Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 97
Filtrar
1.
Trials ; 22(1): 670, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The incidence of metachronous contralateral inguinal hernia (MCIH) is high in infants with an inguinal hernia (5-30%), with the highest risk in infants aged 6 months or younger. MCIH is associated with the risk of incarceration and necessitates a second operation. This might be avoided by contralateral exploration during primary surgery. However, contralateral exploration may be unnecessary, leads to additional operating time and costs and may result in additional complications of surgery and anaesthesia. Thus, there is no consensus whether contralateral exploration should be performed routinely. METHODS: The Hernia-Exploration-oR-Not-In-Infants-Analysis (HERNIIA) study is a multicentre randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside to study the (cost-)effectiveness of contralateral exploration during unilateral hernia repair. Infants aged 6 months or younger who need to undergo primary unilateral hernia repair will be randomised to contralateral exploration or no contralateral exploration (n = 378 patients). Primary endpoint is the proportion of infants that need to undergo a second operation related to inguinal hernia within 1 year after primary repair. Secondary endpoints include (a) total duration of operation(s) (including anaesthesia time) and hospital admission(s); (b) complications of anaesthesia and surgery; and (c) participants' health-related quality of life and distress and anxiety of their families, all assessed within 1 year after primary hernia repair. Statistical testing will be performed two-sided with α = .05 and according to the intention-to-treat principle. Logistic regression analysis will be performed adjusted for centre and possible confounders. The economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective and all relevant costs will be measured, valued and analysed. DISCUSSION: This study evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of contralateral surgical exploration during unilateral inguinal hernia repair in children younger than 6 months with a unilateral inguinal hernia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03623893 . Registered on August 9, 2018 Netherlands Trial Register NL7194. Registered on July 24, 2018 Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) NL59817.029.18. Registered on July 3, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Hernia Inguinal , Laparoscopía , Niño , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Hernia Inguinal/cirugía , Herniorrafia/efectos adversos , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046696, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489272

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the process of postpartum care utilisation and in-home support among vulnerable women. DESIGN, METHOD, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A qualitative interview study was conducted among 23 pregnant and postpartum vulnerable women in the Netherlands, following a grounded theory approach. Women were determined as vulnerable by their healthcare providers. Theoretical sampling of participants was applied and was alternated by data analysis to include information-rich cases until saturation was achieved. RESULTS: A conceptual framework of postpartum care utilisation was generated consisting of three phases: pregnancy, early postpartum period and late postpartum period. Within these phases, information provision, parenting self-efficacy and social network were identified as overarching themes. Perceived inadequate information on content of postpartum care posed a major barrier to forming realistic expectations during pregnancy and hindered its utilisation. Low self-efficacy facilitated postpartum care utilisation. All women experienced increased self-efficacy during and after postpartum care. Support from a social network influenced expectations regarding the added value of postpartum care during pregnancy, and lowered actual utilisation during the postpartum period. The costs of postpartum care and the role of the maternity care assistant acted as general barriers or facilitators influencing the three overarching themes and therefore postpartum care utilisation indirectly. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that postpartum care utilisation among vulnerable women may be improved by considering the particular phase and relevant themes applying to individual women, and adapt care accordingly. We recommend to provide comprehensive, understandable information and to emphasise the gains of postpartum care in improving self-efficacy for vulnerable women. Moreover, involving a woman's social network in postpartum care may add value to this care for this population.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Atención Posnatal , Femenino , Humanos , Países Bajos , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e566-e578, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places (eg, cars) might reduce the health harms caused by tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We aimed to investigate the effect of smoke-free policies covering outdoor areas or semi-private and private places on TSE and respiratory health in children, to inform policy. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 13 electronic databases from date of inception to Jan 29, 2021, for published studies that assessed the effects of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas or semi-private or private places on TSE, respiratory health outcomes, or both, in children. Non-randomised and randomised trials, interrupted time series, and controlled before-after studies, without restrictions to the observational period, publication date, or language, were eligible for the main analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted data, including adjusted test statistics from each study using a prespecified form, and assessed risk of bias for effect estimates from each study using the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions tool. Primary outcomes were TSE in places covered by the policy, unplanned hospital attendance for wheezing or asthma, and unplanned hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections, in children younger than 17 years. Random-effects meta-analyses were done when at least two studies evaluated policies that regulated smoking in similar places and reported on the same outcome. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190563. FINDINGS: We identified 5745 records and assessed 204 full-text articles for eligibility, of which 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Of these studies, seven fit prespecified robustness criteria as recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care group, assessing smoke-free cars (n=5), schools (n=1), and a comprehensive policy covering multiple areas (n=1). Risk of bias was low in three studies, moderate in three, and critical in one. In the meta-analysis of ten effect estimates from four studies, smoke-free car policies were associated with an immediate TSE reduction in cars (risk ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·55-0·87; 161 466 participants); heterogeneity was substantial (I2 80·7%; p<0·0001). One additional study reported a gradual TSE decrease in cars annually. Individual studies found TSE reductions on school grounds, following a smoke-free school policy, and in hospital attendances for respiratory tract infection, following a comprehensive smoke-free policy. INTERPRETATION: Smoke-free car policies are associated with reductions in reported child TSE in cars, which could translate into respiratory health benefits. Few additional studies assessed the effect of policies regulating smoking in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places on children's TSE or health outcomes. On the basis of these findings, governments should consider including private cars in comprehensive smoke-free policies to protect child health. FUNDING: Dutch Heart Foundation, Lung Foundation Netherlands, Dutch Cancer Society, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation, and Health Data Research UK.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Respiratorias/prevención & control , Política para Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061969

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: On 2 September 2019, Rotterdam's first inner-city outdoor smoke-free zone encompassing the Erasmus MC, a large university hospital in the Netherlands, the Erasmiaans high school, the Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences and the public road in between, was implemented. We aimed to assess spatiotemporal patterning of smoking before and after implementation of this outdoor smoke-free zone. METHODS: We performed a before-after observational field study. We systematically observed the number of smokers, and their locations and characteristics over 37 days before and after implementation of the smoke-free zone. RESULTS: Before implementation of the smoke-free zone, 4,098 people smoked in the area every weekday during working hours. After implementation, the daily number of smokers was 2,241, a 45% reduction (p=0.007). There was an increase of 432 smokers per day near and just outside the borders of the zone. At baseline, 31% of the smokers were categorised as employee, 22% as student and 3% as patient. Following implementation of the smoke-free zone, the largest decreases in smokers were observed among employees (-67%, p-value 0.004) and patients (-70%, p-value 0.049). Before and after implementation, 21 and 20 smokers were visibly addressed and asked to smoke elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an inner-city smoke-free zone was associated with a substantial decline in the number of smokers in the zone, and an overall reduction of smoking in the larger area. Further research should focus on optimising implementation of and compliance with outdoor smoke-free zones.

8.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032890

RESUMEN

Children have the right to grow up free from the hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoke exposure can have detrimental effects on children's health and development, from before birth and beyond. As a result of effective tobacco control policies, European smoking rates are steadily decreasing among adults, as is the proportion of adolescents taking up smoking. Substantial variation however exists between countries, both in terms of smoking rates and regarding implementation, comprehensiveness and enforcement of policies to address smoking and second-hand smoke exposure. This is important because comprehensive tobacco control policies such as smoke-free legislation and tobacco taxation have extensively been shown to carry clear health benefits for both adults and children. Additional policies such as increasing the legal age to buy tobacco, reducing the number of outlets selling tobacco, banning tobacco display and advertising at the point-of-sale, and introducing plain packaging for tobacco products can help reduce smoking initiation by youth. At societal level, health professionals can play an important role in advocating for stronger policy measures, whereas they also clearly have a duty to address smoking and tobacco smoke exposure at the patient level. This includes providing cessation advise and referring to effective cessation services.Conclusion: Framing of tobacco exposure as a child right's issue and of comprehensive tobacco control as a tool to work towards the ultimate goal of reaching a tobacco-free generation can help accelerate European progress to curb the tobacco epidemic. What is Known: • Tobacco exposure is associated with a range of adverse health effects among babies and children. • Comprehensive tobacco control policies helped bring down smoking rates in Europe and benefit child health. What is New: • Protecting the rights and health of children provides a strong starting point for tobacco control advocacy. • The tobacco-free generation concept helps policy-makers set clear goals for protecting future generations from tobacco-associated harms.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e040167, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550229

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Smoke-free enclosed public environments are effective in reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and yield major public health benefits. Building on this, many countries are now implementing smoke-free policies regulating smoking beyond enclosed public places and workplaces. In order to successfully implement such 'novel smoke-free policies', public support is essential. We aim to provide the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis assessing levels and determinants of public support for novel smoke-free policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The primary objective of this review is to summarise the level of public support for novel smoke-free policies. Eight online databases (Embase.com, Medline ALL Ovid, Web of Science Core Collection, WHO Library Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Scientific Online Library Online, PsychINFO and Google Scholar) will be searched from 1 January 2004 by two independent researchers with no language restrictions. The initial search was performed on 15 April 2020 and will be updated prior to finalisation of the report. Studies are eligible if assessing support for novel smoke-free policies in the general population (age ≥16 years) and have a sample size of n≥400. Studies funded by the tobacco industry or evaluating support among groups with vested interest are excluded. The primary outcome is proportion of public support for smoke-free policies, subdivided according to the spaces covered: (1) indoor private spaces (eg, cars) (2) indoor semiprivate spaces (eg, multi-unit housing) (3) outdoor (semi)private spaces (eg, courtyards) (4) non-hospitality outdoor public spaces (eg, parks, hospital grounds, playgrounds) and (5) hospitality outdoor public spaces (eg, restaurant terraces). The secondary objective is to identify determinants associated with public support on three levels: (1) within-study determinants (eg, smoking status) (2) between-study determinants (eg, survey year) and (3) context-specific determinants (eg, social norms). Risk of bias will be assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and a sensitivity analysis will be performed excluding studies at high risk of bias. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No formal ethical approval is required. Findings will be disseminated to academics, policymakers and the general public.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Adolescente , Región del Caribe , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Restaurantes , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Lugar de Trabajo
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4209, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603103

RESUMEN

In 2007 the German government passed smoke-free legislation, leaving the details of implementation to the individual federal states. In January 2008 Bavaria implemented one of the strictest laws in Germany. We investigated its impact on pregnancy outcomes and applied an interrupted time series (ITS) study design to assess any changes in preterm birth, small for gestational age (primary outcomes), and low birth weight, stillbirth and very preterm birth. We included 1,236,992 singleton births, comprising 83,691 preterm births and 112,143 small for gestational age newborns. For most outcomes we observed unclear effects. For very preterm births, we found an immediate drop of 10.4% (95%CI - 15.8, - 4.6%; p = 0.0006) and a gradual decrease of 0.5% (95%CI - 0.7, - 0.2%, p = 0.0010) after implementation of the legislation. The majority of subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirm these results. Although we found no statistically significant effect of the Bavarian smoke-free legislation on most pregnancy outcomes, a substantial decrease in very preterm births was observed. We cannot rule out that despite our rigorous methods and robustness checks, design-inherent limitations of the ITS study as well as country-specific factors, such as the ambivalent German policy context have influenced our estimation of the effects of the legislation.

11.
Health Policy ; 125(3): 385-392, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health inequities are already present at birth and affect individuals' health and socioeconomic outcomes across the life course. Addressing these inequities requires a cross-sectoral approach, covering the first 1,000 days of life. We believe that - in the Dutch context - municipal governments can be the main responsible actor to drive such an approach, since they are primarily responsible for organising adequate public health. Therefore, we aim to identify and develop transformative change towards the implementation of perinatal health into municipal approaches and policies concerning health inequities. METHODS: A transition analysis will be combined with action research in six Dutch municipalities. Interviews and interactive group sessions with professionals and organisations that are relevant for the institutional embedding of perinatal health into approaches and policies regarding health inequities, will be organised in each municipality. As a follow-up, a questionnaire will be administered among all participants one year after completion of the group sessions. DISCUSSION: We expect to gain insights into the role of municipalities in addressing perinatal health inequities, learn more about the interaction between different key stakeholders, and identify barriers and facilitators for a cross-sectoral approach to perinatal health. This knowledge will serve to inform the development of approaches to perinatal health inequities in areas with relatively poor perinatal health outcomes, both in the Netherlands and abroad.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno Local , Salud Pública , Ciudades , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Países Bajos , Embarazo
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 63, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468082

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a physiologic phenomenon, but, when severe, may cause lifelong disability. Maternity care assistants (MCAs) play an important role in timely recognition of severe neonatal jaundice. We assessed knowledge and skills of MCAs regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. METHODS: All Dutch MCAs (n = 9065) were invited to fill out a questionnaire assessing knowledge, expertise, and handling of neonatal jaundice. Additionally, we developed an e-learning and provided training sessions to a subgroup of MCAs (n = 99), and assessed their knowledge on neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia before and after the training. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred sixty-five unique online questionnaires were completed (response 16.2%). The median number of correctly answered knowledge questions was 5 (out of six; IQR 1). Knowledge was significantly better when respondents had had in-service training on neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in the previous year (p = 0.024). Although 82% of respondents felt highly skilled or skilled to assess jaundice, accuracy of estimation of total serum bilirubin levels by assessing skin colour was generally poor and prone to underestimation. Among participants attending a training session, those who completed the e-learning beforehand had higher pre-training scores (5 (IQR 1) vs. 4 (IQR 2); p < 0.001). The median post-training score was higher than pre-training (6 (IQR 1) vs. 5 (IQR 2); p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Background knowledge of MCAs regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia was adequate, but can be improved by further training. Estimation of total serum bilirubin levels based on skin colour was often inadequate. Approaches to improve timely recognition of jaundiced neonates are needed.

13.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 51, 2020 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208752

RESUMEN

Despite existing interventions, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy are common. The Smoke and Alcohol Free with EHealth and Rewards (SAFER) pregnancy intervention combines monthly group sessions, access to a web-based platform and incentives upon biochemically validated cessation for a maximum duration of 6 months to promote cessation of smoking and alcohol use before and during pregnancy. To inform development of the SAFER pregnancy intervention, two focus groups with the target population were held beforehand, with results reported here alongside the final SAFER pregnancy study protocol. In a before-after study we aim to include 66 women who are pregnant or have a wish to become pregnant and who smoke and/or consume alcohol (i.e. target population of the SAFER pregnancy intervention). The primary outcome measure is cessation of smoking and/or alcohol use at 34-38 weeks of gestation, or after six group sessions if women did not become pregnant during the study period. Secondary outcomes focus on the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the SAFER pregnancy intervention.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242187, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216791

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a structured inquiry during pregnancy of medical factors and social factors associated with low socioeconomic status, and subsequent patient-centred maternity care could increase maternal empowerment. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: This study was conducted among pregnant women in selected urban areas in the Netherlands. This study was part of the nationwide Healthy Pregnancy 4 All-2 programme. POPULATION: Pregnant women listed at one of the sixteen participating maternity care organisations between July 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2016. METHODS: All practices were instructed to provide a systematic risk assessment during pregnancy. Practices were randomly allocated to continue usual care (seven practices), or to provide a patient-centred, risk-guided approach to addressing any risks (nine practices) identified via the risk assessment during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low postpartum maternal empowerment score. RESULTS: We recruited 1579 participants; 879 participants in the intervention arm, and 700 participants in the control arm. The prevalence of one or more risk factors during pregnancy was similar between the two arms: 40% and 39%, respectively. In our intention-to-treat analysis, the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in the odds of having a low empowerment score [i.e. the primary outcome; adjusted OR 0.69 ((95% CI 0.47; 0.99), P 0.046)]. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of additional risk assessment addressing both medical and social factors and subsequent tailored preventive strategies into maternity care reduced the incidence of low maternal empowerment during the postpartum period. Introducing this approach in routine maternity care may help reduce early adversity during the postpartum period.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Conducta Materna , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Madres/educación , Madres/psicología , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/educación , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Educación Prenatal/métodos , Medición de Riesgo
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100560, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033797

RESUMEN

Background: Almost all of the evidence on the benefits of smoke-free legislation on child health comes from evaluations in high-income countries. We investigated the effects of Thailand's 2010 comprehensive smoke-free legislation on neonatal and infant mortality. Methods: To overcome some of the methodological issues inherent to traditional quasi-experimental methods, we applied the novel synthetic control approach. Using 2001-2017 country-level panel data from the World Bank and Penn World datasets, we estimated the effects of smoke-free legislation as the difference between the outcome trends in Thailand versus those in a synthetic control country. The synthetic control country was composed of 'control' middle-income countries without comprehensive smoke-free legislation to recreate trends in Thailand in the 2001-2009 pre-legislation outcomes and covariates. We compared the legislation effects to 'placebo effects' obtained for each control country by fictitiously assuming that comprehensive smoke-free legislation was introduced there in 2010, similar to Thailand. Findings: Neonatal and infant mortality decreased by 2.9% and 2.8%/year respectively following smoke-free legislation, with an estimated 7463 infant deaths (including 4623 neonatal deaths) having been averted over eight years. The results were robust to different specifications of the control countries. Comparison with placebo effects indicated that the findings were unlikely to be attributable to factors other than the smoke-free legislation. Interpretation: Expanding comprehensive smoke-free policies to middle-income countries can support national efforts to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for reducing preventable early-life deaths. Funding: Netherlands Lung Foundation, HDRUK, Asthma UK center for Applied Research and NIHR Global Respiratory Health Unit (RESPIRE).

17.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(11): e604-e611, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child mortality globally, with many survivors experiencing long-term adverse consequences. Preliminary evidence suggests that numbers of preterm births greatly reduced following implementation of policy measures aimed at mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to study the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the Netherlands in a stepwise fashion on March 9, March 15, and March 23, 2020, on the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: We used a national quasi-experimental difference-in-regression-discontinuity approach. We used data from the neonatal dried blood spot screening programme (2010-20) cross-validated against national perinatal registry data. Stratified analyses were done according to gestational age subgroups, and sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of the findings. We explored potential effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic status, sex, and small-for-gestational-age status. FINDINGS: Data on 1 599 547 singleton neonates were available, including 56 720 births that occurred after implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures on March 9, 2020. Consistent reductions in the incidence of preterm birth were seen across various time windows surrounding March 9 (±â€ˆ2 months [n=531 823] odds ratio [OR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91, p=0·0026; ±â€ˆ3 months [n=796 531] OR 0·85, 0·73-0·98, p=0·028; ±â€ˆ4 months [n=1 066 872] OR 0·84, 0·73-0·97, p=0·023). Decreases in incidence observed following the March 15 measures were of smaller magnitude, but not statistically significant. No changes were observed after March 23. Reductions in the incidence of preterm births after March 9 were consistent across gestational age strata and robust in sensitivity analyses. They appeared confined to neighbourhoods of high socioeconomic status, but effect modification was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this national quasi-experimental study, initial implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the incidence of preterm births in the following months, in agreement with preliminary observations elsewhere. Integration of comparable data from across the globe is needed to further substantiate these findings and start exploring underlying mechanisms. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Recién Nacido , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Embarazo
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038234, 2020 10 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077564

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) has considerable adverse respiratory health impact among children. Smoke-free policies covering enclosed public places are known to reduce child TSE and benefit child health. An increasing number of jurisdictions are now expanding smoke-free policies to also cover outdoor areas and/or (semi)private spaces (indoor and/or outdoor). We aim to systematically review the evidence on the impact of these 'novel smoke-free policies' on children's TSE and respiratory health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 13 electronic databases will be searched by two independent reviewers for eligible studies. We will consult experts from the field and hand-search references and citations to identify additional published and unpublished studies. Study designs recommended by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group are eligible, without restrictions on the observational period, publication date or language. Our primary outcomes are: self-reported or parental-reported TSE in places covered by the policy; unplanned hospital attendance for wheezing/asthma and unplanned hospital attendance for respiratory infections. We will assess risk of bias of individual studies following the EPOC or Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool, as appropriate. We will conduct separate random effects meta-analyses for smoke-free policies covering (1) indoor private places, (2) indoor semiprivate places, (3) outdoor (semi)private places and (4) outdoor public places. We will assess whether the policies were associated with changes in TSE in other locations (eg, displacement). Subgroup analyses will be conducted based on country income classification (ie, high, middle or low income) and by socioeconomic status. Sensitivity analyses will be undertaken via broadening our study design eligibility criteria (ie, including non-EPOC designs) or via excluding studies with a high risk of bias. This review will inform policymakers regarding the implementation of extended smoke-free policies to safeguard children's health. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required. Findings will be disseminated to academics and the general public. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020190563.


Asunto(s)
Política para Fumadores , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Niño , Salud del Niño , Familia , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Lugar de Trabajo
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e037799, 2020 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking is the primary preventable risk factor for disease and premature mortality. It is highly addictive and cessation attempts are often unsuccessful. Incentive-based programmes may be an effective method to reach sustained abstinence. Individualisation of incentives based on personal characteristics yields potential to further increase the effectiveness of incentive-based programmes. METHOD: A randomised controlled trial among healthcare workers recruited through their employer and signed up for a group-based smoking cessation programme. The intervention under study is the provision of personalised incentives on validated smoking cessation at several time points after the smoking cessation programme. A total of 220 participants are required. Participants are randomised 1:1 into intervention (personalised incentives) or control (no incentives). All participants join the group-based programme. Incentives are provided on validated abstinence directly after the smoking cessation programme and after 3, 6 and 12 months.Incentives are provided according to four schemes:(1) Standard: total reward size €350, pay-out scheme: €50 (t=0), €50 (t=3 months), €50 (t=6 months) and €200 (t=12 months), (2) descending: total reward size €300, pay-out scheme: €150, €100, €50 and €0, (3) ascending: total reward size: €400, pay-out scheme: €0, €0, €50 and €350 and (4) deposit: total reward size €450, pay-out scheme: €50, €50, €150, €200; participants pay a €100 deposit, returned conditional on abstinence after 6 months.Advice on which incentive scheme suits participants best is based on willingness to provide a deposit, readiness to quit, nicotine dependency and long-term or short-term reward preference. Participants are free to deviate from this advice. Abstinence is validated at each time point, with 15 months of total follow-up. The primary end point is validated abstinence at 12 months. Effectiveness will be determined by intention-to-treat analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Erasmus MC Medical Ethics Committee decided that according to the Dutch Human Research Law (WMO), the protocol required no formal ethical approval. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and communicated to the participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Netherlands Trial Register NL7711.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Atención a la Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Países Bajos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...