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1.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(1): 45-55, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530043

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess a baseline assessment using developed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language paradigms for Arabic-speakers. METHODS: 24-healthy right-handed volunteers scanned on a 3.0 Tesla MRI machine. For fMRI, a BOLD-sensitive sequence used to measure signals over time across 6 language paradigms: rhyming (RH), semantic category generations (SCG), silent word generation (SWG), verb generation picture (VGp), verb generation word (VGw), and verb generation audio (VGa). fMRI data was analyzed using FMRIB Software Library (FSL). RESULTS: We found that VGa, SWG, VGw and VGp robustly activated language-related regions in the dominant hemisphere. RH and SCG failed to adequately define these activation regions but this may be related to the study's preliminary nature and limitations. After assessment of their validity, considerable activation of the inferior frontal gyrus during VGa, SWG, VGw and VGp suggests that these paradigms have the potential for localizing of Broca's area in native Arabic speakers. CONCLUSION: Set of well adapted, and evidence-based, fMRI paradigms were established for Arabic-speakers to enable accurate and sufficient localization and lateralization of the language area. After validation, these paradigms may provide sequences for accurate localization of brain language areas, and could be used as a presurgical evaluation tool.

2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 116: 107712, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460988

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the lateralizing value of unilateral peri-ictal and interictal headaches in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE). METHODS: Four-hundred consecutive patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for DRFE were interviewed. Patients with headache were broadly divided into two groups: peri-ictal and interictal headache. The lateralizing value of unilateral headache was compared in each group between three diagnoses: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), and temporal-plus epilepsy (TEMP+ epilepsy). RESULTS: Out of 400 patients, 169 (42.25%) had headaches. Peri-ictal headaches were experienced in 106 patients (26.5%) and interictal headaches were experienced in 63 (15.75%). In the peri-ictal group, unilateral headaches were present in 48 out of 60 patients (80%) with TLE; they were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in 45 out of 48 patients (93.75%). Unilateral headaches in patients with ETLE were present in 20 out of 31 patients (64.5%) and were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in 14 out of 20 patients (70%). In patients with TEMP + epilepsy, unilateral peri-ictal headaches were present in 9 out of 15 patients (60%); they were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in all 9 patients (100%). In the interictal headache group, unilateral headaches were ipsilateral the seizure focus in 9 out of 10 patients (90%) with TLE and 5 out of 6 patients (83.3%) with ETLE. None of the TEMP + epilepsy patients had a unilateral interictal headache. CONCLUSION: Headache is a frequently encountered symptom in patients with DRFE. When occurring in a unilateral fashion, it has a high lateralizing value in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsies. This has been demonstrated to be true for both peri-ictal and interictal headaches. In the vast majority of patients with DRFE, unilateral headache occurs ipsilateral to the seizure focus.

3.
Epilepsy Behav ; 112: 107440, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During Ramadan, the ninth month of the lunar Islamic calendar, adult Muslims are obliged to fast, which involves refraining from taking any food, beverages, or oral medications from dawn to sunset. Fasting's effect on seizure control is not fully understood, and a few observational studies have provided inconclusive results. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on seizure control and quality of life in adult patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study over a 3-month period (one month before fasting, the fasting month, and one month after fasting). We recruited adult patients with active epilepsy who were able to fast during the month of Ramadan. The primary outcome measures were as follows: 1) seizure control and 2) quality of life score using the Arabic version of the Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI). Changes in anticonvulsant medications were not allowed during the study period. We used a seizure log provided to participants to record the number of seizures during the 3-month period. Quality of life was scored at the end of each month of the study period. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were studied (59% males). The mean age was 30 years (range, 14-51 years), and mean age at epilepsy onset was 13 years (range, 0.5-35 years). On average, patients were on three antiepileptic medications at baseline (range: 2-5). A total of 1576 seizures were reported during the 3-month follow-up, where seizures prior to fasting represented 35.5% of all seizures. Multilinear regression analysis revealed a significant decline of seizures by 21% during the fasting month compared with baseline (adjusted coefficient = 0.79, p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.61-0.98, R2 = 0.81) and by 29% during post fasting compared with baseline (adjusted coefficient = 0.71, p < 0.01, 95% CI; 0.53-0.90, R2 = 0.79). No significant change was found in the QLI scores calculated during the three months of the study period. CONCLUSION: Fasting during Ramadan might have a positive impact on seizure control in patients with epilepsy, which continued during the month following fasting, whereas the quality of life scores were not affected by fasting.

4.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 24(3): 240-244, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380826

RESUMEN

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a drug-resistant status epilepticus that often has a catastrophic outcome. Our patient was diagnosed with NORSE and had an EEG reading that showed status epilepticus persisting for 8 months in general anesthesia. After autoimmune workup showed positive antiphospholipid antibodies, his seizure was controlled, and he was discharged with good condition apart from moderate cognitive impairment. However, he later developed schizophrenia. Although psychiatric disorders have been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported to be associated with status epilepticus. We recommend vigilance of psychological complications of refractory status epilepticus patients for early psychiatric referral, diagnosis, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Antifosfolípido/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Síndrome Antifosfolípido/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/etiología , Estado Epiléptico/etiología
5.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 25(7): 761-771, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084648

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study provides a standardized Arabic language neuropsychological test battery and tests its ability to distinguish patients with left and right hemisphere epileptic foci who are candidates for surgical resection. METHODS: An Arabic language battery of 15 tests was developed based on the neuropsychological test battery used at the Johns Hopkins Hospital for surgical evaluation of patients undergoing temporal lobe resection. With modifications where culturally required, 11 tests were translated to Arabic by the principal investigator and back-translated by two bilingual health professionals; four tests were available in Arabic and added to the battery. The battery was administered to 21 Arabic-speaking patients with left temporal epileptic foci, 21 with right temporal epileptic foci, and 46 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy adults. RESULTS: Nearly all the Arabic test versions were capable of differentiating healthy controls and the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) groups. Tests known to distinguish left and right temporal lobectomy candidates, such as wordlist memory and prose recall, were able to do so as accurately as the English versions. Also, a roughly "culturally free" task (the Baltimore Board) and a newly developed version of the Boston Naming Test demonstrated some sensitivity to left temporal lobe involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Arabic-language neuropsychological tests for epilepsy surgical evaluations are made available, demonstrate cultural sensitivity and clinical validity, and require further psychometric property and normative research. (JINS, 2019, 25, 761-771).


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/diagnóstico , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/fisiopatología , Lenguaje , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos/normas , Psicometría/normas , Adulto , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Psicometría/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
6.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 128(11): 2300-2308, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035822

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine optimal interstimulus interval (ISI) and pulse duration (D) for direct cortical stimulation (DCS) motor evoked potentials (MEPs) based on rheobase and chronaxie derived with two techniques. METHODS: In 20 patients under propofol/remifentanil anesthesia, 5-pulse DCS thenar MEP rheobase and chronaxie with 2, 3, 4 and 5ms ISI were measured by linear regression of five charge thresholds at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1msD, and estimated from two charge thresholds at 0.1 and 1msD using simple arithmetic. Optimal parameters were defined by minimum threshold energy: the ISI with lowest rheobase2×chronaxie, and D at its chronaxie. Near-optimal was defined as threshold energy <25% above minimum. RESULTS: The optimal ISI was 3 or 4 (n=7 each), 2 (n=4), or 5ms (n=2), but only 4ms was always either optimal or near-optimal. The optimal D was ∼0.2 (n=12), ∼0.1 (n=7) or ∼0.3ms (n=1). Two-point estimates closely approximated five-point measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal ISI/D varies, with 4ms/0.2ms being most consistently optimal or near-optimal. Two-point estimation is sufficiently accurate. SIGNIFICANCE: The results endorse 4ms ISI and 0.2msD for general use. Two-point estimation could enable quick individual optimization.


Asunto(s)
Cronaxia/fisiología , Estimulación Eléctrica/métodos , Potenciales Evocados Motores/fisiología , Monitoreo Intraoperatorio/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
7.
Epilepsy Behav Case Rep ; 8: 100-104, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062691

RESUMEN

Primary Angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare and poorly understood variant of vasculitis. We narrate a case of a 46-year-old male who presented with new onset refractory status epilepticus mimicking autoimmune encephalitis. In this case we are reporting clues that could be useful for diagnosis and extensive literature review on the topic.

8.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 11: 959-964, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572723

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led educational interview in terms of adherence to antiepileptic drug administration among adult patients with epilepsy. METHOD: Sixty adult patients with epilepsy who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited. A pharmacist-led educational interview was conducted with the intervention group (n=30). Patients in the control group (n=30) were interviewed and contacted 6 weeks after the initial visit without receiving any intervention. Antiepileptic drug adherence was measured during clinic visits, and 6 weeks afterwards using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. This prospective interventional study was conducted between September and December 2013. RESULTS: Only 29 control patients and 27 intervention patients completed the 6 weeks post-intervention adherence measurement. The adherence score average in the intervention group was 5.26±0.98 at baseline and improved to 6.7±0.823 (P<0.0001) after intervention. In the control group, the adherence score average was 5.76±1.806 at baseline and 5.83±1.627 at 6 weeks (P=0.792). While there was no statistically significant difference in adherence score between intervention and control groups at baseline, the post-intervention difference was significant (P=0.024). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that pharmacist-led educational interviews had a positive impact on medication adherence in patients with epilepsy.

9.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 7(4): 499-503, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695227

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. RESULTS: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor.

10.
Epilepsy Res Treat ; 2014: 286801, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24627805

RESUMEN

Purpose. To review the postoperative seizure outcomes of patients that underwent surgery for epilepsy at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC). Methods. A descriptive retrospective study for 502 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy between 1998 and 2012. The surgical outcome was measured using the ILAE criteria. Results. The epilepsy surgery outcome for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery (ILAE classes 1, 2, and 3) at 12, 36, and 60 months is 79.6%, 74.2%, and 67%, respectively. The favorable 12- and 36-month outcomes for frontal lobe epilepsy surgery are 62% and 52%, respectively. For both parietal and occipital epilepsy lobe surgeries the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 67%. For multilobar epilepsy surgery, the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 65% and 50%, respectively. The 12- and 36-month outcomes for functional hemispherectomy epilepsy surgery are 64.2% and 63%, respectively. According to histopathology diagnosis, mesiotemporal sclerosis (MTS) and benign CNS tumors had the best favorable outcome after surgery at 1 year (77.27% and 84.3%, resp.,) and 3 years (76% and 75%, resp.,). The least favorable seizure-free outcome after 3 years occurred in cases with dual pathology (66.6%). Thirty-four epilepsy patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were surgically treated. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcome of 17 temporal lobe surgeries were (53%) and (47%) seizure-free, respectively. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcomes of 15 extratemporal epilepsy surgeries were (47%) and (33%) seizure-free. Conclusion. The best outcomes are achieved with temporal epilepsy surgery, mesial temporal sclerosis, and benign CNS tumor. The worst outcomes are from multilobar surgery, dual pathology, and normal MRI.

11.
Epilepsy Behav Case Rep ; 2: 199-202, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of autoantibodies are being described in epilepsy and other seizure-related disorders. A pathogenic role of autoantibodies in epilepsy has been suggested based on observations of the efficacy of immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report a new case of autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy and seizures caused by autoantibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) (P/Q-type) and the response to immunotherapy. DESIGN: This study follows a case report design. SETTING: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Our patient was an eighteen-year-old female with new-onset encephalopathy and refractory seizures. INTERVENTION: Our patient was treated for five days with intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). RESULTS: After treatment with IVMP and IVIG, our patient showed significant clinical improvement and did not exhibit any seizures during the one-month follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report a rare case of an autoimmune encephalopathy and seizures associated with the presence of two surface neuronal autoantibodies. This report highlights the importance of early diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy, as early immunomodulating treatments improve the outcome.

12.
Epilepsy Behav Case Rep ; 1: 79-84, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667835

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ictal kissing has been described in the literature. Five cases were reported and associated with temporal lobe epilepsy lateralizing to the nondominant hemisphere. METHODS: A case of ictal kissing was identified. The aim was to demonstrate the clinical, clinical and electrophysiological features (as recorded by subdural electrodes). The surgical procedure, histopathology, and imaging data were reviewed and correlated with the literature. RESULTS: A 29-year-old right-handed female, who presented with ictal right hand left arm dystonic posturing, and lip smacking, was studied. The automatism was usually followed by prolonged emotional gestures and by hugging and kissing her relative and/or attendant nurse. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed right small cortical and subcortical lesions of the right inferior frontal lobe with gliosis but without mass effect and normal-sized hippocampi. The PET scan showed hypometabolism of the right temporal lobe. Neuropsychological evaluation showed deficit in her nonverbal memory. The subdural electrodes showed high amplitude spikes over right mesial temporal lobe strips. The offsite of the ictal discharges was usually at the right frontal strips. Right standard temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy and right inferior frontal lesionectomy were performed. The patient continued to be seizure-free for one year postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Our case report supports with subdural EEG recording the findings of the few reported cases of ictal kissing behavior lateralized to the nondominant hemisphere. However, the affectionate kissing behavior was associated with spread of the epileptic discharges to the right frontal lobe.

13.
Epilepsy Res ; 99(1-2): 107-11, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22119105

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is relatively common in CNS tuberculomas, but its natural course is unclear. AIM: To determine the prevalence and prognosis of epilepsy in patients with seizures related to CNS tuberculomas. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with CNS tuberculomas who presented at our institution between 1983 and 2001. RESULTS: Seizures occurred in 22 of 93 (23.6%) of the patients with CNS tuberculomas. These patients were treated with standard antituberculous therapy for a period varying between 6 and 20 months. Sixty-three out of 93 patients were cured of tuberculosis, and 21 of the 63 (33%) who had concomitant epilepsy became seizure-free. TB recurred in 3 patients, and 1 out of 22 who had concomitant epilepsy continued to have seizures; 3 died and 24 were lost to follow-up. Anti-epileptic medications were discontinued after completion of the anti-TB course. CONCLUSION: Seizures are commonly associated with CNS tuberculomas and most often resolve after successful treatment of the underlying CNS tuberculosis.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/patología , Tuberculoma Intracraneal/epidemiología , Tuberculoma Intracraneal/patología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculoma Intracraneal/tratamiento farmacológico
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