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1.
Chem Mater ; 28(8): 2557-2572, 2016 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27212791

RESUMEN

The failure mechanism of silicon-based electrodes has been studied only in a half-cell configuration so far. Here, a combination of 7Li, 19F MAS NMR, XPS, TOF-SIMS, and STEM-EELS, provides an in-depth characterization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on the surface of silicon and its evolution upon aging and cycling with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 as the positive electrode in a full Li-ion cell configuration. This multiprobe approach indicates that the electrolyte degradation process observed in the case of full Li-ion cells exhibits many similarities to what has been observed in the case of half-cells in previous works, in particular during the early stages of the cycling. Like in the case of Si/Li half-cells, the development of the inorganic part of the SEI mostly occurs during the early stage of cycling while an incessant degradation of the organic solvents of the electrolyte occurs upon cycling. However, for extended cycling, all the lithium available for cycling is consumed because of parasitic reactions and is either trapped in an intermediate part of the SEI or in the electrolyte. This nevertheless does not prevent the further degradation of the organic electrolyte solvents, leading to the formation of lithium-free organic degradation products at the extreme surface of the SEI. At this point, without any available lithium left, the cell cannot function properly anymore. Cycled positive and negative electrodes do not show any sign of particles disconnection or clogging of their porosity by electrolyte degradation products and can still function in half-cell configuration. The failure mechanism for full Li-ion cells appears then very different from that known for half-cells and is clearly due to a lack of cyclable lithium because of parasitic reactions occurring before the accumulation of electrolyte degradation products clogs the porosity of the composite electrode or disconnects the active material particles.

2.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5229, 2014 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354473

RESUMEN

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell is one of the most promising zero-emission power sources for automotive or stationary applications. However, their cost and lifetime remain the two major key issues for a widespread commercialization. Consequently, much attention has been devoted to optimizing the membrane/electrode assembly that constitute the fuel cell core. The electrodes consist of carbon black supporting Pt nanoparticles and Nafion as the ionomer binder. Although the ionomer plays a crucial role as ionic conductor through the electrode, little is known about its distribution inside the electrode. Here we report the three-dimensional morphology of the Nafion thin layer surrounding the carbon particles, which is imaged using electron tomography. The analyses reveal that doubling the amount of Nafion in the electrode leads to a twofold increase in its degree of coverage of the carbon, while the thickness of the layer, around 7 nm, is unchanged.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 25(49): 496002, 2013 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184960

RESUMEN

We develop the self-assembly of epitaxial submicrometer-sized face-centered-cubic (fcc) Co(111) dots using pulsed laser deposition. The dots display atomically flat facets, from which the ratios of surface and interface energies for fcc Co are deduced. Zero-field magnetic structures are investigated with magnetic force and Lorentz microscopies, revealing vortex-based flux-closure patterns. A good agreement is found with micromagnetic simulations.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(19): 197204, 2012 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215422

RESUMEN

The magnetic moment induced on Rh atoms, forming 1.6 nm average diameter clusters, embedded in an Al(2)O(3) matrix, has been determined using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. The magnetic moment varies linearly with the applied magnetic field. At 2.3 K and under 17 T, the spin magnetic moment amounts to 0.067(2) µ(B)/Rh atom. The orbital moment does not exceed 2% of the spin moment. The susceptibility is highly temperature dependent. This is in agreement with a prediction due to Moriya and Kawabata, that in itinerant electron systems, close to the onset of magnetism, the renormalization of the magnetic susceptibility by electron correlations, leads to a Curie-like behavior.


Asunto(s)
Dicroismo Circular/métodos , Rodio/química , Óxido de Aluminio/química , Campos Electromagnéticos
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(10): 106603, 2012 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23005314

RESUMEN

Electrical spin injection into semiconductors paves the way for exploring new phenomena in the area of spin physics and new generations of spintronic devices. However the exact role of interface states in the spin injection mechanism from a magnetic tunnel junction into a semiconductor is still under debate. In this Letter, we demonstrate a clear transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the conduction band of n-Ge. We observe spin signal amplification at low temperature due to spin accumulation into interface states followed by a clear transition towards spin injection in the conduction band from 200 K up to room temperature. In this regime, the spin signal is reduced to a value compatible with the spin diffusion model. More interestingly, the observation in this regime of inverse spin Hall effect in germanium generated by spin pumping and the modulation of the spin signal by a gate voltage clearly demonstrate spin accumulation in the germanium conduction band.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(12): 127204, 2010 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366562

RESUMEN

Dimensionality crossover is a classical topic in physics. Surprisingly, it has not been searched in micromagnetism, which deals with objects such as domain walls (2D) and vortices (1D). We predict by simulation a second-order transition between these two objects, with the wall length as the Landau parameter. This was confirmed experimentally based on micron-sized flux-closure dots.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(10): 107201, 2009 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19392153

RESUMEN

While magnetic hysteresis usually considers magnetic domains, the switching of the core of magnetic vortices has recently become an active topic. We considered Bloch domain walls, which are known to display at the surface of thin films flux-closure features called Néel caps. We demonstrated the controlled switching of these caps under a magnetic field, occurring via the propagation of a surface vortex. For this we considered flux-closure states in elongated micron-sized dots, so that only the central domain wall can be addressed, while domains remain unaffected.

8.
J Microsc ; 210(Pt 1): 60-5, 2003 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12694417

RESUMEN

Anisotropic effects in hexagonal aluminium nitride have been studied by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the N-K energy loss near edge structure (ELNES). Experimental data acquired with different collection angles and with a nearly parallel incident electron beam aligned along the c-axis have been compared to simulations based on ab initio calculations. The extraction of intrinsic parallel I|| (with momentum transfer q || c axis) and perpendicular I perpendicular (with momentum transfer q perpendicular c axis) components has been performed directly from the experimental spectra. This has been done according to their description as linear combinations of I|| and I perpendicular, with adequate weights deduced from a geometrical model of anisotropic behaviour.

9.
J Microsc ; 210(Pt 1): 66-73, 2003 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12694418

RESUMEN

Series of energy-filtered TEM images have been acquired with very narrow energy slit using a post-column energy filter. This allowed us to reconstruct spectra with an energy resolution estimated to 2 eV, and a spatial resolution in the order of 0.5 nm. In that way, fine structures of the N-K edge in AlN/GaN heterostructures have been investigated and compared to EELS spectra. The fine structure in the two nitrides is very sensitive to the local environment. Very good agreement between ESI and EELS spectra was found. Moreover, this technique allowed analysis of the AlN/GaN interface at a nanoscale. The second example is an application of the technique to construct bonding maps. In this case, maps differentiating AlN nanoprecipitates with either the cubic or the hexagonal phase were created.

10.
Ultramicroscopy ; 88(2): 99-110, 2001 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11419878

RESUMEN

Energy filtering TEM (EFTEM) has been performed on an annealed NiO/80Ni20Fe interface. Chemical maps have been calculated using the three-window technique on the O-K, Fe-L23 and Ni-L23 edges. In this paper we show that relative quantification can be made using reference areas on the images taken from part to part of the interface in well-known composition areas. Partial cross-section ratios sigmaNi(20 eV)/sigmaO(20 eV) and sigmaNi(20 eV)/sigmaFe(20 eV) have been then measured and used to extract the chemical composition of the reactive NiO/80Ni20Fe interface. Fe, Ni and O composition profiles across the interface have been obtained showing the diffusion process which has occurred during annealing. The reliability of the EFTEM measurements has been checked by EEL spectroscopy on the same sample as well as on a reference geological oxide sample (Trevorit: NiFe2O4). The partial cross-section ratios obtained with the two methods (EFTEM and EELS) are in good agreement.

11.
Microsc Microanal ; 4(3): 325-333, 1998 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9767670

RESUMEN

: The Foucault and Fresnel modes of Lorentz microscopy, together with a quantitative magnetization mapping technique, summed image differential phase-contrast imaging, were used to study the magnetization reversal mechanism of the sense layer in spin-valve structures exhibiting the giant magnetoresistance effect. In addition to studies of sheet film, lithographically defined spin-valve elements were investigated. A current can be passed through the element during magnetizing so that the effect of the applied current on the giant magnetoresistance and magnetization reversal mechanism can be studied. Results are presented for a number of different spin-valve structures.

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