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1.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(2): 119-126, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166302

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may reduce the risk of dementia. Many studies have investigated PUFA supplementation in high-income countries, yet food-based randomized control trials using omega 3 PUFA rich fish in lower to middle income countries, are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect on cognition of adding either fish or non-fish foods for twelve weeks to an enhanced diet of cognitively intact, independently living, resource-limited elderly people. DESIGN: Randomized control trial (National Health Trial register: DOH-27-061-6026). SETTING: Retirement center in urban South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-seven (74% female, mean age: 72±7 years) elderly participants with cognitive function exceeding 22 on the Mini Mental State Examination were randomized into an intervention (n=31) and control (n=26) group. INTERVENTION: The usual diets of both groups were enhanced with context-appropriate foods to mimic elements of the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet. The intervention group additionally received canned pilchards and fish spread every week amounting to an additional (theoretical) intake of 2.2g omega 3 PUFA daily. The control group received canned meatballs and texturized soya every week. MEASUREMENTS: Cognition was measured twice before and once after the intervention phase using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). Adherence was assessed by a study-specific food frequency questionnaire and red blood cell (RBC) PUFA biomarkers. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with, and without, bootstrap imputation. RESULTS: Participants in the intervention group had a significantly higher post intervention (P=0.036) CASI score than the control group, when the model was fitted with imputation and controlled for baseline scores. Participants in the intervention group also had a significantly higher intake of calculated dietary omega 3 PUFA and higher levels of RBC eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid content than the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Twelve weeks of fish intake in the context of a modified MIND diet may improve the cognition of cognitively intact, resource-limited elderly people.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Animales , Cognición , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Femenino , Peces , Masculino
3.
S Afr Med J ; 111(9): 903-909, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The drug levels and clearances of imipenem in critically ill patients are not comprehensively described in current literature, yet it is vital that adequate levels be achieved for therapeutic success. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of critically ill patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin with sub-therapeutic imipenem plasma levels, and to compare the clinical outcomes of those patients with therapeutic levels with those who had sub-therapeutic levels. METHODS: Trough imipenem plasma levels of 68 critically ill patients from a surgical intensive care unit were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Imipenem trough levels were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the causative bacterial agents, based on a target value of 100% time above MIC (¦T >MIC). RESULTS: The proportion of participants with sub-therapeutic imipenem levels was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13% - 34%). The 14- and 28-day mortality rates in the sub-therapeutic group were 33% and 40%, respectively, compared with 19% (p=0.293) and 26% (p=0.346), respectively, in the therapeutic group. Sub-therapeutic imipenem plasma levels are associated with adjusted hazard ratio of 1.47 (95% CI 0.55 - 3.91). CONCLUSIONS: The lower proportion of critically ill patients with sub-therapeutic imipenem plasma levels in this study compared with previous studies may be attributed to the practice of higher dosages and the administration method of extended infusions of imipenem/cilastatin in our setting. The results demonstrate a trend of higher mortality in patients with sub-therapeutic imipenem levels, although the results were not statistically significant at this sample size.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Combinación Cilastatina e Imipenem/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Crítica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/sangre , Combinación Cilastatina e Imipenem/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Nature ; 599(7885): 393-398, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789908

RESUMEN

Thermalization is a ubiquitous process of statistical physics, in which a physical system reaches an equilibrium state that is defined by a few global properties such as temperature. Even in isolated quantum many-body systems, limited to reversible dynamics, thermalization typically prevails1. However, in these systems, there is another possibility: many-body localization (MBL) can result in preservation of a non-thermal state2,3. While disorder has long been considered an essential ingredient for this phenomenon, recent theoretical work has suggested that a quantum many-body system with a spatially increasing field-but no disorder-can also exhibit MBL4, resulting in 'Stark MBL'5. Here we realize Stark MBL in a trapped-ion quantum simulator and demonstrate its key properties: halting of thermalization and slow propagation of correlations. Tailoring the interactions between ionic spins in an effective field gradient, we directly observe their microscopic equilibration for a variety of initial states, and we apply single-site control to measure correlations between separate regions of the spin chain. Furthermore, by engineering a varying gradient, we create a disorder-free system with coexisting long-lived thermalized and non-thermal regions. The results demonstrate the unexpected generality of MBL, with implications about the fundamental requirements for thermalization and with potential uses in engineering long-lived non-equilibrium quantum matter.

5.
Science ; 372(6547): 1192-1196, 2021 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112691

RESUMEN

Extending the framework of statistical physics to the nonequilibrium setting has led to the discovery of previously unidentified phases of matter, often catalyzed by periodic driving. However, preventing the runaway heating that is associated with driving a strongly interacting quantum system remains a challenge in the investigation of these newly discovered phases. In this work, we utilize a trapped-ion quantum simulator to observe the signatures of a nonequilibrium driven phase without disorder-the prethermal discrete time crystal. Here, the heating problem is circumvented not by disorder-induced many-body localization, but rather by high-frequency driving, which leads to an expansive time window where nonequilibrium phases can emerge. Floquet prethermalization is thus presented as a general strategy for creating, stabilizing, and studying intrinsically out-of-equilibrium phases of matter.

6.
Science ; 372(6545): 980-983, 2021 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045354

RESUMEN

Climate change and other human activities are causing profound effects on marine ecosystem productivity. We show that the breeding success of seabirds is tracking hemispheric differences in ocean warming and human impacts, with the strongest effects on fish-eating, surface-foraging species in the north. Hemispheric asymmetry suggests the need for ocean management at hemispheric scales. For the north, tactical, climate-based recovery plans for forage fish resources are needed to recover seabird breeding productivity. In the south, lower-magnitude change in seabird productivity presents opportunities for strategic management approaches such as large marine protected areas to sustain food webs and maintain predator productivity. Global monitoring of seabird productivity enables the detection of ecosystem change in remote regions and contributes to our understanding of marine climate impacts on ecosystems.

7.
BJS Open ; 5(1)2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609375

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world, and is commonly found in association with appendicitis. Atypical presentation of appendicitis in the presence of HIV infection makes clinical diagnosis of appendicitis unreliable, and inflammatory markers are commonly used as adjuncts. The aim of this study was ascertain the value of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of appendicitis in patients with and without HIV infection. METHODS: Patients with acute appendicitis were studied and divided into HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Symptoms, and systemic and local signs were recorded. Appendiceal pathology was classified as simple or as complicated by abscess, phlegmon or perforation. Total white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen as inflammatory markers. Findings were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 125 patients, of whom 26 (20.8 per cent) had HIV infection. Clinical manifestations did not differ statistically, and there was no difference in the incidence of simple or complicated appendicitis between the two groups. The mean CRP level was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients (194.9 mg/l versus 138.9 mg/l in HIV-uninfected patients; P = 0.049), and mean WCC (x109/L) was significantly lower (11.07 versus 14.17×109/l respectively; P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations and pathology did not differ between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with appendicitis, except that the WCC response was significantly attenuated and CRP levels were generally higher in the presence of HIV infection.


Asunto(s)
Apendicitis/diagnóstico , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Recuento de Leucocitos/métodos , Adulto , Apendicitis/sangre , Apendicitis/patología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 8, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397298

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa has unique and diverse social and economic factors that have an impact on the provision of basic water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management infrastructure and practices at health care facilities in ensuring patient safety and prevent the spread of diseases. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate water, sanitation and hygiene access and standards at 50 government owned public health care clinics in the rural region of the Vhembe district of South Africa during 2016/2017, using self-observation, an observation checklist, record reviews and interviews with clinic managers. Water quality from all available water sources on the clinic compound was analysed for Total coliform and E. coli counts using the Colilert Quanti-tray/2000 system. The prevalence of pathogenic diarrhea causing E. coli strains was established using multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: The health care clinics in the Vhembe District generally complied with the basic WASH services guidelines according to the World Health Organisation. Although 80% of the clinics used borehole water which is classified as an improved water source, microbiological assessment showed that 38% inside taps and 64% outside taps from the clinic compounds had TC counts higher than guideline limits for safe drinking. Similarly, EC counts above the guideline limit for safe drinking water were detected in 17% inside taps and 32% outside taps from the clinic compounds. Pathogenic EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and EHEC strains were isolated in the collected water samples. Although improved sanitation infrastructures were present in most of the clinics, the sanitary conditions of these toilets were not up to standard. Waste systems were not adequately managed. A total of 90% of the clinics had hand washing basins, while only 61% of the clinics had soap present and only 64% of the clinics had adequate signs and posters reminding the staff, care givers and patients to wash their hands. CONCLUSIONS: Various WASH aspects within the primary health care system in South Africa needs to be improved and corrected. A more rigorous system that is inclusive of all role players in the WASH sectors, with regular monitoring and training sessions, should be used.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Saneamiento , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Sudáfrica
9.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111143

RESUMEN

New mold species are increasingly reported in invasive fungal infections. However, these fungi are often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed due to the use of inappropriate laboratory diagnostic tools. Tropical countries, such as French Guiana, harbor a vast diversity of environmental fungi representing a potential source of emerging pathogens. To assess the impact of this diversity on the accuracy of mold-infection diagnoses, we identified mold clinical isolates in French Guiana during a five-month follow-up using both microscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 38.8% of the 98 obtained molds isolates could not be identified and required a DNA-based identification. Fungal diversity was high, including 46 species, 26 genera, and 13 orders. Fungal ecology was unusual, as Aspergillus species accounted for only 27% of all isolates, and the Nigri section was the most abundant out of the six detected Aspergillus sections. Macromycetes (orders Agaricales, Polyporales, and Russulales) and endophytic fungi accounted for respectively 11% and 14% of all isolates. Thus, in tropical areas with high fungal diversity, such as French Guiana, routine mold identification tools are inadequate. Molecular identifications, as well as morphological descriptions, are necessary for the construction of region-specific mass spectrum databases. These advances will improve the diagnosis and clinical management of new fungal infections. LAY SUMMARY: In French Guiana, environmental fungal diversity may be a source of emerging pathogens. We evaluated microscopy and mass spectrometry to identify mold clinical isolates. With 39% of unidentified isolates, a region-specific mass spectrum database would improve the diagnosis of new fungal infections.

10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 686-690, 2020 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880348

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Allergy is a common health problem in South Africa (SA), and a rational approach to allergy testing is essential to ensure cost-effective as well as optimal patient diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVES: To review allergy testing data with respect to current national testing recommendations, and to explore the regional variations in sensitisation. METHODS: Retrospective data review on allergy testing from a private pathology provider in SA over a 2-year period. Data on skin-prick testing (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE testing originating from all the provinces of SA were collected and analysed with regards to allergen positivity rate and regional sensitisation patterns. RESULTS: Among the patients (N=45 0320) tested for a suspected inhalant allergy, 46% tested positive. Only 45% of these received additional testing for the nine recommended inhalant allergens included in the current national testing protocol. Among the patients (N=6 775) who received SPT for a suspected inhalant allergy, 59% yielded one or more positive results. The most frequent sensitising allergens were house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and grass pollen. The house dust mite, Blomia tropicalis, was a significant sensitiser in coastal regions. SPT identified two other important regional allergens which are not included in the current recommendations for inhalant allergen-specific IgE testing. CONCLUSIONS: The current diagnostic recommendations include allergens that demonstrate significant sensitisation in all regions of SA. Two additional allergens that show significant regional sensitisation in the South African population were identified. These findings may aid the recommendations for the most appropriate and cost-effective approach to allergy testing of symptomatic patients in SA.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad/epidemiología , Alérgenos/inmunología , Animales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Polen/inmunología , Pyroglyphidae/inmunología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pruebas Cutáneas , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
11.
Pneumologie ; 74(9): 603-610, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643765

RESUMEN

Occupational diseases are certain diseases designated as such by law. Whereas the medical conditions are described in guidelines, their recognition is based on judicial administrative procedures. Establishing causality is based on requirements of social law. The basic socio-legal concepts are mentioned and the principles of causality in asbestos-related occupational diseases are listed. Exemplary social court judgments are cited. Judgements may not infrequently differ from the medical point of view. The aim of this article is to describe the correct use of social medical understanding in order to carry out adequate assessment of occupational diseases, which implements the legal requirements.


Asunto(s)
Asbestos/efectos adversos , Asbestosis , Dermatología/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermedades Profesionales , Medicina del Trabajo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Justicia Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Asbestosis/diagnóstico , Asbestosis/terapia , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/terapia
12.
13.
Acta Haematol ; 143(2): 146-154, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In multiple myeloma (MM), relapse is a frequent complication after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT). To reduce the risk of relapse, additional therapy has been added post-ASCT. In a nontransplant relapse setting, the combination of intravenous bortezomib and oral vorinostat (BV) was studied and showed efficacy. Therefore, it was reasonable to study this combination therapy post-ASCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on BV given post-ASCT. All 30 patients underwent conditioning for ASCT with high-dose melphalan. After recovery from the acute transplant-related toxicity, BV therapy was started and given for a total of 12 (28-day) cycles. RESULTS: The most common toxicities were hematological, gastrointestinal (diarrhea and nausea), fatigue, and peripheral neuropathy. The median follow-up for BV patients is 7.8 (range: 6.12-9.03) years. After BV therapy, 18 patients (60%) are alive, and 9 (30%) are alive without disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: BV can be given post-ASCT with an acceptable toxicity profile and produces reasonable disease-free and overall survival rates. A randomized study comparing the BV regimen to single-agent lenalidomide or bortezomib is needed.


Asunto(s)
Bortezomib/uso terapéutico , Mieloma Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Vorinostat/uso terapéutico , Bortezomib/efectos adversos , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiple/mortalidad , Mieloma Múltiple/terapia , Tasa de Supervivencia , Trasplante Autólogo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vorinostat/efectos adversos
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(21)2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471301

RESUMEN

In the context of open science, the availability of research materials is essential for knowledge accumulation and to maximize the impact of scientific research. In microbiology, microbial domain biological resource centers (mBRCs) have long-standing experience in preserving and distributing authenticated microbial strains and genetic materials (e.g., recombinant plasmids and DNA libraries) to support new discoveries and follow-on studies. These culture collections play a central role in the conservation of microbial biodiversity and have expertise in cultivation, characterization, and taxonomy of microorganisms. Information associated with preserved biological resources is recorded in databases and is accessible through online catalogues. Legal expertise developed by mBRCs guarantees end users the traceability and legality of the acquired material, notably with respect to the Nagoya Protocol. However, awareness of the advantages of depositing biological materials in professional repositories remains low, and the necessity of securing strains and genetic resources for future research must be emphasized. This review describes the unique position of mBRCs in microbiology and molecular biology through their history, evolving roles, expertise, services, challenges, and international collaborations. It also calls for an increased deposit of strains and genetic resources, a responsibility shared by scientists, funding agencies, and publishers. Journal policies requesting a deposit during submission of a manuscript represent one of the measures to make more biological materials available to the broader community, hence fully releasing their potential and improving openness and reproducibility in scientific research.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Factuales , Microbiología , Biología Molecular , Biodiversidad , Humanos , Publicación de Acceso Abierto
15.
J Environ Manage ; 240: 47-56, 2019 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928794

RESUMEN

This study focuses on drivers for changing urban flood risk. We suggest a framework for guiding climate change adaptation action concerning flood risk and manageability in cities. The identified key drivers of changing flood hazard and vulnerability are used to provide an overview of each driver's impact on flood risk and manageability at the city level. We find that identified drivers for urban flood risk can be grouped in three different priority areas with different time horizon. The first group has high impact but is manageable at city level. Typical drivers in this group are related to the physical environment such as decreasing permeability and unresponsive engineering. The second group of drivers is represented by public awareness and individual willingness to participate and urbanization and urban sprawl. These drivers may be important and are manageable for the cities and they involve both short-term and long-term measures. The third group of drivers is related to policy and long-term changes. This group is represented by economic growth and increasing values at risk, climate change, and increasing complexity of society. They have all high impact but low manageability. Managing these drivers needs to be done in a longer time perspective, e.g., by developing long-term policies and exchange of ideas.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Inundaciones , Ciudades , Ambiente , Urbanización
16.
Oecologia ; 190(1): 47-58, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972488

RESUMEN

Maternal and environmental effects can have profound effects on offspring performance by generating variation in offspring phenotypes, independent of genetic effects. Within avian broods, differential maternal investment of resources across the laying sequence is thought to be an adaptive strategy to modulate competitive hierarchies induced by hatching asynchrony. In this study, we evaluated the relative importance of maternally derived within-clutch variation and the asymmetric post-hatching environment for growth and survival of common tern (Sterna hirundo) siblings. We experimentally manipulated hatching order, resulting in chicks from last-laid eggs hatching first and vice versa. Although both initial age and size asymmetries were larger within experimental than control broods, the early survival of last-hatched chicks was similar between groups. Initial positive effects of egg size disappeared as siblings approached fledging. Ultimately at fledging, both within-brood growth and cumulative survival patterns were similar between experimental and control broods, suggesting that the effects of systematic variation of egg constituents (e.g., maternally derived yolk hormones) and egg size are too subtle and largely overwhelmed by the effects of hatching asynchrony. Therefore, we conclude that variation in offspring phenotypes is pre-dominantly determined by the social environment experienced post-hatching. Maternal effects may further fine-tune phenotypic variation in response to varying environmental conditions, but this needs to be tested through empirical studies in which multiple maternal effects are measured simultaneously under different environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Huevos , Animales , Humanos , Fenotipo , Hermanos
17.
Hum Reprod ; 34(5): 949-958, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927425

RESUMEN

STUDY QUESTION: What are the factors influencing the success rate for couples undergoing preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) for polycystic kidney disease (PKD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In our study cohort, the live birth delivery rate is significantly associated with female age while the male infertility accompanying autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) does not substantially affect the clinical outcome. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While women with ADPKD have no specific fertility problems, male ADPKD patients may present with reproductive system abnormalities and infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study involves 91 PGT cycles for PKD for 43 couples (33 couples for PKD1, 2 couples for PKD2 and 8 couples for autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD)) from January 2005 until December 2016 with follow-up of transfers until end of 2017. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Sixteen single-cell clinical tests for PKD based on multiplex PCR of short tandem repeat markers, with or without a specific mutation were developed and applied for diagnosis of 584 Day 3 cleavage stage embryos. In 18 couples, the male partner was affected with ADPKD (=Group A) and 12 of them had a documented infertility status. Group A underwent 52 cycles to oocyte retrieval. For 18 other couples, the female partner was affected with ADPKD (=Group B) and four male partners from this group had a documented history of infertility. This group underwent 31 cycles to OR. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Genetic analysis resulted in 545 embryos (93.3%) with a diagnosis, of which 215 (36.8%) were genetically transferable. Transfer of 74 embryos in 53 fresh cycles and of 34 cryopreserved embryos in 33 frozen-warmed embryo transfer cycles resulted in a live birth delivery rate of 38.4% per transfer with 31 singleton live births, two twin live births and one ongoing pregnancy. The observed cumulative delivery rate was 57.8% per couple after five treatment cycles. Thirty cryopreserved embryos still remain available for transfer. The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (fresh + frozen; 45.9% in group A versus 60.0% in group B, P < 0.05) and the live birth delivery rate per transfer (fresh + frozen; 27.0% in group A versus 42.9% in group B, P < 0.05) was significantly lower for couples with the male partner affected with ADPKD compared with couples with the female partner affected with ADPKD. However, a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only female age was associated with live birth delivery rate (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99; P = 0.032). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study is based on retrospective data from a single centre with Day 3 one-cell and two-cell biopsy. Further analysis of a larger cohort of PKD patients undergoing PGT is required to determine the impact of male infertility associated with ADPKD on the cumulative results. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Knowledge about factors affecting the clinical outcome after PGT can be a valuable tool for physicians to counsel PKD patients about their reproductive options. Males affected with ADPKD who suffer from infertility should be advised to seek treatment in time to improve their chances of conceiving a child. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No funding was obtained. There are no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.


Asunto(s)
Fertilización In Vitro/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas Genéticas/estadística & datos numéricos , Infertilidad/terapia , Enfermedades Renales Poliquísticas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Preimplantación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Tasa de Natalidad , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Transferencia de Embrión/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Asesoramiento Genético , Humanos , Infertilidad/genética , Nacimiento Vivo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Enfermedades Renales Poliquísticas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Renales Poliquísticas/genética , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Inyecciones de Esperma Intracitoplasmáticas/estadística & datos numéricos , Canales Catiónicos TRPP/genética , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaav4020, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746479

RESUMEN

Young's archetypal double-slit experiment forms the basis for modern diffraction techniques: The elastic scattering of waves yields an interference pattern that captures the real-space structure. Here, we report on an inelastic incarnation of Young's experiment and demonstrate that resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measures interference patterns, which reveal the symmetry and character of electronic excited states in the same way as elastic scattering does for the ground state. A prototypical example is provided by the quasi-molecular electronic structure of insulating Ba3CeIr2O9 with structural Ir dimers and strong spin-orbit coupling. The double "slits" in this resonant experiment are the highly localized core levels of the two Ir atoms within a dimer. The clear double-slit-type sinusoidal interference patterns that we observe allow us to characterize the electronic excitations, demonstrating the power of RIXS interferometry to unravel the electronic structure of solids containing, e.g., dimers, trimers, ladders, or other superstructures.

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286265

RESUMEN

Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is commonly aggravated by the supine body position. The impact of body position on the severity of mixed and central sleep apnoeas is understudied. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body position on obstructive, mixed and central apnoea indices in subjects presenting with this triform of sleep apnoea during a single polysomnogram. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 26 polysomnograms where obstructive, mixed and central apnoeas each occurred at a rate >5/hr. Comparisons between lateral and supine body positions were made for obstructive apnoea index (OAI), mixed apnoea index (MAI), central apnoea index (CAI), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (OAHI). Results: Mean (SD) apnoea indices were significantly lower in lateral v. supine positions, respectively: MAI 15.06 (18.34) v. 32.09 (17.05); p<0.001, CAI 11.82 (11.77) v. 23.82 (14.18); p<0.001, AHI 79.46 (31.17) v. 99.47 (26.33); p<0.001, OAHI 67.87 (28.25) v. 76.00 (23.21); p=0.039. Unexpectedly, the converse was seen for OAI when comparing the lateral v. supine position: 53.10 (30.64) v. 43.58 (25.83); p=0.009, respectively. Conclusion: It may be beneficial for subjects with a combination of obstructive, mixed, and central apnoeas to avoid the supine body position. In this triform phenotype, mixed apnoeas are neither purely obstructive nor purely centrally mediated. Furthermore, obstructive, mixed, and central apnoeas may be different representations of a single respiratory abnormality.

20.
Struct Dyn ; 5(4): 044301, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057929

RESUMEN

We present a flexible and efficient ultrafast time-resolved spontaneous Raman spectroscopy setup to study collective excitation and quasi-particle dynamics in quantum materials. The setup has a broad energy tuning range extending from the visible to near infrared spectral regions for both the pump excitation and Raman probe pulses. Additionally, the balance between energy and time-resolution can be controlled. A high light collecting efficiency is realized by high numerical aperture collection optics and a high-throughput flexible spectrometer. We demonstrate the functionality of the setup with a study of the zone-center longitudinal optical phonon and hole continuum dynamics in silicon and discuss the role of the Raman tensor in time-resolved Raman scattering. In addition, we show an evidence for unequal phonon softening rates at different high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone of silicon by means of detecting pump-induced changes in the two-phonon overtone spectrum. Demagnetization dynamics in the helimagnet Cu2OSeO3 is studied by observing softening and broadening of a magnon after photo-excitation, underlining the unique power of measuring transient dynamics in the frequency domain, and the feasibility to study phase transitions in quantum materials.

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