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2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476361

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Signature informed consent (SIC) is a part of a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) ethics initiative for patient education and shared decision-making with long-term opioid therapy (LTOT). Historically, patients with cancer-related pain receiving LTOT are exempt from this process. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to understand patients' and providers' perspectives on using signature informed consent for LTOT in patients with cancer-related pain. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 20 opioid prescribers and 20 patients who were prescribed opioids at two large academically-affiliated VHA Medical Centers. We employed a combination of deductive and inductive approaches in content analysis to produce emergent themes. RESULTS: Potential advantages of SIC are that it can clarify and help patients comprehend LTOT risks and benefits, provide clear upfront boundaries and expectations, and involve the patient in shared decision-making. Potential disadvantages of SIC include time delay to treatment, discouragement from recommended opioid use, and impaired trust in the patient-provider relationship. Providers and patients have misconceptions about the definition of SIC. Providers and patients question if SIC for LTOT is really informed consent. Providers and patients advocate for strategies to improve comprehension of SIC content. Providers had divergent perspectives on exemptions from SIC. Oncologists want SIC for LTOT to be tailored for patients with cancer. CONCLUSION: Provider and patient interviews highlight various aspects about the advantages and disadvantages of requiring SIC for LTOT in cancer-related pain. Tailoring SIC for LTOT to be specific to cancer related concerns and to have an appropriate literacy level are important considerations.

3.
Pain Med ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana use is common among patients on long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic pain, but there is a lack of evidence to guide clinicians' response. OBJECTIVE: To generate expert consensus about responding to marijuana use among patients on LTOT. DESIGN: Analysis from an online Delphi study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: Clinician experts in pain and opioid management across the United States. METHODS: Participants generated management strategies in response to marijuana use without distinction between medical and nonmedical use, then rated the importance of each management strategy from 1 (not at all important) to 9 (extremely important). A priori rules for consensus were established, and disagreement was explored using cases. Thematic analysis of free-text responses examined factors that influenced participants' decision-making. RESULTS: Of 42 participants, 64% were internal medicine physicians. There was consensus that it is not important to taper opioids as an initial response to marijuana use. There was disagreement about the importance of tapering opioids if there is a pattern of repeated marijuana use without clinical suspicion for a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and consensus that tapering is of uncertain importance if there is suspicion for CUD. Three themes influenced experts' perceptions of the importance of tapering: 1) benefits and harms of marijuana for the individual patient, 2) a spectrum of belief about the overall riskiness of marijuana use, and 3) variable state laws or practice policies. CONCLUSIONS: Experts disagree and are uncertain about the importance of opioid tapering for patients with marijuana use. Experts were influenced by patient factors, provider beliefs, and marijuana policy, highlighting the need for further research.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317364

RESUMEN

A better understanding of predisposition to transition to high-dose, long-term opioid therapy after initial opioid receipt could facilitate efforts to prevent opioid use disorder (OUD). We extracted data on 69,268 patients in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study who received any opioid prescription between 1998 and 2015. Using latent growth mixture modelling, we identified four distinguishable dose trajectories: low (53%), moderate (29%), escalating (13%), and rapidly escalating (5%). Compared to low dose trajectory, those in the rapidly escalating dose trajectory were proportionately more European-American (59% rapidly escalating vs. 38% low); had a higher prevalence of HIV (31% vs. 29%) and hepatitis C (18% vs. 12%); and during follow-up, had a higher incidence of OUD diagnoses (13% vs. 3%); were hospitalised more often [18.1/100 person-years (PYs) vs. 12.5/100 PY]; and had higher all-cause mortality (4.7/100 PY vs. 1.8/100 PY, all p < 0.0001). These measures can potentially be used in future prevention research, including genetic discovery.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10520, 2019 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324830

RESUMEN

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound in Cannabis, which is studied extensively for its medicinal value. A central gap in the science is the underlying mechanisms surrounding THC's therapeutic effects and the role of gut metabolite profiles. Using a mass-spectrometry based metabolomics, we show here that intraperitoneal injection of THC in C57BL/6 mice modulates metabolic profiles that have previously been identified as integral to health. Specifically, we investigated the effects of acute (single THC injection denoted here as '1X') and short -term (five THC injections on alternate days denoted as '5X') THC administration on fecal and intestinal tissue metabolite profiles. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that THC administration alters host metabolism by targeting two prominent lipid metabolism pathways: glycerophospholipid metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis.

8.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(3): 426, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192507
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2275, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101824

RESUMEN

The original version of this Article omitted the following from the Acknowledgements: 'Supported by the Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center of the Veterans Integrated Service Network 4 of the Department of Veterans Affairs.' This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

10.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(4): 786-795, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marginal bone resorption has by some been identified as a "disease" whereas in reality it generally represents a condition. PURPOSE: The present article is a comparison between oral and orthopedic implants, as previously preferred comparisons between oral implants and teeth seem meaningless. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The article is a narrative review on reasons for marginal bone loss. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The pathology of an oral implant is as little related to a tooth as is pathology of a hip arthroplasty to a normally functioning, pristine hip joint. Oral as well as orthopedic implants are recognized as foreign bodies by the immune system and bone is formed, either in contact or distance osteogenesis, to shield off the foreign materials from remaining tissues. A mild immune reaction coupled to a chronic state of inflammation around the implant serve to protect implants from bacterial attacks. Having said this, an overreaction of the immune system may lead to clinical problems. Marginal bone loss around oral and orthopedic implants is generally not dependent on disease, but represents an immunologically driven rejection mechanism that, if continuous, will threaten implant survival. The immune system may be activated by various combined patient and clinical factors or, if rarely, by microbes. However, the great majority of cases with marginal bone loss represents a temporary immune overreaction only and will not lead to implant failure due to various defense mechanisms.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1499, 2019 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940813

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption level and alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis are moderately heritable traits. We conduct genome-wide association studies of these traits using longitudinal Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores and AUD diagnoses in a multi-ancestry Million Veteran Program sample (N = 274,424). We identify 18 genome-wide significant loci: 5 associated with both traits, 8 associated with AUDIT-C only, and 5 associated with AUD diagnosis only. Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) for both traits are associated with alcohol-related disorders in two independent samples. Although a significant genetic correlation reflects the overlap between the traits, genetic correlations for 188 non-alcohol-related traits differ significantly for the two traits, as do the phenotypes associated with the traits' PRS. Cell type group partitioning heritability enrichment analyses also differentiate the two traits. We conclude that, although heavy drinking is a key risk factor for AUD, it is not a sufficient cause of the disorder.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/genética , Alcoholismo/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Herencia Multifactorial , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto Joven
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(2): 231-237, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) commonly report marijuana use for chronic pain, although there is limited empirical evidence to support its use. There is hope that marijuana may reduce prescription opioid use. Our objective was to investigate whether marijuana use among PLWH who have chronic pain is associated with changes in pain severity and prescribed opioid use (prescribed opioid initiation and discontinuation). METHODS: Participants completed self-report measures of chronic pain and marijuana use at an index visit and were followed up for 1 year in the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). Self-reported marijuana use was the exposure variable. Outcome variables were changes in pain and initiation or discontinuation of opioids during the study period. The relationship between exposure and outcomes was assessed using generalized linear models for pain and multivariable binary logistic regression models for opioid initiation/discontinuation. RESULTS: Of 433 PLWH and chronic pain, 28% reported marijuana use in the past 3 months. Median pain severity at the index visit was 6.3/10 (interquartile range 4.7-8.0). Neither increases nor decreases in marijuana use were associated with changes in pain severity, and marijuana use was not associated with either lower odds of opioid initiation or higher odds of opioid discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence that marijuana use in PLWH is associated with improved pain outcomes or reduced opioid prescribing. This suggests that caution is warranted when counseling PLWH about potential benefits of recreational or medical marijuana.

13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(3): 297-304, 2019 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615036

RESUMEN

Importance: Some opioids are known immunosuppressants; however, the association of prescribed opioids with clinically relevant immune-related outcomes is understudied, especially among people living with HIV. Objective: To assess the association of prescribed opioids with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by opioid properties and HIV status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study used data from patients in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2012. Participants in VACS included patients living with and without HIV who received care in Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers across the United States. Patients with CAP requiring hospitalization (n = 4246) were matched 1:5 with control individuals without CAP (n = 21 146) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, length of observation, and HIV status. Data were analyzed from March 15, 2017, through August 8, 2018. Exposures: Prescribed opioid exposure during the 12 months before the index date was characterized by a composite variable based on timing (none, past, or current); low (<20 mg), medium (20-50 mg), or high (>50 mg) median morphine equivalent daily dose; and opioid immunosuppressive properties (yes vs unknown or no). Main Outcome and Measure: CAP requiring hospitalization based on VA and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid data. Results: Among the 25 392 VACS participants (98.9% male; mean [SD] age, 55 [10] years), current medium doses of opioids with unknown or no immunosuppressive properties (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.62) and immunosuppressive properties (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.50-2.86) and current high doses of opioids with unknown or no immunosuppressive properties (AOR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.50-2.86) and immunosuppressive properties (AOR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.44-4.14) were associated with the greatest CAP risk compared with no prescribed opioids or any past prescribed opioid with no immunosuppressive (AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.40) and immunosuppressive properties (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.67), especially with current receipt of immunosuppressive opioids. In stratified analyses, CAP risk was consistently greater among people living with HIV with current prescribed opioids, especially when prescribed immunosuppressive opioids (eg, AORs for current immunosuppressive opioids with medium dose, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.20-2.57] vs 2.33 [95% CI, 1.60-3.40]). Conclusions and Relevance: Prescribed opioids, especially higher-dose and immunosuppressive opioids, are associated with increased CAP risk among persons with and without HIV.

14.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 145, 2018 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486877

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dissemination of evidence-based practices that can reduce morbidity and mortality is important to combat the growing opioid overdose crisis in the USA. Research and expert consensus support reducing high-dose opioid therapy, avoiding risky opioid-benzodiazepine combination therapy, and promoting multi-modal, collaborative models of pain care. Collaborative care interventions that support primary care providers have been effective in medication tapering. We developed a patient-centered Primary Care-Integrated Pain Support (PIPS) collaborative care clinical program based on effective components of previous collaborative care interventions. Implementation facilitation, a multi-faceted and dynamic strategy involving the provision of interactive problem-solving and support during implementation of a new program, is used to support key organizational staff throughout PIPS implementation. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation facilitation strategy for implementing and sustaining PIPS in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The secondary aim is to examine the effect of the program on key patient-level clinical outcomes-transitioning to safer regimens and enhancing access to complementary and integrative health treatments. The tertiary aim is to determine the categorical costs and ultimate budget impact of PIPS implementation. METHODS: This multi-site study employs an interrupted time series, hybrid type III design to evaluate the effectiveness of implementation facilitation for a collaborative care clinical program-PIPS-in primary care clinics in three geographically diverse VHA health care systems (sites). Participants include pharmacists and allied staff involved in the delivery of clinical pain management services as well as patients. Eligible patients are prescribed either an outpatient opioid prescription greater than or equal to 90 mg morphine equivalent daily dose or a combination opioid-benzodiazepine regimen. They must also have an upcoming appointment in primary care. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the mixed methods work across the formative evaluation phases and informs the selection of activities included in implementation facilitation. The RE-AIM framework will be used to assess Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of PIPS. DISCUSSION: This implementation study will provide important insight into the effectiveness of implementation facilitation to enhance uptake of a collaborative care program in primary care, which targets unsafe opioid prescribing practices.

15.
Addict Biol ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284751

RESUMEN

A validated, scalable approach to characterizing (phenotyping) smoking status is needed to facilitate genetic discovery. Using established DNA methylation sites from blood samples as a criterion standard for smoking behavior, we compare three candidate electronic medical record (EMR) smoking metrics based on longitudinal EMR text notes. With data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), we employed a validated algorithm to translate each smoking-related text note into current, past or never categories. We compared three alternative summary characterizations of smoking: most recent, modal and trajectories using descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation coefficients. Logistic regression and area under the curve analyses were used to compare the associations of these phenotypes with the DNA methylation sites, cg05575921 and cg03636183, which are known to have strong associations with current smoking. DNA methylation data were available from the VACS Biomarker Cohort (VACS-BC), a sub-study of VACS. We also considered whether the associations differed by the certainty of trajectory group assignment (<0.80/≥0.80). Among 140 152 VACS participants, EMR summary smoking phenotypes varied in frequency by the metric chosen: current from 33 to 53 percent; past from 16 to 24 percent and never from 24 to 33 percent. The association between the EMR smoking pairs was highest for modal and trajectories (rho = 0.89). Among 728 individuals in the VACS-BC, both DNA methylation sites were associated with all three EMR summary metrics (p < 0.001), but the strongest association with both methylation sites was observed for trajectories (p < 0.001). Longitudinal EMR smoking data support using a summary phenotype, the validity of which is enhanced when data are integrated into statistical trajectories.

16.
Allergy Rhinol (Providence) ; 9: 2152656718796740, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305980

RESUMEN

Background: External nasal dilator strips are used as nonpharmacological therapy to reduce snoring and daytime sleepiness. In a product improvement initiative, a marketed strip (BRNS) and 2 prototype nasal strips were evaluated. Objective: To compare the nasal patency and multiple-use dermal tolerability of the BRNS and prototype nasal strips using both objective and subject-reported outcome measures. Methods: Two studies were conducted separately in healthy volunteers ≥18 years of age. A single-day nasal patency randomized crossover study assessed minimal cross-sectional area (MCA; second restriction) and nasal volume (using acoustic rhinometry); nasal inspiratory flow and resistance (using posterior rhinomanometry); and subject-reported evaluations of the BRNS compared with the butterfly strip and teardrop strip prototypes. A single-center, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, evaluator-blinded study assessed dermal tolerability of the BRNS and the butterfly strip over 7 consecutive nights of use, using the Dermal Response Scale (DRS) and subject-reported comfort and ease of removal. Results: In the Patency study (N = 50), all 3 strips demonstrated significant improvement from baseline in MCA, nasal volume, and nasal flow parameters (resistance and peak flow). The prototype strips demonstrated significantly more improvement in nasal volume than the BRNS, and the butterfly strip showed significantly more improvement in MCA than the BRNS; all strips were similar with respect to nasal flow and subject-reported nasal breathing outcomes. In the Dermal Tolerability study (N = 82), all subjects scored 0 (no evidence of irritation) on the DRS at all 7 morning assessments; the BRNS was numerically, but not significantly, superior to the butterfly strip on subject-reported outcomes. Conclusion: The Patency study demonstrated significant improvement from baseline in nasal dimensions and flow for all 3 evaluated strips; between-strip differences were confined to nasal dimensions. Both the BRNS and butterfly strip were generally well tolerated, with no evidence of dermal response over 7 consecutive nights of use.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01105949 and NCT01495494.

17.
Health Serv Res ; 53 Suppl 3: 5402-5418, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298672

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of dual use of both Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare benefits with high-risk opioid prescriptions among Veterans aged 65 years and older with a musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data were obtained from the VA Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) cohort and national Medicare claims data from 2008 to 2010. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Veterans enrolled in Medicare to examine the association of dual use with long-term opioid use (>90 days of prescription opioids/year) and overlapping opioid prescriptions. Multivariable logistic regression was performed adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified 21,111 Veterans enrolled in Medicare who entered the MSD cohort in 2008 and received an opioid prescription in 2010. We linked VHA data with Medicare claims data to identify opioid prescriptions for these Veterans in 2010. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As compared to Veterans who used only VHA or Medicare, Veterans with dual use of VHA and Medicare were significantly more likely to be prescribed long-term opioid therapy (OR = 4.61 (95 percent CI 4.05-5.25) and were also found to have higher median number of opioid prescriptions and higher odds of overlapping opioid prescriptions in 1 year. Patients reporting moderate-to-severe pain, non-white-race/ethnicity, and higher scoring on the Charlson comorbidity index had significantly higher odds of long-term opioid prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Among Veterans aged 65 years or older, dual use of both VHA and Medicare was associated with higher odds of long-term opioid therapy. Our findings suggest there may be benefit to combining VHA and non-VHA electronic health record data to minimize exposure to high-risk opioid prescribing.

18.
Pain Med ; 19(suppl_1): S38-S45, 2018 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203007

RESUMEN

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate a novel clinical program designed to address unsafe use of opioids prescribed for pain-the Opioid Reassessment Clinic (ORC)-to inform practice and health system improvement. Design: Controlled, retrospective cohort study. Setting: The ORC is a multidisciplinary clinic in a primary care setting in a Veterans Health Administration hospital designed to perform longitudinal treatment of patients with unsafe use of opioids prescribed for pain, including tapering or rotating to the partial opioid agonist buprenorphine. Subjects: We included patients referred to the ORC from March 1, 2016, to March 1, 2017, who had an intake appointment (intervention group) and who did not (control group). Methods: We compared a priori-defined metrics at the patient, clinic process, and health system levels and compared metrics between groups. Results: During the study period, 114 veterans were referred to the ORC, and 71 (62%) of these had an intake appointment. Those in the intervention group were more likely to trial buprenorphine (N = 41, 62% vs N = 1, 2%, P < 0.01) and had greater reductions in their full agonist morphine equivalent daily dose than those in the control group (30 mg [interquartile range {IQR} = 0-120] vs 0 mg [IQR = 0-20] decrease, P < 0.01). Of those engaging in the ORC, 20 (30%) had not transitioned chronic pain management back to their primary care providers (PCPs) by the end of follow-up. Only one patient transitioned the management of buprenorphine to the PCP. Conclusions: Results suggest the ORC was effective in reducing total prescribed opioid doses and in transitioning patients to partial-agonist therapy, but PCP adoption strategies are needed.

19.
Pain Med ; 19(suppl_1): S84-S92, 2018 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203011

RESUMEN

Objective: High rates of co-occurring smoking and chronic pain are observed in the veteran population. Individuals who smoke and have chronic pain report lower self-efficacy to quit and are less successful in their attempts. Design: In this pilot study, we assess the feasibility of a telephone-delivered intervention designed to integrate evidence-based smoking cessation and pain management components in a way that allows patients to understand the interplay between the two while attempting to have them build off each other and develop coping skills to address both concerns. Patients: Study participants (N = 7) were veterans who received primary care in the VA Healthcare System and reported current smoking and a worst pain intensity score of 4 or greater. Intervention: A five-session telephone intervention was delivered over eight weeks. Participants completed a survey at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Outcome Measures: Feasibility was assessed by examining engagement with the intervention. Results: Four out of seven participants completed all five sessions. Two out of seven veterans reported quitting smoking, and five out of seven reported clinically meaningful improvements in pain intensity and functional interference. Conclusions: Insights gained from this study were used to modify an intervention being examined in a randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness on both smoking and pain outcomes.

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