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1.
Cancer ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer who are treated with immune checkpoint modulators (ICMs) have their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured using general patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools. To the authors' knowledge, no instrument has been developed to date specifically for patients treated with ICMs. The objective of the current study was to develop a toxicity subscale PRO instrument for patients treated with ICMs to assess HRQOL. METHODS: Input was collected from a systematic review as well as patients and physicians experienced with ICM treatment. Descriptive thematic analysis was used to evaluate the qualitative data obtained from patient focus groups and interviews, which informed an initial list of items that described ICM side effects and their impact on HRQOL. These inputs informed item generation and/or reduction to develop a toxicity subscale. RESULTS: Focus groups and individual interviews with 37 ICM-treated patients generated an initial list of 176 items. After a first round of item reduction that produced a shortened list of 76 items, 16 physicians who care for patients who are treated with ICMs were surveyed with a list of 49 patient-reported side effects and 11 physicians participated in follow-up interviews. A second round of item reduction was informed by the physician responses to produce a list of 25 items. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this 25-item list is the first HRQOL-focused toxicity subscale for patients treated with ICMs and was developed in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, which prioritize patient input in developing PRO tools. The subscale will be combined with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) to form the FACT-ICM. Prior to recommending the formal use of this PRO instrument, the authors will evaluate its validity and reliability in longitudinal studies involving substantially more patients.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 581, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953485

RESUMEN

While comparison of primary tumor and metastases has highlighted genomic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer (CRC), previous studies have focused on a single metastatic site or limited genomic testing. Combining data from whole exome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing, we explored possible evolutionary trajectories beyond the status of these mutations, particularly among patient-matched metastatic tumors. Our findings confirm the persistence of known clinically-relevant mutations (e.g., those of RAS family of oncogenes) in CRC primary and metastases, yet reveal that latency and interval systemic therapy affect the course of evolutionary events within metastatic lesions. Specifically, our analysis of patient-matched primary and multiple metastatic lesions, developed over time, showed a similar genetic composition for liver metastatic tumors, which were 21-months apart. This genetic makeup was different from those identified in lung metastases developed before manifestation of the second liver metastasis. These results underscore the role of latency in the evolutionary path of metastatic CRC and may have implications for future treatment options.

3.
Cancer Med ; 9(1): 116-124, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Metastatic germ cell tumor (mGCT) patients receiving chemotherapy have increased risk of life-threatening venous thromboembolism (VTE). Identifying VTE risk factors may guide thromboprophylaxis in this highly curable population. METHODS: Data were collected from mGCT patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy at 22 centers. Predefined variables included International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) risk classification, long-axis diameter of largest retroperitoneal lymph node (RPLN), Khorana score, and use of indwelling vascular access device (VAD). VTE occurring at baseline, during chemotherapy and within 90 days, was analyzed. RESULTS: Data from 1135 patients were collected. Median age was 31 years (range 10-74). IGCCCG risk was 64% good, 20% intermediate, and 16% poor. VTE occurred in 150 (13%) patients. RPLN >3.5 cm demonstrated highest discriminatory accuracy for VTE (AUC 0.632, P < .001) and was associated with significantly higher risk of VTE in univariable analysis (22% vs 8%, OR 3.0, P < .001) and multivariable analysis (OR 1.8, P = .02). Other significant risk factors included, Khorana score ≥3 (OR 2.6, P = .008) and VAD use (OR 2.7, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Large RPLN and VAD use are independent risk factors for VTE in mGCT patients receiving chemotherapy. VAD use should be minimized in this population and thromboprophylaxis might be considered for large RPLN.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 354-363, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619444

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The FGFR1 gene is amplified in 14% of patients with HR + /HER2 - breast cancer. Efficacy and safety of lucitanib, an inhibitor of VEGFR1-3, FGFR1-3, and PDGFRα/ß, were assessed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HR + /HER2 - metastatic breast cancer (MBC) received oral lucitanib in three centrally confirmed cohorts: (i) FGFR1 amplified, (ii) FGFR1 nonamplified, 11q13 amplified, and (iii) FGFR1 and 11q13 nonamplified. Key inclusion criteria included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status ≤2, ≥1 line of anticancer therapy, but ≤2 lines of chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was overall response rates (ORR) by RECIST1.1. Simon's two-stage design was used: If ≥2 patients responded among 21 patients, 20 additional patients could be enrolled in each cohort. FGFR1 copy-number variation (CNV) was determined by FISH and droplet digital PCR, whereas FGFR1 expression was determined by IHC. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients (32/18/26 in cohorts 1/2/3) from nine countries were enrolled. The prespecified primary endpoint was met in cohort 1 with ORR of 19% [95% confidence interval (CI), 9%-35%], but not in cohorts 2 and 3 with ORR of 0% (95% CI, 0%-18%) and 15% (95% CI, 6%-34%), respectively. Frequent adverse events included hypertension (87%), hypothyroidism (45%), nausea (33%), and proteinuria (32%). Exploratory biomarker analyses suggested higher ORR in patients with high FGFR1 amplification (≥4 CNV) than those without high amplification (22% vs. 9%). ORR in patients with FGFR1-high tumors (IHC, H-score ≥50) was 25% versus 8% in FGFR1-low cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Lucitanib had modest antitumor activity and significant hypertension-related toxicity in patients with HR + /HER2 - MBC. Although based on small sample sizes, exploratory biomarker analyses suggested that patients with high FGFR1 amplification or expression might derive greater benefit.

5.
Oncologist ; 25(1): e160-e169, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395751

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This multicenter, open-label, phase Ib study investigated the safety and efficacy of binimetinib (MEK inhibitor) in combination with buparlisib (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) in patients with advanced solid tumors with RAS/RAF alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients had advanced solid tumors with disease progression after standard therapy and/or for which no standard therapy existed. Evaluable disease was mandatory, per RECIST version 1.1 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Binimetinib and buparlisib combinations were explored in patients with KRAS-, NRAS-, or BRAF-mutant advanced solid tumors until the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) were defined. The expansion phase comprised patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, after progression on an EGFR inhibitor; advanced RAS- or BRAF-mutant ovarian cancer; or advanced non-small cell lung cancer with KRAS mutation. RESULTS: At data cutoff, 32/89 patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. RP2D for continuous dosing was buparlisib 80 mg once daily/binimetinib 45 mg twice daily. The toxicity profile of the combination resulted in a lower dose intensity than anticipated. Six (12.0%) patients with RAS/BRAF-mutant ovarian cancer achieved a partial response. Pharmacokinetics of binimetinib were not altered by buparlisib. Pharmacodynamic analyses revealed downregulation of pERK and pS6 in tumor biopsies. CONCLUSION: Although dual inhibition of MEK and the PI3K pathways showed promising activity in RAS/BRAF ovarian cancer, continuous dosing resulted in intolerable toxicities beyond the dose-limiting toxicity monitoring period. Alternative schedules such as pulsatile dosing may be advantageous when combining therapies. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Because dysregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are both frequently involved in resistance to current targeted therapies, dual inhibition of both pathways may be required to overcome resistance mechanisms to single-agent tyrosine kinase inhibitors or to treat cancers with driver mutations that cannot be directly targeted. A study investigating the safety and efficacy of combination binimetinib (MEK inhibitor) and buparlisib (PI3K inhibitor) in patients harboring alterations in the RAS/RAF pathway was conducted. The results may inform the design of future combination therapy trials in patients with tumors harboring mutations in the PI3K and MAPK pathways.

6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 269-278, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654785

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the practice patterns and outcomes of intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCT) in adolescents and young adults according to different therapeutic approaches. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One-hundred twelve patients with IGCT aged 15 to 39 years were managed at either XX or the XY center from 1975 to 2015. The charts were retrospectively reviewed and data collected. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up was 8.3 years. Ninety-four patients had germinomas, and 18 had nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT). The primary disease sites were pineal gland (37 of 94 germinoma, 14 of 18 NGGCT) and suprasellar region (23 of 94 germinoma, 2 of 18 NGGCT). Eleven patients with germinoma (12%) and 2 patients with NGGCT (11%) had radiographic spinal metastases or positive lumbar cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Event-free survival (EFS) was 84% and overall survival (OS) was 90% at 10 years for germinoma; EFS was 71% and OS was 86% at 10 years for NGGCT. For patients with germinoma, 10-year EFS was 100% after craniospinal radiation therapy (CSRT) with chemotherapy (N = 10); 100% after whole-ventricular radiation therapy (WVRT), whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or focal radiation therapy (FRT) with chemotherapy (N = 22); 90% after CSRT alone (N = 46); and 41% after WVRT, WBRT, or FRT alone (N = 16) (P < .0005). Ten-year OS was 100%, 100%, 90%, and 72%, respectively (P = .032). For patients with NGGCT, 10-year EFS was 80% after CSRT, WBRT, or WVRT plus chemotherapy (N = 10) versus 58% after FRT plus chemotherapy (N = 8) (P = .31); 10-year OS was 90% versus 58%, respectively (P = .16). CONCLUSIONS: We report excellent overall outcomes according to treatment approach in the largest study of IGCT in adolescents and young adults to our knowledge. EFS and OS were inferior after non-CSRT without chemotherapy in germinoma.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer who have disease progression after therapy with multiple HER2-targeted agents have limited treatment options. Tucatinib is an investigational, oral, highly selective inhibitor of the HER2 tyrosine kinase. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer previously treated with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab emtansine, who had or did not have brain metastases, to receive either tucatinib or placebo, in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. The primary end point was progression-free survival among the first 480 patients who underwent randomization. Secondary end points, assessed in the total population (612 patients), included overall survival, progression-free survival among patients with brain metastases, confirmed objective response rate, and safety. RESULTS: Progression-free survival at 1 year was 33.1% in the tucatinib-combination group and 12.3% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.71; P<0.001), and the median duration of progression-free survival was 7.8 months and 5.6 months, respectively. Overall survival at 2 years was 44.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 26.6% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.88; P = 0.005), and the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 17.4 months, respectively. Among the patients with brain metastases, progression-free survival at 1 year was 24.9% in the tucatinib-combination group and 0% in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.69; P<0.001), and the median progression-free survival was 7.6 months and 5.4 months, respectively. Common adverse events in the tucatinib group included diarrhea, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting. Diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels of grade 3 or higher were more common in the tucatinib-combination group than in the placebo-combination group. CONCLUSIONS: In heavily pretreated patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, including those with brain metastases, adding tucatinib to trastuzumab and capecitabine resulted in better progression-free survival and overall survival outcomes than adding placebo; the risks of diarrhea and elevated aminotransferase levels were higher with tucatinib. (Funded by Seattle Genetics; HER2CLIMB ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02614794.).

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 120: 132-139, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brivanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling. We performed a phase II randomised discontinuation trial of brivanib in 7 tumour types (soft-tissue sarcomas [STS], ovarian cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], gastric/esophageal cancer and transitional cell carcinoma [TCC]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: During a 12-week open-label lead-in period, patients received brivanib 800 mg daily and were evaluated for FGF2 status by immunohistochemistry. Patients with stable disease at week 12 were randomised to brivanib or placebo. A study steering committee evaluated week 12 response to determine if enrolment in a tumour type would continue. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS) for brivanib versus placebo in patients with FGF2-positive tumours. RESULTS: A total of 595 patients were treated, and stable disease was observed at the week 12 randomisation point in all tumour types. Closure decisions were made for breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, NSCLC, gastric cancer and TCC. Criteria for expansion were met for STS and ovarian cancer. In 53 randomised patients with STS and FGF2-positive tumours, the median PFS was 2.8 months for brivanib and 1.4 months for placebo (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58, p = 0.08). For all randomised patients with sarcomas, the median PFS was 2.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.0) for those treated with brivanib compared with 1.4 months (95% CI: 1.3-1.6) for placebo (HR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.38-1.07; p = 0.09). In the 36 randomised patients with ovarian cancer and FGF2-positive tumours, the median PFS was 4.0 (95% CI: 2.6-4.2) months for brivanib and 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.2-2.7) for placebo (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.26-1.22). For all randomised patients with ovarian cancer, the median PFS in those randomised to brivanib was 4.0 months (95% CI: 2.6-4.2) and was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.2-2.7) in those randomised to placebo (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.25-1.17; p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: Brivanib demonstrated activity in STS and ovarian cancer with an acceptable safety profile. FGF2 expression, as defined in the protocol, is not a predictive biomarker of the efficacy of brivanib.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(1): 121-133, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368034

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This open-label, phase Ib, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study (NCT01862081) evaluated taselisib with a taxane in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (BC) and/or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients received taselisib (2-6 mg tablet or 3-6 mg capsule) plus docetaxel or paclitaxel. Primary endpoints were safety, dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose, and identification of a recommended phase II dose. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity assessment. RESULTS: Eighty patients (BC: 72; NSCLC: 7; BC/NSCLC: 1) were enrolled (docetaxel-receiving arms: 21; paclitaxel-receiving arms: 59). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and AEs leading to death were reported in 90.5%, 42.9%, and 14.3% of patients, respectively (docetaxel-receiving arms), and 78.9%, 40.4%, and 3.5% of patients, respectively (paclitaxel-receiving arms). Eight patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities. The maximum tolerated dose was exceeded with 3 mg taselisib (capsule) for 21 consecutive days plus 75 mg/m2 docetaxel and not exceeded with 6 mg taselisib (tablet) for 5 days on/2 days off plus 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel. Objective response rates and clinical benefit rates were 35.0% and 45.0%, respectively (docetaxel-receiving arms), and 20.4% and 27.8%, respectively (paclitaxel-receiving arms). Exposure for paclitaxel or docetaxel plus taselisib was consistent with the single agents. CONCLUSIONS: Taselisib in combination with a taxane has a challenging safety profile. Despite evidence of antitumor activity, the benefit-risk profile was deemed not advantageous. Further development is not planned.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 121(4): 318-324, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: CFI-400945 is a first-in-class oral inhibitor of polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) that regulates centriole duplication. Primary objectives of this first-in-human phase 1 trial were to establish the safety and tolerability of CFI-400945 in patients with advanced solid tumours. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). METHODS: Continuous daily oral dosing of CFI-400945 was evaluated using a 3+3 design guided by incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in the first 28-day cycle. Safety was assessed by CTCAE v4.0. ORR and CBR were evaluated using RECIST v1.1. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were treated in dose escalation from 3 to 96 mg/day, and 9 were treated in 64 mg dose expansion. After DLT occurred at 96 and 72 mg, 64 mg was established as the RP2D. Neutropenia was a common high-grade (19%) treatment-related adverse event at ≥ 64 mg. Half-life of CFI-400945 was 9 h, with Cmax achieved 2-4 h following dosing. One PR (45 cycles, ongoing) and two SD ≥ 6 months were observed (ORR = 2%; CBR = 6%). CONCLUSIONS: CFI-400945 is well tolerated at 64 mg with dose-dependent neutropenia. Favourable pharmacokinetic profiles were achieved with daily dosing. Response rates were low without biomarker pre-selection. Disease-specific and combination studies are ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registration Number - NCT01954316 (Oct 1st, 2013).

11.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(4): 437-442, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Standard-dose computed tomography (SDCT) scans are associated with radiation exposure during stage I testicular cancer surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate low-dose CT (LDCT) for clinical use. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this single-arm prospective study, patients on surveillance for stage I testicular germ cell tumour underwent SDCT and LDCT scans on their first visit after enrolment. The adequacy of LDCT image quality was assessed for subsequent use. Patients were followed with LDCT only and suspected relapse was confirmed by SDCT. OUTCOME MEASURES AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We assessed whether initial LDCT scans were of sufficient quality for routine clinical use. We compared mean differences in nodal size at relapse between LDCT and SDCT using a one-sample paired t test. The relapse free-rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 257 patients, one was excluded because of inadequate image quality. At median follow-up of 5.25 yr, 35 patients had relapsed, 33 with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. The 2- and 5-yr relapse-free rates were 89.5% and 85.3%, respectively. The mean size of retroperitoneal nodal relapse was 17.3 and 17.5mm on the short axis, 23.2 and 22.7mm on the long axis, and 26.1 and 26.7mm on craniocaudal length for LDCT and SDCT, respectively. The mean difference between LDCT and SDCT was 0.14mm (p=0.55) short axis, -0.54mm (p=0.092) long axis, and -0.51mm (p=0.086) length. A limitation was the lack of a control arm. CONCLUSIONS: LDCT image quality was adequate for clinical use, and retroperitoneal nodal relapse was detected with minimal differences seen between LD and SDCT. LDCT can be safely adopted and will decrease overall radiation exposure in stage I germ cell tumour surveillance. PATIENT SUMMARY: We studied the use of low-dose computed tomography scans for detecting testicular cancer recurrence in lymph nodes of the abdomen and pelvis and found that they were safe, effective and would potentially reduce overall X-ray exposure. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03142802.

12.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083486

RESUMEN

Although previous research identified candidate genetic polymorphisms associated with cisplatin nephrotoxicity, varying outcome definitions potentially contributed to the variability in the effect size and direction of this relationship. We selected genetic variants that have been significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in more than one published study (SLC22A2 rs316019; ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986; ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181) and performed a replication analysis to confirm associations between these genetic polymorphisms and cisplatin nephrotoxicity using various outcome definitions. We included 282 germ cell testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin from 2009-2014, aged >17 years recruited by the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety. Nephrotoxicity was defined using four grading tools: (1) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.03 for acute kidney injury (AKI) or CTCAE-AKI; (2) adjusted cisplatin-induced AKI; (3) elevation of serum creatinine; and (4) reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Significant associations were only found when using the CTCAE v4.03 definition: genotype CA of the ERCC1 rs3212986 was associated with decreased risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 0.24; 95% CI:0.08-0.70; p = 0.009) compared to genotype CC. In contrast, addition of allele A at SLC22A2 rs316019 was associated with increased risk (ORadj = 4.41; 95% CI:1.96-9.88; p < 0.001) while genotype AC was associated with a higher risk of cisplatin nephrotoxicity (ORadj = 5.06; 95% CI:1.69-15.16; p = 0.004) compared to genotype CC. Our study showed that different case definitions led to variability in the genetic risk ascertainment of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Therefore, consensus on a set of clinically relevant outcome definitions that all such studies should follow is needed.

13.
Oncologist ; 24(7): e518-e525, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833487

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enrichment of patients based on molecular biomarkers is increasingly used in early phase clinical trials. Molecular profiling of patients with advanced cancers can identify specific genomic alterations to inform decisions about investigational treatment(s). Our aim was to evaluate the outcomes of new patient referrals to a large academic solid tumor phase I clinical trial program after the implementation of molecular profiling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all new referrals to the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PM) phase I clinic from May 2012 to December 2014. Molecular profiling using either MALDI-TOF hotspot mutation genotyping or targeted panel DNA sequencing was performed for patients at PM or community hospitals through the institutional IMPACT/COMPACT trials. RESULTS: A total of 971 new patient referrals were included for this analysis. Twenty-seven percent of referrals assessed in clinic were subsequently enrolled in phase I trials. Of all new referrals, 41% had prior molecular profiling, of whom 11% (n = 42) were enrolled in genotype-matched trials. Patients with prior molecular profiling were younger, more heavily pretreated, and had more favorable Princess Margaret Hospital Index (PMHI) scores. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1 (p = .002), internal referrals within PM (p = .002), and PMHI (p ≤ .001) were independently associated with successful trial enrollment in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: Although nearly half of new patients referred to a phase I clinic had prior molecular profiling, the proportion subsequently enrolled into clinical trials was low. Prior molecular profiling was not an independent predictor of clinical trial enrollment. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The landscape of oncology drug development is evolving alongside technological advancements. Recently, large academic medical centers have implemented clinical sequencing protocols to identify patients with actionable genomic alterations to enroll in therapeutic clinical trials. This study evaluates patient referral and enrollment patterns in a large academic phase I clinical trials program following the implementation of a molecular profiling program. Performance status and referral from a physician within the institution were associated with successful trial enrollment, whereas prior molecular profiling was not an independent predictor.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 72, 2019 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867072

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrate unprecedented efficacy in multiple malignancies; however, the mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are poorly understood and predictive biomarkers are scarce. INSPIRE is a phase 2 basket study to evaluate the genomic and immune landscapes of peripheral blood and tumors following pembrolizumab treatment. METHODS: Patients with incurable, locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors that have progressed on standard therapy, or for whom no standard therapy exists or standard therapy was not deemed appropriate, received 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every three weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected at baseline, during treatment, and at progression. One core biopsy was used for immunohistochemistry and the remaining cores were pooled and divided for genomic and immune analyses. Univariable analysis of clinical, genomic, and immunophenotyping parameters was conducted to evaluate associations with treatment response in this exploratory analysis. RESULTS: Eighty patients were enrolled from March 21, 2016 to June 1, 2017, and 129 tumor and 382 blood samples were collected. Immune biomarkers were significantly different between the blood and tissue. T cell PD-1 was blocked (≥98%) in the blood of all patients by the third week of treatment. In the tumor, 5/11 (45%) and 11/14 (79%) patients had T cell surface PD-1 occupance at weeks six and nine, respectively. The proportion of genome copy number alterations and abundance of intratumoral 4-1BB+ PD-1+ CD8 T cells at baseline (P < 0.05), and fold-expansion of intratumoral CD8 T cells from baseline to cycle 2-3 (P < 0.05) were associated with treatment response. CONCLUSION: This study provides technical feasibility data for correlative studies. Tissue biopsies provide distinct data from the blood and may predict response to pembrolizumab.

15.
Oncologist ; 24(4): e146-e148, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728278

RESUMEN

The patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE) complements capture of symptomatic adverse events (AEs) by clinicians. Previous trials have typically used a limited subset of relevant symptomatic AEs to reduce patient burden. We aimed to determine the feasibility of administering all 80 AEs included in the PRO-CTCAE library by approaching consecutive patients enrolled in a large academic phase I program at three points in time. Here, we report a preplanned analysis after enrolling the first 20 patients. All items were answered on 51 of 56 potential visits (adherence 91%). Three (5%) additional PRO-CTCAE assessments were partially completed, and two (4%) were missed because of conflicting appointments. No patient withdrew consent or chose not to complete the assessments once enrolled on study. Future trials of experimental drugs that incorporate the PRO-CTCAE should consider using this unselected approach to identify adverse events more completely.

16.
Cancer ; 125(8): 1341-1349, 2019 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors experience an accelerated tumor growth rate (TGR) in comparison with pretreatment kinetics; this is known as hyperprogression. This study assessed the relation between hyperprogressive disease (HPD) and treatment-related toxicity and clinical factors. METHODS: This study reviewed patients with solid tumors who were enrolled in early-phase immunotherapy trials at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre between August 2012 and September 2016 and had computed tomography scans in the pre-immunotherapy (reference) and on-immunotherapy (experimental) periods. HPD was defined as progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 at the first on-treatment scan and a ≥2-fold increase in TGR between the reference and experimental periods. Treatment-related toxicities requiring systemic therapy, drug delays, or discontinuation were considered clinically significant adverse events (CSAEs). RESULTS: Of 352 patients, 182 were eligible for analysis. The median age was 60 years, and 54% were male. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 (32%) or 1 (68%). The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score was 0/1 in 59%. Single-agent immunotherapy was given to 80% of the patients. Most patients (89%) received anti-programmed death (ligand) 1 antibodies alone or in combination with other therapies. HPD occurred in 12 of 182 patients (7%). A higher proportion of females was seen among HPD patients (P = .01), but no association with age, performance status, tumor type, RMH prognostic score, combination immunotherapy, or CSAEs was found. The 1-year overall survival rate was 28% for HPD patients and 53% for non-HPD patients (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-3.3; P = .11). CONCLUSIONS: HPD was observed in 7% of patients with solid tumors treated with immunotherapy. HPD was not associated with CSAEs, age, tumor type, or the type of immunotherapy but was more common in females.


Asunto(s)
Inmunoterapia/efectos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/clasificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias/inmunología , Pronóstico , Factores Sexuales , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(22): 1919-1926, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802156

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Active surveillance (AS) for testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) is widely used. Although there is no consensus for optimal treatment at relapse on surveillance, globally patients typically receive chemotherapy. We describe treatment of relapses in our non-risk-adapted NSGCT AS cohort and highlight selective use of primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). METHODS: From December 1980 to December 2015, 580 patients with clinical stage I NSGCT were treated with AS, and 162 subsequently relapsed. First-line treatment was based on relapse site and extent. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with need for multimodal therapy on AS relapse. RESULTS: Median time to relapse was 7.4 months. The majority of relapses were confined to the retroperitoneum (66%). After relapse, first-line treatment was chemotherapy for 95 (58.6%) and RPLND for 62 (38.3%), and five patients (3.1%) underwent other therapy. In 103 (65.6%), only one modality of treatment was required: chemotherapy only in 58 of 95 (61%) and RPLND only in 45 of 62 (73%). Factors associated with multimodal relapse therapy were larger node size (odds ratio, 2.68; P = .045) in patients undergoing chemotherapy and elevated tumor markers (odds ratio, 6.05; P = .008) in patients undergoing RPLND. When RPLND was performed with normal markers, 82% required no further treatment. Second relapse occurred in 30 of 162 patients (18.5%). With median follow-up of 7.6 years, there were five deaths (3.1% of AS relapses, but 0.8% of whole AS cohort) from NSGCT or treatment complications. CONCLUSION: The retroperitoneum is the most common site of relapse in clinical stage I NSGCT on AS. Most are cured by single-modality treatment. RPLND should be considered for relapsed patients, especially those with disease limited to the retroperitoneum and normal markers, as an option to avoid chemotherapy.

18.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2019 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659026

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in TP53 are found in the majority of high grade serous ovarian cancers, leading to gain of function or loss of function of its protein product, p53, involved in oncogenesis. There have been conflicting reports as to the impact of the type of these on prognosis. We aim to further elucidate this relationship in our cohort of patients. METHODS: 229 patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer underwent tumor profiling through an institutional molecular screening program with targeted next generation sequencing. TP53 mutations were classified using methods previously described in the literature. Immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue was used to assess for TP53 mutation. Using divisive hierarchal clustering, we generated patient clusters with similar clinicopathologic characteristics to investigate differences in outcomes. RESULTS: Six different classification schemes of TP53 mutations were studied. These did not show an association with first platinum-free interval or overall survival. Next generation sequencing reliably predicted mutation in 80% of cases, similar to the proportion detected by immunohistochemistry. Divisive hierarchical clustering generated four main clusters, with cluster 3 having a significantly worse prognosis (p<0.0001; log-rank test). This cluster had a higher concentration of gain of function mutations and these patients were less likely to have undergone optimal debulking surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Different classifications of TP53 mutations did not show an impact on outcomes in this study. Immunohistochemistry was a good predictor for TP53 mutation. Cluster analysis showed that a subgroup of patients with gain of function mutations (cluster 3) had a worse prognosis.

19.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(2): 261-273, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576869

RESUMEN

A common approach in clinical diagnostic laboratories to variant assessment from tumor molecular profiling is sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from both tumor (somatic) and normal (germline) tissue, with subsequent variant comparison to identify true somatic variants with potential impact on patient treatment or prognosis. However, challenges exist in paired tumor-normal testing, including increased cost of dual sample testing and identification of germline cancer predisposing variants. Alternatively, somatic variants can be identified by in silico tumor-only variant filtration precluding the need for matched normal testing. The barrier to tumor-only variant filtration is defining a reliable approach, with high sensitivity and specificity to identify somatic variants. In this study, we used retrospective data sets from paired tumor-normal samples tested on small (48 gene) and large (555 gene) targeted next-generation sequencing panels, to model algorithms for tumor-only variants classification. The optimal algorithm required an ordinal filtering approach using information from variant population databases (1000 Genomes Phase 3, ESP6500, ExAC), clinical mutation databases (ClinVar), and information on recurring clinically relevant somatic variants. Overall the tumor-only variant filtration strategy described in this study can define clinically relevant somatic variants from tumor-only analysis with sensitivity of 97% to 99% and specificity of 87% to 94%, and with significant potential utility for clinical laboratories implementing tumor-only molecular profiling.

20.
Urol Oncol ; 37(3): 183.e17-183.e24, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478011

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Maintenance of chemotherapy dose intensity is a cornerstone of management in testicular germ cell tumors. We describe chemotherapy delivery and outcomes of patients in routine practice. METHODS: The Ontario Cancer Registry was linked to electronic records of treatment to identify patients diagnosed with testicular cancer treated with orchiectomy and chemotherapy from 2005 to 2010. We describe chemotherapy delivery and dose intensity. Overall survival was measured from the start of chemotherapy. RESULTS: During the study period, 552 new cases of testicular cancer were treated with orchiectomy and chemotherapy; drug/regimen details were available for 475 (86%) cases. The study population included 324 patients with nonseminoma and 151 with seminoma. The majority of patients were treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) (83%, 394/475) or etoposide and cisplatin (EP) (6%, 30/475); 89% (379/424) received 3 to 4 cycles of treatment. Thirty two percent of all BEP patients (125/394) had at least 1 dose omission of bleomycin; this rate increased to 51% of patients treated with BEP × 4. Eight percent (33/397) of evaluable BEP/EP patients had a dose reduction/omission of cisplatin and 21% (82/397) had a dose delay of >6 days. Among the BEP/EP cases, 44% (174/397) had reduced chemotherapy dose intensity. Five-year overall survival for all cases was 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of patients treated with BEP/EP chemotherapy in routine practice have some form of reduced chemotherapy delivery. Despite this, long-term survival in the general population is very high. Further studies are required to understand the extent to which dose delivery might influence outcomes.

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