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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081651

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric gram-negative pathogens. The 2018 survey was the sixth year to focus on bloodstream infections, and included Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Eight thousand three hundred and fifty isolates, comprising Enterobacterales (7,512, 90.0%), P. aeruginosa (743, 8.9%) and Acinetobacter species (95, 1.1%), were tested using commercial automated methods. The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2019). Of the key resistances, resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 13.4%/13.4% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria), and 9.4%/9.4% of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Resistance rates to ciprofloxacin were 15.2%/15.2% for E. coli, 11.3%/11.3% for K. pneumoniae, 7.4%/7.4% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 3.6%/7.7% for P. aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.0%/6.0%, 4.3%/7.9%, 18.2%/22.0%, and 5.1%/11.1% for the same four species respectively. Thirty-one isolates from 27 patients were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene: 14 blaIMP-4 (11 patients), including one with blaIMP-4+blaOXA-23, four blaKPC (three patients), three blaOXA-48, three blaNDM, three blaGES, two blaOXA-181, and two blaOXA-23.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081652

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric gram-negative pathogens. The 2018 survey was the sixth year to focus on bloodstream infections, and included Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Eight thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven isolates, comprising Enterobacterales (7,983; 90.1%), P. aeruginosa (764; 8.6%) and Acinetobacter species (110; 1.2%), were tested using commercial automated methods. The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2020). Of the key resistances, resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone was found in 13.3%/13.3% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) of Escherichia coli and 8.4%/8.4% of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Resistance rates to ciprofloxacin were 16.0%/16.0% for E. coli, 10.2%/10.2% for K. pneumoniae complex, 5.9%/5.9% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 4.1%/9.3% for P. aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.2%/5.7%, 4.7%/8.5%, 14.8%/21.4%, and 6.9%/12.5% for the same four species/complex respectively. Twenty-nine isolates from 29 patients were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene: 15 blaIMP-4, five blaOXA-181, four blaOXA-23 (one with blaOXA-58 also), three blaNDM-4/5, one blaGES-5, and one blaIMP-1.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(6): 1639-1644, 2020 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155261

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is increasing knowledge of antimicrobial usage in children yet limited availability of nationally representative paediatric-specific data on antimicrobial resistance. OBJECTIVES: Paediatric data from this national surveillance programme are presented to explore differences between childhood and adult bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. METHODS: Using information collected from a prospective coordinated antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme, children ≤18 years and adults >18 years with a positive blood culture for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. or Gram-negative spp. presenting to one of 34 Australian hospitals during 2013-16 were evaluated. Consistent methodologies for key sepsis pathogens were employed and a comparative analysis between children and adults was conducted. RESULTS: There are stark contrasts between children and adults in this national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data set. Notable differences include lower rates of AMR, different clinical and molecular phenotypes and lower mortality amongst children. The burden of Gram-negative resistance is disproportionately experienced in children, with higher odds of death with an ESBL versus non-ESBL bacteraemia in comparison with adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data support that children are not just 'little adults' in the AMR era, and analyses by age group are important to detect differences in antibiotic susceptibility, clinical phenotype and genetic virulence factors. Antimicrobial surveillance incorporated into routine laboratory practice is vital to inform an array of wider applications including antimicrobial guidelines, stewardship and direction for prioritization of novel antimicrobial development.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426735

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2017 survey was the fifth year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand nine hundred and ten isolates, comprising Enterobacterales (7,100, 89.8%), P. aeruginosa (697, 8.8%) and Acinetobacter species (113, 1.4%), were tested using commercial automated methods. The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2018). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 11.3%/11.3% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria), 8.8%/8.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 5.7%/5.7% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.1%/18.0% for E. coli, 4.4%/11.2% for K. pneumoniae, 1.3%/3.5% for K. oxytoca, 3.0%/8.5% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 5.1%/9.8% for P. aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%/5.9%, 3.7%/7.3%, 9.6%/11.0%, 22.5%/27.6%, and 6.4%/13.2% for the same five species respectively. Twenty-seven isolates from 25 patients were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene: 12 blaIMP (11 patients), five blaOXA-181 (four patients), three blaOXA-23, two blaNDM, two blaKPC, two blaVIM, and one blaGES.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Australia/epidemiología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamiento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tipificación Molecular , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , beta-Lactamasas/genética , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo
6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1207, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038598

RESUMEN

This study investigated the frequency of antimicrobial non-susceptibility (defined as the frequency of isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations above the CLSI susceptible clinical breakpoint) among E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from healthy Australian finisher pigs. E. coli (n = 201) and Salmonella spp. (n = 69) were isolated from cecal contents of slaughter-age pigs, originating from 19 farms distributed throughout Australia during July-December 2015. Isolates underwent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility testing to 11 antimicrobials. The highest frequencies of non-susceptibility among respective isolates of E. coli and Salmonella spp. were to ampicillin (60.2 and 20.3%), tetracycline (68.2 and 26.1%), chloramphenicol (47.8 and 7.3%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (33.8 and 11.6%). Four E. coli isolates had MICs above the wild-type epidemiological cut-off value for ciprofloxacin, with two isolates from the same farm classified as clinically resistant (MICs of > 4 µg/ml), a noteworthy finding given that fluoroquinolones (FQs) are not legally available for use in Australian food-producing animals. Three of these four E. coli isolates belonged to the sequence type (ST) 10, which has been isolated from both humans and production animals, whilst one isolate belonged to a new ST (7573) and possessed qnrS1. This study shows that non-susceptibility to first line antimicrobials is common among E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from healthy slaughter age pigs in Australia. However, very low levels of non-susceptibility to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs), namely third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were observed. Nevertheless, the isolation of two ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates from Australian pigs demonstrates that even in the absence of local antimicrobial selection pressure, fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli clonal lineages may enter livestock production facilities despite strict biosecurity.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484175

RESUMEN

Background: Antibiotic misuse in food-producing animals is potentially associated with human acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to ≥ 3 drug classes) bacteria via the food chain. We aimed to determine if MDR Gram-negative (GNB) organisms are present in fresh Australian chicken and pork products. Methods: We sampled raw, chicken drumsticks (CD) and pork ribs (PR) from 30 local supermarkets/butchers across Melbourne on two occasions. Specimens were sub-cultured onto selective media for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) GNBs, with species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determined for all unique colonies. Isolates were assessed by PCR for SHV, TEM, CTX-M, AmpC and carbapenemase genes (encoding IMP, VIM, KPC, OXA-48, NDM). Results: From 120 specimens (60 CD, 60 PR), 112 (93%) grew a 3GCR-GNB (n = 164 isolates; 86 CD, 78 PR); common species were Acinetobacter baumannii (37%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%) and Serratia fonticola (12%), but only one E. coli isolate. Fifty-nine (36%) had evidence of 3GCR alone, 93/163 (57%) displayed 3GCR plus resistance to one additional antibiotic class, and 9/163 (6%) were 3GCR plus resistance to two additional classes. Of 158 DNA specimens, all were negative for ESBL/carbapenemase genes, except 23 (15%) which were positive for AmpC, with 22/23 considered to be inherently chromosomal, but the sole E. coli isolate contained a plasmid-mediated CMY-2 AmpC. Conclusions: We found low rates of MDR-GNBs in Australian chicken and pork meat, but potential 3GCR-GNBs are common (93% specimens). Testing programs that only assess for E. coli are likely to severely underestimate the diversity of 3GCR organisms in fresh meat.


Asunto(s)
Cefalosporinas/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Pollos , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Bacterias Gramnegativas/clasificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/genética , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Productos de la Carne/provisión & distribución , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plásmidos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Porcinos , beta-Lactamasas/genética
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626303

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2016 survey was the fourth year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand five hundred and sixty-five species, comprising Enterobacteriaceae (6,750, 89.2%), P. aeruginosa (723, 9.6%) and Acinetobacter species (92, 1.2%), were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix, BD) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2017). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 11.8%/11.8% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 7.7%/7.7% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 11.1%/11.1% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.8%/16.3% for E.coli, 3.8%/10.0% for K. pneumoniae, 0.8%/2.1% for K. oxytoca, 1.8%/5.6% for Enterobacter cloacae complex, and 5.5%/9.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.1%/6.5%, 3.6%/7.1%, 14.1%/14.9%, 19.9%/22.3%, and 5.2%/11.8% for the same 4 species respectively. Twenty-eight isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 14 blaIMP, five blaOXA-23, two blaOXA-48-like, two blaNDM, one blaKPC, one blaGES, three blaIMP+OXA-23.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626305

RESUMEN

From 1st January to 31st December 2015, 31 Australian institutions participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2015 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecium isolates. Of the 1,009 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 95.4% were caused by either E. faecalis (55.7%) or E. faecium (39.6%). Ampicillin resistance was detected in 0.2% of E. faecalis and in 86.0% of E. faecium. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was reported in 0.4% and 50.1% of E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. Overall 56.2% of E. faecium harboured vanA or vanB genes. For the vanA/B positive E. faecium isolates, 61.0% harboured vanB genes and 36.8% vanA genes. The percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates resistant to vancomycin in Australia is significantly higher than that seen in most European countries. E. faecium consisted of 49 multilocus sequence types (STs) of which 85.6% of isolates were classified into 11 major STs containing five or more isolates. All major STs belong to clonal cluster 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. Four of the five predominant STs (ST796, ST555, ST203, and ST80) were found across most regions of Australia. The second most predominant clone was non-typable by multilocus sequence typing and found only in NSW and the ACT. Overall 73.9% of isolates belonging to the five predominant STs harboured vanA or vanB genes. In conclusion, the AESOP 2015 has shown enterococcal bacteraemias in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin resistant vanA or vanB E. faecium which have limited treatment options.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632360

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2015 survey was the third year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand three hundred and thirty species, comprising Enterobacteriaceae (6,567, 89.6%), P. aeruginosa (660, 9.0%) and Acinetobacter species (103, 1.4%), were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2016). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 10.6%/10.6% of E. coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 5.9%/5.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.4%/8.4% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.6%/13.6% for E. coli, 3.9%/7.2% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, 3.4%/4.0% for Enterobacter cloacae, and 6.3%/6.5% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%/6.3%, 3.5%/6.4%, 8.9%/10.2%, 15.9%/20.6%, and 7.1%/13.9% for the same four species respectively. Twenty-two isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 14 blaIMP, four blaOXA-48, one blaKPC, one blaGES, one blaNDM+OXA-48, and one blaIMP+VIM.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632361

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2015 survey was the third year to focus on blood stream infections, and included Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. Seven thousand three hundred and thirty species, comprising Enterobacteriaceae (6,567, 89.6%), P. aeruginosa (660, 9.0%) and Acinetobacter species (103, 1.4%), were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2016). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 10.6%/10.6% of E. coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 5.9%/5.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.4%/8.4% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 12.6%/13.6% for E. coli, 3.9%/7.2% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, 3.4%/4.0% for Enterobacter cloacae, and 6.3%/6.5% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 2.8%/6.3%, 3.5%/6.4%, 8.9%/10.2%, 15.9%/20.6%, and 7.1%/13.9% for the same four species respectively. Twenty-two isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 14 blaIMP, four blaOXA-48, one blaKPC, one blaGES, one blaNDM+OXA-48, and one blaIMP+VIM.

12.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 162(11): 1904-1912, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27666313

RESUMEN

Unlike Escherichia coli strains belonging to phylogroup B2, the clinical significance of strains belonging to phylogroup F is not well understood. Here we report on a collection of phylogroup F strains recovered in Australia from faeces and extra-intestinal sites from humans, companion animals and native animals, as well as from poultry meat and water samples. The distribution of sequence types was clearly non-random with respect to isolate source. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence trait profiles also varied with the sequence type of the isolate. Phylogroup F strains tended to lack the virulence traits typically associated with phylogroup B2 strains responsible for extra-intestinal infection in humans. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and/or expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was common within ST648, ST354 and ST3711. Although ST354 and ST3711 are part of the same clonal complex, the ST3711 isolates were only recovered from native birds being cared for in a single wildlife rehabilitation centre, whereas the ST354 isolates were from faeces and extra-intestinal sites of dogs and humans, as well as from poultry meat. Although ST354 isolates from chicken meat in Western Australia were distinct from all other ST354 isolates, those from poultry meat samples collected in eastern Australia shared many similarities with other ST354 isolates from humans and companion animals.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Filogenia , Animales , Australia , Pollos/microbiología , Perros/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/clasificación , Escherichia coli/patogenicidad , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Virulencia
13.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 40(2): E229-35, 2016 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522134

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2014 survey was the second year to focus on blood stream infections. During 2014, 5,798 Enterobacteriaceae species isolates were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix, BD) and results were analysed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2015). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 9.0%/9.0% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 7.8%/7.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.0%/8.0% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.4%/11.6% for E. coli, 5.0%/7.7% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, and 3.5%/6.5% in Enterobacter cloacae. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.2%/6.8%, 4.8%/7.2%, 11.1%/11.5%, and 19.0%/24.7% for the same 4 species respectively. Fourteen isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 7 blaIMP-4, 3 blaKPC-2, 3 blaVIM-1, 1 blaNDM-4, and 1 blaOXA-181-lke.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Enterobacteriaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Australia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/historia , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Enterobacteriaceae/clasificación , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tipificación Molecular , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Vigilancia de la Población , beta-Lactamasas/genética , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo
14.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 40(2): E236-43, 2016 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522135

RESUMEN

From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Enterococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (AESOP). The aim of AESOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in Australia that were antimicrobial resistant, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the Enterococcus faecium isolates. Of the 952 unique episodes of bacteraemia investigated, 94.4% were caused by either E. faecalis (54.9%) or E. faecium (39.9%). Ampicillin resistance was detected in 0.6% of E. faecalis and in 89.4% of E. faecium. Vancomycin non-susceptibility was reported in 0.2% and 46.1% of E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. Overall 51.1% of E. faecium harboured vanA or vanB genes. For the vanA/B positive E. faecium isolates, 81.5% harboured vanB genes and 18.5% vanA genes. The percentage of E. faecium bacteraemia isolates resistant to vancomycin in Australia is significantly higher than that seen in most European countries. E. faecium consisted of 113 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes of which 68.9% of isolates were classified into 14 major pulsotypes containing 5 or more isolates. Multilocus sequence typing grouped the 14 major pulsotypes into clonal cluster 17, a major hospital-adapted polyclonal E. faecium cluster. The geographical distribution of the 4 predominant sequence types (ST203, ST796, ST555 and ST17) varied with only ST203 identified across most regions of Australia. Overall 74.7% of isolates belonging to the four predominant STs harboured vanA or vanB genes. In conclusion, the AESOP 2014 has shown enterococcal bacteraemias in Australia are frequently caused by polyclonal ampicillin-resistant high-level gentamicin resistant vanA or vanB E. faecium, which have limited treatment options.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Enterococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Enterococcus/clasificación , Enterococcus/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Fenotipo , Vigilancia de la Población , Adulto Joven
15.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 40(2): E244-54, 2016 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522136

RESUMEN

From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 23.4%, which was significantly higher than the 14.4% mortality associated with methicillin-sensitive SAB (P <0.0001). With the exception of the beta-lactams and erythromycin, antimicrobial resistance in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus remains rare. However in addition to the beta-lactams, approximately 50‰ of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and approximately 15% were resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and gentamicin. When applying the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints, teicoplanin resistance was detected in 2 S. aureus isolates. Resistance was not detected for vancomycin or linezolid. Resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials was largely attributable to 2 healthcare-associated MRSA clones; ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) has become the predominant healthcare associated clone in Australia. Sixty per cent of methicillin-resistant SAB were due to community-associated (CA) clones. Although polyclonal, almost 44% of community-associated clones were characterised as ST93-IV [2B] (Queensland CA-MRSA) and ST1-IV [2B] (WA1). CA-MRSA, in particular the ST45-V [5C2&5] (WA84) clone, has acquired multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and tetracycline. As CA-MRSA is well established in the Australian community it is important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas , Infección Hospitalaria , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación del Resultado de la Atención al Paciente , Vigilancia de la Población , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/historia , Staphylococcus aureus/clasificación , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Adulto Joven
16.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(2): 216-20, 2015 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699152

RESUMEN

An improved synthesis of biotinol-5'-AMP, an acyl-AMP mimic of the natural reaction intermediate of biotin protein ligase (BPL), is reported. This compound was shown to be a pan inhibitor of BPLs from a series of clinically important bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and kinetic analysis revealed it to be competitive against the substrate biotin. Biotinol-5'-AMP also exhibits antibacterial activity against a panel of clinical isolates of S. aureus and M. tuberculosis with MIC values of 1-8 and 0.5-2.5 µg/mL, respectively, while being devoid of cytotoxicity to human HepG2 cells.

17.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 38(1): E49-53, 2014 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409355

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2011 survey focussed on hospital-onset infections, examining isolates from all specimens presumed to be causing disease. In 2011, 1,827 Escherichia coli, 537 Klebsiella species and 269 Enterobacter species were tested using a commercial automated method (Vitek 2, BioMérieux) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints from January 2012. Of the key resistances, non-susceptibilty to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 9.6% of E. coli and 9.5%-12.1% of Klebsiella spp. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.6% for E. coli, 0.0%-8.3% for Klebsiella spp. and 0.0%-5.0% in Enterobacter spp. Resistance rates to gentamicin were 8.6%, 2.9%-10.9%, and 0.0%-15.6% for the same 3 groups respectively. Eight strains, 5 Klebsiella spp. and 3 Enterobacter spp. were shown to harbour a carbapenemase (IMP-4).


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Australia/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Bacterias Gramnegativas/clasificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/historia , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
18.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 38(1): E54-8, 2014 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409356

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2012 survey focussed on community-onset infections, examining isolates from urinary tract infections from patients presenting to outpatient clinics, emergency departments or to community practitioners. In 2012, 2,025 Escherichia coli, 538 Klebsiella species and 239 Enterobacter species were tested using a commercial automated method (Vitek 2, BioMérieux) and results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints from January 2012. Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 4.2% of E. coli and 4.6%-6.9% of Klebsiella spp. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 6.9% for E. coli, 0.0%-3.5% for Klebsiella spp. and 0.8%-1.9% in Enterobacter spp, and resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 1.7%, 0.7%-9.2%, and 8.8%-11.4% for the same 3 groups respectively. Only 1 Enterobacter cloacae was shown to harbour a carbapenemase (IMP-4).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/historia , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Bacterias Gramnegativas/clasificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 52(4): 1136-8, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452169

RESUMEN

Recent studies have shown that chromogenic cephalosporin tests are inferior to disc zone edge tests in detecting penicillinase in Staphylococcus aureus isolates, resulting in a change to CLSI and EUCAST guidelines in 2012. We sought to confirm these findings using Australian isolates and compare the performance of the CLSI and EUCAST methods, which use different disc strengths, penicillin at 10 units (P10) and 1 unit (P1), respectively. Using blaZ PCR as the reference standard, the sensitivities of the tests for detection of penicillinase production were as follows: Cefinase disc test, 24/38 isolates (63%); P10 disc zone edge test, 34/38 isolates (89%); P10 disc diameter test, 25/38 isolates (66%); P1 disc zone edge test, 38/38 isolates (100%); and P1 disc diameter test, 38/38 isolates (100%). We also found that the P10 disc zone edge test reading was interpreted differently by the clinical laboratory and the study investigators in 11% of instances. Our findings support those of previous studies showing that chromogenic cephalosporin-based ß-lactamase tests are inferior to disc methods in detecting S. aureus penicillinase. We also conclude that the EUCAST method using the P1 disc has the best performance, particularly because the P1 disc zone diameter reading closely correlated with penicillinase production and reading of the disc zone diameter is less subjective than reading of the zone edge.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Penicilinasa/análisis , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimología , Australia , Humanos , Fenotipo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación
20.
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep ; 38(4): E327-33, 2014 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631595

RESUMEN

The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2013 survey focussed for the first time on blood stream infections. Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight Enterobacteriaceae species were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek® 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix™, BD). The results were analysed using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2014). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 7.5%/7.5% (CLSI/EUCAST criteria respectively) of Escherichia coli; 6.3%/6.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 7.4%/7.4% of K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.3%/11.3% for E. coli, 4.6%/7.5% for K. pneumoniae, 0.6%/0.6% for K. oxytoca, and 3.6%/6.1% in Enterobacter cloacae. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.1%/6.2%, 4.2%/7.0%, 11.9% /12.6%, and 17.3% /22.2% for the same 4 species respectively. Fourteen isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 9 blaIMP, 3 blaKPC, and 2 blaNDM.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamiento farmacológico , Enterobacteriaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Informes Anuales como Asunto , Australia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/mortalidad , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Células Clonales , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/mortalidad , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Enterobacteriaceae/clasificación , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/mortalidad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Sepsis/mortalidad , Serotipificación , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , beta-Lactamasas/genética
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