflatoxins, and its major metabolite, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), is frequently found in the breast milk of lactating mothers. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with AFM1 contamination of breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 111 breast milk samples were collected according to the guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Samples were analyzed with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between December 2015 and November 2016. A survey was used to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean (±standard deviation) concentration of AFM1 in the breast milk samples was 4.31 ± 1.8 ng/L, and 93.8% of samples contained AFM1 at 0.2 to 7.9 ng/L. The mean concentration of AFM1 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in fall and winter (4.1 ± 1.9 ng/L) than in spring and summer (5.0 ± 1.7 ng/L). None of the samples exceeded the European Commission regulation limit (25 ng/L) for infant milk replacement formula. AFM1 contamination was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the daily consumption of white cheeses but not with the consumption of meat or cereal products. No significant association (P > 0.05) was observed between AFM1 concentrations in breast milk and anthropometric sociodemographic factors (age and level of education) or the governorate of residence of the nursing mothers. The mean AFM1 estimated daily intake was found to be 0.69 ng/day/kg of body weight. Although the incidence of AFM1 contamination was low, our first-of-its-kind study highlights the importance of conducting investigations on mycotoxin contamination in breast milk and of developing protection strategies to tackle the exposure of infants to this potent chemical hazard.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina M1/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Leche Humana/química , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Líbano , Madres , Clase Social
10.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 68(7): 881-886, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325088

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to evaluate gluten contamination in all the gluten-free (GF)-labeled food products sold in Lebanon. Over a 2-year period, a total of 173 food samples collected from 135 brand names were analyzed. Gluten contamination was detected in 33 of 173 (19%) samples, and its content ranged between 2.5 and >80 mg kg-1. In 10 of the 173 samples (6%), the quantity of gluten exceeded the upper limit of 20 mg kg-1. Out of the 10 contaminated products, eight (80%) were locally manufactured. Among these 10 products, eight (80%) were wheat-starch-based foods. Of the 40 brand names tested twice in 2014 and 2015, 15 (38%) showed significantly (p < .05) different gluten content between the 2 years. Using a food frequency questionnaire, exposure level to gluten through the contaminated products was evaluated among 15 celiac patients. Two patients reported consuming these products more than twice per week.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Celíaca/epidemiología , Dieta Sin Gluten , Análisis de los Alimentos , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados , Glútenes/química , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología
11.
Nutrients ; 8(12)2016 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941661

RESUMEN

Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg) or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05), which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02) lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm) compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm). P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Reductora/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Obesidad/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacología , Termogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fósforo/administración & dosificación , Proyectos Piloto , Adulto Joven
12.
J Interprof Care ; 30(2): 165-74, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026188

RESUMEN

The Lebanese American University Interprofessional Education (LAU IPE) Steps Framework consists of a five-step workshop-based series that is offered throughout the curriculum of health and social care students at an American university in Lebanon. The aim of the present study was to report students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning before and after completing the IPE steps, their evaluations of interprofessional learning outcomes, as well as their satisfaction with the learning experience as a whole. A longitudinal survey design was used: questionnaires were completed by students before IPE exposure and after each step. The results showed that before IPE exposure, students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning were generally favourable, with differences across genders (stronger professional identity in females compared to males) and across professions (higher teamwork and collaboration in pharmacy and nutrition students compared to other professions and lower patient centredness in nursing students compared to others). After participation in the IPE steps, students showed enhanced readiness for interprofessional learning and differences between genders and professions decreased. Participants were satisfied with the learning experience and assessment scores showed that all IPE learning outcomes were met. The LAU IPE Steps Framework may be of value to other interprofessional education course developers.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Competencia Clínica , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Percepción , Factores Sexuales
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 384, 2015 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salvia libanotica (S. Libanotica) is a commonly used herb in folk medicine in Lebanon and the Middle East. The present study aimed to assess the scientific basis for the therapeutic use of S. libanotica in glycemia and to evaluate its effects on lipemia and abdominal fat. METHODS: Animals were fed a high-fat diet and allocated into a control and three experimental groups (GI, GII and GIII) receiving incremental doses of the plant water extract in drinking water (50, 150 and 450 mg/Kg body weight respectively) for six weeks. RESULTS: The intake of S. libanotica extract was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose (102.9 ± 10.8 in GII and 87.5 ± 6.4 in GIII vs. 152.1 ± 7.9 mg/dl in controls) and a two fold increase in fasting serum insulin (GIII) and liver glycogen content (GII and GIII). Group III also had better glucose tolerance following intraperitoneal glucose challenges. Additionally, the plant extract intake produced a significant improvement in serum HDL (34.4 ± 2.4 in GIII vs. 27.2 ± 1.9 mg/dl in controls) and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (2.79 ± 0.32 in GII and 3.02 ± 0.31 in GIII vs. 1.74 ± 0.18 in controls), as well as a decrease in abdominal fat. CONCLUSION: The current study is the first to demonstrate that the chronic intake of S. libanotica infusion helps in the prevention of high fat-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This supports the plant use as a remedy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Lípidos/sangre , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Salvia , Grasa Abdominal/efectos de los fármacos , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Glucógeno/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 23(2): 351-8, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25452199

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In insulin-resistant states, resistance of protein anabolism occurs concurrently with that of glucose, but can be compensated for by abundant amino acid (AA) provision. This effect and its mechanism were sought in obesity. METHODS: Pancreatic clamps were performed in 8 lean and 11 obese men, following 5-h postabsorptive, 3-h infusions of octreotide, basal glucagon, and growth hormone, with clamped postprandial-level insulin, glucose, and AA. Whole-body [1-(13) C]-leucine and [3-(3) H]-glucose kinetics, skeletal muscle protein ((2) H5 -phenylalanine) fractional synthesis rates, and insulin signaling were determined. RESULTS: Clamp Δ insulin and Δ branched-chain AA did not differ; fasting glucagon and growth hormone were maintained. Glucose uptake was 20% less in obese concurrent with less Akt(Ser473) , but also less IRS-1(Ser636/639) phosphorylation. Stimulation of whole-body, myofibrillar, and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis was similar. Whole-body protein catabolism suppression tended to be less (P=0.06), resulting in lesser net balance (1.09 ± 0.07 vs. 1.31 ± 0.08 µmol [kg FFM(-1) ] min(-1) , P=0.048). Increments in muscle S6K1(Thr389) phosphorylation were less in the obese, but 4E-BP1(Ser65) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperaminoacidemia with hyperinsulinemia stimulated protein synthesis (possibly via nutrient signaling) normally in obesity, but suppression of proteolysis may be compromised. Whether long-term high protein intakes could compensate for the insulin resistance of protein anabolism remains to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Adulto , Glucagón/administración & dosificación , Glucagón/sangre , Hormona de Crecimiento Humana/administración & dosificación , Hormona de Crecimiento Humana/sangre , Humanos , Infusiones Intravenosas , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Octreótido/administración & dosificación , Páncreas/metabolismo , Periodo Posprandial , Adulto Joven
15.
Lipids Health Dis ; 13: 109, 2014 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25002136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have found a U-shaped relationship between serum phosphorus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) behind such a relationship are poorly understood. Phosphorus (P) is reported to improve insulin sensitivity, which is involved in lipid metabolism, and thus we were interested in determining the impact of phosphorus ingestion on postprandial lipemia, a recognized CVD risk factor. FINDINGS: A within-subject study design was conducted, whereby 8 healthy male subjects received a high fat meal (330 Kcal; 69% energy from fat; 35 mg of phosphorus) with placebo or phosphorus (500 mg) in a random order. Postprandial blood samples (~10 ml) were collected every hour for 6 hours after meal ingestion. Changes in different parameters were analyzed using a 2-factor repeated-measure ANOVA. In the phosphorus (P) supplemented group, postprandial serum P increased (p=0.00), while changes in insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglyceride (TG) were not significantly different than that of placebo. Concurrently, phosphorus supplementation increased postprandial concentrations of apolipoprotein B48 (ApoB48) (p<0.05) and decreased that of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Phosphorus supplementation (500 mg) of the meal seems to alter the different components of postprandial lipemia. These findings highlight the potential role of phosphorus in CVD.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Fósforo/administración & dosificación , Periodo Posprandial/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangre , Apolipoproteína B-48/sangre , Estudios Cruzados , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Insulina/sangre , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven
16.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 16(1): 83-8, 2013 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23196814

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein anabolism is abnormal in human type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We review studies of anabolic stimuli that identify potential causes. If uncorrected, and combined with aging effects, they will compromise muscle function and mass. Knowing causes can guide studies of preventive and treatment measures. RECENT FINDINGS: T2DM accelerates age-related decreases in muscle mass. This could be related to insulin resistance of whole-body protein anabolism demonstrated in hyperglycemic obese men. In contrast, their protein anabolic response to hyperaminoacidemia suggested that ample amino acid administration, especially branched chain amino acids might overcome such insulin resistance. One study of chronic leucine supplementation in elderly T2DM patients did not increase muscle mass. However, they lacked sarcopenia and had adequate dietary protein intake, so may be atypical. Exercise induced similar increases in muscle protein synthesis, mass and strength in healthy and T2DM patients suggesting that physical activity might also overcome insulin resistance of protein anabolism. SUMMARY: Muscle protein anabolism in T2DM is resistant to the action of insulin but perhaps not to amino acid supply or exercise. Whether leucine supplementation improves muscle mass and function in persons with T2DM (especially elderly) with reduced protein intake or muscle mass needs to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Aminoácidos de Cadena Ramificada/administración & dosificación , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Leucina/administración & dosificación , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/patología , Insulina/sangre , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Fuerza Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Obesidad/patología , Biosíntesis de Proteínas , Sarcopenia/complicaciones , Sarcopenia/patología , Sarcopenia/prevención & control
17.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 51(1): 14-21, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17356261

RESUMEN

AIM: The study was designed to investigate the immediate (1 h) effect of leptin and ghrelin injection on in vivo postprandial hepatic glycogen and lipid synthesis. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a semisynthetic control diet ad libitum. Overnight-fasted rats were gavaged with 4 ml of water containing 1.25 g of the diet and immediately injected intraperitoneally with 4 mCi of (3)H(2)O. After 1 h, rats were either intraperitoneally injected with saline (control), leptin (20 microg/rat) or ghrelin (10 microg/rat) and sacrificed 1 h later. Blood, liver and epididymal fat pads (EFP) were taken for analysis. RESULTS: Plasma triglyceride level was higher in the leptin group compared to control. Leptin injection reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis while glycogen accumulation was not affected and ghrelin injection did not affect hepatic glycogen synthesis. Both hepatic and EFP lipogenesis were not affected by leptin or ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Leptin and ghrelin administration had no immediate effect on hepatic and adipose tissue lipogenesis. Leptin reduced in vivo postprandial hepatic glycogenesis and increased plasma triglyceride level which may be due to reduced uptake by peripheral tissues. Thus, leptin was found to exert an immediate effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism unlike that of ghrelin.


Asunto(s)
Leptina/farmacología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Glucógeno Hepático/biosíntesis , Hormonas Peptídicas/farmacología , Tejido Adiposo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ghrelina , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Leptina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Hormonas Peptídicas/administración & dosificación , Periodo Posprandial , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 15(3): 616-23, 2007 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17372311

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food intake is known to be affected by macronutrient composition of the diet, and protein manipulation has been reported to alter food intake, but the effect of individual amino acids on eating behavior has not been fully studied. This study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with three individual amino acids on meal pattern in male rats. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four equal groups and fed control diet or histidine (5%)-, leucine (5%)-, or tyrosine (5%)-supplemented diet for 2 weeks and were monitored for their meal pattern. RESULTS: Total food intake and feeding rate of the different groups were not affected, although other components of meal pattern were altered. Histidine supplementation reduced diurnal meal size by 42% (p < 0.05), whereas that of leucine increased nocturnal meal size by approximately 35% (p < 0.05). Tyrosine supplementation increased food intake of the nocturnal period and decreased that of the diurnal period. Both histidine and tyrosine supplementation elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and suppressed fasting glucose significantly. DISCUSSION: Individual amino acids were found to alter meal pattern differently. Further investigations are required to dissect the involvement of central and peripheral factors in these alterations.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Histidina/administración & dosificación , Leucina/administración & dosificación , Tirosina/administración & dosificación , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Histidina/sangre , Insulina/sangre , Leucina/sangre , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Tirosina/sangre
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