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1.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193355

RESUMEN

Safety assessments of new drug candidates are an important part of the drug development and approval process. Often, possible sex-associated susceptibilities are not adequately addressed, and better assessment tools are needed. We hypothesized that hepatic transcript profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) can be used to predict sex-associated differences in drug metabolism, and possible adverse events. Comprehensive hepatic transcript profiles were generated for F344 rats of both sexes at nine ages, from 2 weeks (pre-weaning) to 104 weeks (elderly). Large differences in the transcript profiles of 29 DMETs were found between adult males and females (8-52 weeks). Using the PharmaPendium database, 41 drugs were found to be metabolized by one or two cytochrome P450 (Cyp) enzymes encoded by sexually dimorphic mRNAs, and thus were candidates for evaluation of possible sexually dimorphic metabolism and/or toxicities. Suspension cultures of primary hepatocytes from three male and three female adult rats (10-13 weeks old) were used to evaluate the metabolism of 11 drugs predicted to have sexually dimorphic metabolism. The pharmacokinetics of the drug or its metabolite was analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring. Of those drugs with adequate metabolism, the predicted significant sex-different metabolism was found for six of seven drugs, with half-lives 37%- 400% longer in female hepatocytes than in male hepatocytes. Thus, in this rat model, transcript profiles may allow identification of potential sex-related differences in drug metabolism. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The present study showed that sex-different expression of genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, specifically cytochrome P450s, could be used to predict sex-different drug metabolism, and, thus, provide a new tool for protecting susceptible subpopulations from possible adverse drug events.

2.
Arch Toxicol ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107589

RESUMEN

Addiction is a complex behavioral phenomenon in which naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals modulate the response of the reward system through their binding to a variety of neuroreceptors, resulting in compulsive substance-seeking and use despite harmful consequences to the individual. Among these, the opioid receptor (OR) family and more specifically, the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) subtype plays a critical role in the addiction to powerful prescription and illicit drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, cocaine, and methamphetamine (Contet et al. in Curr Opin Neurobiol 14(3):370-378, 2004). Conversely, agonists binding to kappa (KOR) and antagonists binding to delta opioid receptors (DOR) have been reported to induce negative reinforcing effects. As more than 700 new psychoactive substances were illegally sold between 2009 and 2016 (DEA-DCT-DIR-032-18), most of them lacking basic toxicological and pharmacological profiles, molecular modeling approaches that could quickly and reliably fill the gaps in our knowledge would be highly desirable tools for determining the effects of these synthetics. Here, we report accurate 3D-spectrometric data-activity relationship classification models for large and diverse datasets of MOR, KOR and DOR binders with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the "blind" prediction sets exceeding 0.88. Structural features associated with (selective) binding to MOR, KOR and/or DOR were identified. These models could assist regulatory agencies in evaluating the health risks associated with the use of unprofiled substances as well as to help the pharmaceutical industry in its search for new drugs to combat addiction.

3.
Metabolites ; 9(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703392

RESUMEN

There is a lack of experimental reference materials and standards for metabolomics measurements, such as urine, plasma, and other human fluid samples. Reasons include difficulties with supply, distribution, and dissemination of information about the materials. Additionally, there is a long lead time because reference materials need their compositions to be fully characterized with uncertainty, a labor-intensive process for material containing thousands of relevant compounds. Furthermore, data analysis can be hampered by different methods using different software by different vendors. In this work, we propose an alternative implementation of reference materials. Instead of characterizing biological materials based on their composition, we propose using untargeted metabolomic data such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS) profiles. The profiles are then distributed with the material accompanying the certificate, so that researchers can compare their own metabolomic measurements with the reference profiles. To demonstrate this approach, we conducted an interlaboratory study (ILS) in which seven National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urine Standard Reference Material®s (SRM®s) were distributed to participants, who then returned the metabolomic data to us. We then implemented chemometric methods to analyze the data together to estimate the uncertainties in the current measurement techniques. The participants identified similar patterns in the profiles that distinguished the seven samples. Even when the number of spectral features is substantially different between platforms, a collective analysis still shows significant overlap that allows reliable comparison between participants. Our results show that a urine suite such as that used in this ILS could be employed for testing and harmonization among different platforms. A limited quantity of test materials will be made available for researchers who are willing to repeat the protocols presented here and contribute their data.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223025, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560732

RESUMEN

Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to CDI. To this end, wild-type (WT) and MR1-/- mice were treated with antibiotics and then infected with Cd spores. Surprisingly, MR1-/- mice exhibited resistance to Cd colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of feces revealed inherent differences in microbial composition. This colonization resistance was transferred from MR1-/- to WT mice via fecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting that MR1-dependent factors influence the microbiota, leading to CDI susceptibility.

5.
J Proteome Res ; 18(10): 3661-3670, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442052

RESUMEN

Variable processing and storage of whole blood and/or plasma are potential confounders in biomarker development and clinical assays. The goal of the study was to investigate how pre-analytical variables impact the human plasma proteome. Whole blood obtained from 16 apparently healthy individuals was collected in six EDTA tubes and processed randomly under six pre-analytical variable conditions including blood storage at 0 °C or RT for 6 h (B6h0C or B6hRT) before processing to plasma, plasma storage at 4 °C or RT for 24 h (P24h4C or P24hRT), low centrifugal force at 1300 × g, (Low×g), and immediate processing to plasma under 2500 × g (control) followed by plasma storage at -80 °C. An aptamer-based proteomic assay was performed to identify significantly changed proteins (fold change ≥1.2, P < 0.05, and false discovery rate < 0.05) relative to the control from a total of 1305 proteins assayed. Pre-analytical conditions Low×g and B6h0C resulted in the most plasma proteome changes with 200 and 148 proteins significantly changed, respectively. Only 36 proteins were changed under B6hRT. Conditions P24h4C and P24hRT yielded changes of 28 and 75 proteins, respectively. The complement system was activated in vitro under the conditions B6hRT, P24h4C, and P24hRT. The results suggest that particular pre-analytical variables should be controlled for clinical measurement of specific biomarkers.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3041, 2019 07 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292445

RESUMEN

Metabolomics is a widely used technology in academic research, yet its application to regulatory science has been limited. The most commonly cited barrier to its translation is lack of performance and reporting standards. The MEtabolomics standaRds Initiative in Toxicology (MERIT) project brings together international experts from multiple sectors to address this need. Here, we identify the most relevant applications for metabolomics in regulatory toxicology and develop best practice guidelines, performance and reporting standards for acquiring and analysing untargeted metabolomics and targeted metabolite data. We recommend that these guidelines are evaluated and implemented for several regulatory use cases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Metabolómica/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Toxicología/normas , Monitoreo del Ambiente/legislación & jurisprudencia , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Sustancias Peligrosas/análisis , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Humanos , Metabolómica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Toxicología/legislación & jurisprudencia
7.
Metabolites ; 9(7)2019 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336604

RESUMEN

Metabolomics is an effective approach to characterize the metabotype which can reflect the influence of genetics, physiological status, and environmental factors such as drug intakes, diet. Diet may change the chemopreventive efficacy of given agents due to the altered physiological status of the subject. Here, metabolomics response to a chemopreventive agent targretin or tamoxifen, in rats with methylnitrosourea-induced tumors on a standard diet (4% fat, CD) or a high fat diet (21% fat, HFD) was evaluated, and found that (1) the metabolome was substantially affected by diet and/or drug treatment; (2) multiple metabolites were identified as potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers related to targretin or tamoxifen regardless of diet and time; and (3) the primary bile acid pathway was significantly affected by targretin treatment in rats on both diets, and the lysolipid pathway was significantly affected by tamoxifen treatment in rats on the high fat diet.

8.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(20): 1643-1654, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need to develop in vitro models to test drugs and chemicals that induce toxicity in the male reproductive system. We have evaluated an in vitro mouse testis organ culture model capable of producing viable, fertilization-proven sperm as a possible toxicity test model. Although this in vitro model was limited to round spermatid differentiation, histopathology observations could still be performed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis (LC/MS)-based metabolomics was used to measure metabolome changes of chemically treated in vitro testis fragments. METHODS: On Postnatal Day 5, C57BL/6J mouse testes were divided into four fragments, which were placed onto a 1.5% agarose gel cube and cultured in α-MEM including 0.4% AlbuMAX I (Day 0). On Day 1 of culture, testis fragments were treated with 0 (control), 0.01, or 1 nM ethinylestradiol (EE). On Day 20 of culture, the testis fragments were collected for LC/MS and histology analysis. RESULTS: Several metabolites involved in glycogen metabolism and glycolysis pathways (uridine diphosphate-glucose, glucose phosphate, and pyruvate), in the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway (oxaloacetate and aspartate), and in the arginine and proline metabolism (arginine and spermine) were significantly altered in the 1 nM EE treated group compared to the control group. The metabolite changes were associated with an increase in percentage of seminiferous tubules with round spermatids as well as dose-dependent dead cells. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that EE treatment may cause testicular toxicity by affecting glycogen metabolism and energy pathways. To confirm these findings, further experiments will be necessary using other testicular toxicants.

9.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310547

RESUMEN

Lipids play important roles in cell signaling, energy storage, and as major structural components of cell membranes. To date, little work has been conducted to show the extent of tissue specificity of lipid compositions. Here, the recently acquired Lipidyzer platform was employed in this pilot study: (i) to assess the performance of the Lipidyzer platform, (ii) to explore lipid profiles in liver and cardiac tissue in mice, (iii) to examine sex-specific differences in lipids in the liver tissue, and (iv) to evaluate biological variances in lipidomes present in animals. In total, 787 lipid species from 13 lipid classes were measured in the liver and heart. Lipidomics data from the Lipidyzer platform were very reproducible with the coefficient of variations of the quality control (QC) samples, ∼10%. The total concentration of the cholesterol esters (CE) lipid class, and specifically CE(16:1) and CE(18:1) species, showed sex differences in the liver. Cardiac tissue had higher levels of phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid, which could be related to heart health status and function. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the Lipidyzer platform in identifying differences in lipid profile at the tissue level and between male and female mice in specific tissues.

10.
J Proteome Res ; 18(6): 2411-2421, 2019 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074987

RESUMEN

Discrepancies in blood sample collection and processing could have a significant impact on levels of metabolites, peptides, and protein biomarkers of inflammation in the blood; thus, sample quality control is critical for successful biomarker identification and validation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of several preanalytical processing conditions, including different storage times and temperatures for blood or plasma samples and different centrifugation forces on the levels of metabolites, peptides, and inflammation biomarkers in human plasma samples using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an anticoagulant. Temperature was found to be the major factor for metabolite variation, and both time and temperature were identified as major factors for peptide variation. For inflammation biomarkers, temperature played different roles depending on the sample type (blood or plasma). Low temperature affected inflammation biomarkers in blood, while room temperature impacted inflammation biomarkers in plasma.

11.
Metabolomics ; 15(1): 4, 2019 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830465

RESUMEN

We describe here the agreed upon first development steps and priority objectives of a community engagement effort to address current challenges in quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) in untargeted metabolomic studies. This has included (1) a QA and QC questionnaire responded to by the metabolomics community in 2015 which recommended education of the metabolomics community, development of appropriate standard reference materials and providing incentives for laboratories to apply QA and QC; (2) a 2-day 'Think Tank on Quality Assurance and Quality Control for Untargeted Metabolomic Studies' held at the National Cancer Institute's Shady Grove Campus and (3) establishment of the Metabolomics Quality Assurance and Quality Control Consortium (mQACC) to drive forward developments in a coordinated manner.

12.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(5): 270-280, 2019 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previously, we evaluated optimal organ culture conditions to produce elongated spermatids in an in vitro mouse testis culture system. However, differences in testicular function between the cultured testis fragments and animal testis have not been determined. METHODS: To examine how closely cultured testis fragments in vitro approximates what typically occurs during the first wave of spermatogenesis in vivo, C57BL/6J mouse testis fragments obtained on postnatal day (PND) 5 were cultured in AlbuMAX™ I/ α-Minimal Essential Medium for 15, 23, 30, 35, 42, and 49 days, and compared to mouse testes obtained at PND 5, 14, 20, 24, 28, 30, 35, and 40. At the specified days of culture or PND of mice, the following analyses were conducted: histology, flow cytometry for haploid cell detection, qPCR for spermatid markers, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for testosterone levels. RESULTS: Round spermatids were initially observed at 23 days, and their percentage of the total number of cells continued to increase with culture time, as did gene expression of the spermatid markers and haploid cell percentage in the cultured testis fragments. These results were similar in temporal sequence to those in animals. Testosterone levels in the testis fragments reached a maximum at Day 49. CONCLUSION: These findings show this in vitro mouse testis organ culture model may be a useful and convenient tool for mechanistic studies. However, because germ cell differentiation in all seminiferous tubules was not observed, improvements in the system/methods are needed to more closely replicate spermatogenesis as observed in animals.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos/métodos , Espermatogénesis/fisiología , Testículo/metabolismo , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Cultivo Primario de Células/métodos , Túbulos Seminíferos/metabolismo , Espermátides/citología , Espermatozoides/citología , Testículo/fisiología
13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(12): 831-840, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459210

RESUMEN

To determine the effects of diet, rats were placed on a standard diet (4% fat) or on a modified Western (high-fat diet, HFD) diet (21% fat) at 43 days of age (DOA) and administered methylnitrosourea (MNU) at 50 DOA. Rats were administered effective (tamoxifen, vorozole, and Targretin) or ineffective (metformin and Lipitor) chemopreventive agents either by daily gavage or in the diet beginning at 57 DOA and continuing until sacrifice (190 DOA). Latency period of the tumors was determined by palpation, and multiplicity and cancer weights per rat were determined at final sacrifice. Rats on the HFD versus standard diet had: (i) a 6% increase in final body weights; (ii) significant decreases in tumor latency; and (iii) significant increases in final tumor multiplicity and average tumor weight. Tamoxifen, vorozole, and Targretin were highly effective preventive agents, whereas Lipitor and metformin were ineffective in rats on either diet. Serum was collected at 78 DOA and at sacrifice (190 DOA), and metabolomics were determined to identify the metabolite changes due to diets and effective agents. Rats given the HFD had increased levels of saturated free fatty acids (including myristate) and decreased levels of 2-aminooctanoate. Furthermore, rats on the HFD diet had increased levels of 2-aminobutyrate and decreases in glycine markers previously identified as indicators of prediabetes. Targretin increased long-chain glycophospholipids (e.g., oleyl-linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine) and decreased primary bile acids (e.g., taurocholate). Tamoxifen increased palmitoyl-linoleoyl-glycophosphocholine and decreased stearoyl-arachidonyl glycophosphocholine. Finally, increased levels of methylated nucleotides (5-methylcytidine) and decreased levels of urea cycle metabolites (N-acetylcitrulline) were associated with the presence of mammary cancers.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Interacciones Alimento-Droga , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Femenino , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias Mamarias Experimentales/metabolismo , Metabolómica , Metilnitrosourea/administración & dosificación , Metilnitrosourea/toxicidad , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(5): 1202-1213, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197987

RESUMEN

Introduction: Currently, no effective therapies exist to reduce the high mortality associated with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI-D). Serum biomarkers may be useful in understanding the pathophysiological processes involved with AKI and the severity of injury, and point to novel therapeutic targets. Methods: Study day 1 serum samples from 100 patients and day 8 samples from 107 patients enrolled in the Veteran's Affairs/National Institutes of Health Acute Renal Failure Trial Network study were analyzed by the slow off-rate modified aptamers scan proteomic platform to profile 1305 proteins in each sample. Patients in each cohort were classified into tertiles based on baseline biomarker measurements. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between serum levels of each biomarker and mortality. Results: Changes in the serum levels of 54 proteins, 33 of which increased and 21 of which decreased, were detected when comparing samples of patients who died in the first 8 days versus patients who survived >8 days. Among the 33 proteins that increased, higher serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), neutrophil collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-8), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, when stratified by tertiles, were associated with higher mortality. The association with mortality persisted for each of these proteins after adjusting for other potential risk factors, including age, sex, cardiovascular sequential organ failure assessment score, congestive heart failure, and presence of diabetes. Upper tertile levels of FGF23, tPA, and interleukin-6 on day 8 were associated with increased mortality; however, FGF23 barely lost significance after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: Our results underscore an emerging proteomics tool capable of identifying low-abundance serum proteins important not only in the pathogenesis of AKI-D, but which is also helpful in discriminating AKI-D patients with high mortality.

15.
Arch Toxicol ; 92(7): 2369-2384, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779177

RESUMEN

A grid-based, alignment-independent 3D-SDAR (three-dimensional spectral data-activity relationship) approach based on simulated 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts augmented with through-space interatomic distances was used to model the mutagenicity of 554 primary and 419 secondary aromatic amines. A robust modeling strategy supported by extensive validation including randomized training/hold-out test set pairs, validation sets, "blind" external test sets as well as experimental validation was applied to avoid over-parameterization and build Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2004) compliant models. Based on an experimental validation set of 23 chemicals tested in a two-strain Salmonella typhimurium Ames assay, 3D-SDAR was able to achieve performance comparable to 5-strain (Ames) predictions by Lhasa Limited's Derek and Sarah Nexus for the same set. Furthermore, mapping of the most frequently occurring bins on the primary and secondary aromatic amine structures allowed the identification of molecular features that were associated either positively or negatively with mutagenicity. Prominent structural features found to enhance the mutagenic potential included: nitrobenzene moieties, conjugated π-systems, nitrothiophene groups, and aromatic hydroxylamine moieties. 3D-SDAR was also able to capture "true" negative contributions that are particularly difficult to detect through alternative methods. These include sulphonamide, acetamide, and other functional groups, which not only lack contributions to the overall mutagenic potential, but are known to actively lower it, if present in the chemical structures of what otherwise would be potential mutagens.


Asunto(s)
Aminas/química , Aminas/toxicidad , Biología Computacional/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutágenos/química , Mutágenos/toxicidad , Algoritmos , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Proyectos de Investigación , Salmonella typhimurium/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Relación Estructura-Actividad
16.
Arch Toxicol ; 92(2): 845-858, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067470

RESUMEN

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure. Yet the mechanisms underlying adaptive tolerance toward APAP-induced liver injury are not fully understood. To better understand molecular mechanisms contributing to adaptive tolerance to APAP is an underpinning foundation for APAP-related precision medicine. In the current study, the mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles derived from next generation sequencing data for APAP-treated (5 and 10 mM) HepaRG cells and controls were analyzed systematically. Putative miRNAs targeting key dysregulated genes involved in APAP hepatotoxicity were selected using in silico prediction algorithms, un-biased gene ontology, and network analyses. Luciferase reporter assays, RNA electrophoresis mobility shift assays, and miRNA pull-down assays were performed to investigate the role of miRNAs affecting the expression of dysregulated genes. Levels of selected miRNAs were measured in serum samples obtained from children with APAP overdose (58.6-559.4 mg/kg) and from healthy controls. As results, 2758 differentially expressed genes and 47 miRNAs were identified. Four of these miRNAs (hsa-miR-224-5p, hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-449a, and hsa-miR-877-5p) suppressed drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) levels involved in APAP-induced liver injury by downregulating HNF1A, HNF4A and NR1I2 expression. Exogenous transfection of these miRNAs into HepaRG cells effectively rescued them from APAP toxicity, as indicated by decreased alanine aminotransferase levels. Importantly, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-877-5p levels were significantly elevated in serum samples obtained from children with APAP overdose compared to health controls. Collectively, these data indicate that hsa-miR-224-5p, hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-449a, and hsa-miR-877-5p suppress DME expression involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and they contribute to an adaptive response in hepatocytes.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/toxicidad , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/genética , Sobredosis de Droga/genética , Hepatocitos/efectos de los fármacos , MicroARNs/genética , Línea Celular , Niño , Femenino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , MicroARNs/sangre , Transfección
17.
Metabolomics ; 15(1): 1, 2018 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830427

RESUMEN

Up to now, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) in metabolomics are procedures that most labs did using their own in-house developed procedures and rules since there was no consensus or minimum requirement. Now there is a lot of enthusiasm for developing standardization of QA and QC procedures.

18.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 243(3): 248-255, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224368

RESUMEN

Cancer treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) can induce cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Currently, there are no specific biomarkers that can identify patients at risk during the initial doses of chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine plasma cytokines/chemokines and potential cardiovascular biomarkers for the prediction of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Plasma samples were collected before (T0), and after the first (T1) and the second (T2) cycles of DOX-based chemotherapy of 27 breast cancer patients, including five patients who presented with >10% decline of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), five patients with LVEF decline of 5-10%, and 17 patients who maintained normal LVEF at the end of chemotherapy (240 mg/m2 cumulative dose of DOX from four cycles of treatment). Multiplex immunoassays were used to screen plasma samples for 40 distinct chemokines, nine matrix metalloproteinases, 33 potential markers of cardiovascular diseases, and the fourth-generation cardiac troponin T assay. The results showed that the patients with abnormal decline of LVEF (>10%) had lower levels of CXCL6 and sICAM-1 and higher levels of CCL23 and CCL27 at T0; higher levels of CCL23 and lower levels of CXCL5, CCL26, CXCL6, GM-CSF, CXCL1, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8, CXCL11, CXCL9, CCL17, and CCL25 at T1; and higher levels of MIF and CCL23 at T2 than the patients who maintained normal LVEF. Patients with LVEF decline of 5-10% had lower plasma levels of CXCL1, CCL3, GDF-15, and haptoglobin at T0; lower levels of IL-16, FABP3, and myoglobin at T1; and lower levels of myoglobin and CCL23 at T2 as compared to the patients who maintained normal LVEF. This pilot study identified potential biomarkers that may help predict which patients are vulnerable to DOX-induced cardiotoxicity although further validation is needed in a larger cohort of patients. Impact statement Drug-induced cardiotoxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development and clinical practice. It is critical to detect potential cardiotoxicity early before onset of symptomatic cardiac dysfunction or heart failure. Currently there are no qualified clinical biomarkers for the prediction of cardiotoxicity caused by cancer treatment such as doxorubicin (DOX). By using multiplex immunoassays, we identified proteins with significantly changed plasma levels in a group of breast cancer patients who were treated with DOX-based chemotherapy and produced cardiotoxicity. These proteins were associated with immune response and were identified before DOX treatment or at early doses of treatment, thus they could be potential predictive biomarkers of cardiotoxicity although further validation is required to warrant their clinical values.


Asunto(s)
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Quimiocinas/sangre , Doxorrubicina/toxicidad , Volumen Sistólico/efectos de los fármacos , Función Ventricular Izquierda/efectos de los fármacos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Mama/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/inmunología , Cardiotoxicidad , Doxorrubicina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Metaloproteinasas de la Matriz/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto
19.
Metabolites ; 7(3)2017 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878168

RESUMEN

Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, accounts for approximately fifty percent of the cases of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States due to overdose, with over half of those unintentional. Current clinical approaches for assessing APAP overdose rely on identifying the precise time of overdose and quantitating acetaminophen alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in peripheral blood. Novel specific and sensitive biomarkers may provide additional information regarding patient status post overdose. Previous non-clinical metabolomics studies identified potential urinary biomarkers of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolites involved pathways of tricarboxylic acid cycle, ketone metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. In this study, biomarkers identified in the previous non-clinical study were evaluated in urine samples collected from healthy subjects ( N = 6, median age 14.08 years) and overdose patients ( N = 13, median age 13.91 years) as part of an IRB-approved multicenter study of APAP toxicity in children. The clinical results identified metabolites from pathways previously noted, and pathway analysis indicated analogous pathways were significantly altered in both the rats and humans after APAP overdose. The results suggest a metabolomics approach may enable the discovery of specific, translational biomarkers of drug-induced hepatotoxicity that may aid in the assessment of patients.

20.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 44(10): 1471-1481, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786013

RESUMEN

Dyes containing one or more azo linkages are widely applied in cosmetics, tattooing, food and drinks, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, plastics, leather, as well as paper industries. Previously we reported that bacteria living on human skin have the ability to reduce some azo dyes to aromatic amines, which raises potential safety concerns regarding human dermal exposure to azo dyes such as those in tattoo ink and cosmetic colorant formulations. To comprehensively investigate azo dye-induced toxicity by skin bacteria activation, it is very critical to understand the mechanism of metabolism of the azo dyes at the systems biology level. In this study, an LC/MS-based metabolomics approach was employed to globally investigate metabolism of azo dyes by Staphylococcus aureus as well as their effects on the metabolome of the bacterium. Growth of S. aureus in the presence of Sudan III or Orange II was not affected during the incubation period. Metabolomics results showed that Sudan III was metabolized to 4-(phenyldiazenyl) aniline (48%), 1-[(4-aminophenyl) diazenyl]-2-naphthol (4%) and eicosenoic acid Sudan III (0.9%). These findings indicated that the azo bond close to naphthalene group of Sudan III was preferentially cleaved compared with the other azo bond. The metabolite from Orange II was identified as 4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (35%). A much higher amount of Orange II (~90×) was detected in the cell pellets from the active viable cells compared with those from boiled cells incubated with the same concentration of Orange II. This finding suggests that Orange II was primarily transported into the S. aureus cells for metabolism, instead of the theory that the azo dye metabolism occurs extracellularly. In addition, the metabolomics results showed that Sudan III affected energy pathways of the S. aureus cells, while Orange II had less noticeable effects on the cells. In summary, this study provided novel information regarding azo dye metabolism by the skin bacterium, the effects of azo dyes on the bacterial cells and the important role on the toxicity and/or inactivation of these compounds due to microbial metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Azo/metabolismo , Compuestos Azo/farmacología , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Compuestos de Anilina/química , Compuestos de Anilina/metabolismo , Bencenosulfonatos/metabolismo , Bencenosulfonatos/farmacología , Color , Naftoles/química , Naftoles/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfanílicos/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
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