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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666213

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment negatively affects some cancer survivors who have completed chemotherapy; however, factors underlying this cognitive impairment remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate (1) the relative importance of demographics, medical, and psychological characteristics associated with cognitive impairment and (2) the specific variables associated with cognitive impairment in adult cancer survivors who completed adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: We performed post hoc analyses of baseline data from early-stage cancer survivors with cognitive complaints who received adjuvant chemotherapy 0.5-5 years earlier and volunteered for a trial designed to improve cognition. The primary outcome of self-reported cognitive impairment was measured using a questionnaire; secondary outcome of objective cognitive impairment was measured using a computerized neuropsychological test battery. Hierarchical linear regression determined the relative importance of demographics, medical, and psychological characteristics in associations with both self-reported and objective cognitive impairment. RESULTS: The sample was 95% female and 89% breast cancer patients. The final model accounted for 33% of variation in self-reported cognitive impairment (n = 212, demographics 5%, medical 3%, and psychological 25%), with fatigue and stress as significant individual correlates (p values ≤ 0.0001). For the secondary analysis, the final model accounted for 19% of variation in objective cognitive impairment (n = 206, demographics 10%, medical 5%, and psychological 4%), with age, smoking history, and number of chemotherapy cycles as significant individual correlates. CONCLUSION: We found that psychological characteristics are more important than demographic and medical characteristics in self-reported cognitive impairment, whereas other characteristics are more important in objective cognitive impairment. This suggests clinicians should investigate possible psychological problems in cancer survivors who self-report cognitive impairment.

2.
Transl Behav Med ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence supports the use of guided imagery for smoking cessation; however, scalable delivery methods are needed to make it a viable approach. Telephone-based tobacco quitlines are a standard of care, but reach is limited. Adding guided imagery to quitline services might increase reach by offering an alternative approach. PURPOSE: To develop and test the feasibility and potential impact of a guided imagery-based tobacco cessation intervention delivered using a quitline model. METHODS: Participants for this randomized feasibility trial were recruited statewide through a quitline or community-based methods. Participants were randomized to guided imagery Intervention Condition (IC) or active behavioral Control Condition (CC). After withdrawals, there were 105 participants (IC = 56; CC = 49). The IC consisted of six sessions in which participants created guided imagery audio files. The CC used a standard six-session behavioral protocol. Feasibility measures included recruitment rate, retention, and adherence to treatment. We also assessed 6-month quit rates and consumer satisfaction. RESULTS: Both the IC and CC protocols were feasible to deliver. We finalized protocols and materials for participants, coaches and study staff, and delivered the protocols with fidelity. We developed successful recruitment methods, and experienced high retention (6 months = 81.9%) and adherence (all sessions = 66.7%). Long-term quit rates (IC = 27.9%; CC = 38.1%) compared favorably to those of quitlines, and program satisfaction was high, suggesting that the protocols are acceptable to smokers and may contribute to smoking abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: The guided imagery intervention is feasible and promising, suggesting that a fully powered RCT to test the efficacy of the intervention is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02968381.

3.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; 38(5): 635-641, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410506

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer patients presenting with advanced cancer face low survival rates and a high symptom burden. There have been mixed findings for the association between survival and various patient reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: We used prospective data from 111 lung cancer patients with advanced stage III/IV disease to investigate the association of survival with PROs (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core-30 and Lung Module). Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the individual association between several PRO measures and survival. RESULTS: Pain in chest and global quality of life (QoL) were found to have the strongest association with survival with a 20% increased hazard of death per 10% increase in pain in chest and 14% decrease in hazard of death per 10% increase in global QoL. CONCLUSION: Our results provide more evidence for the value of PRO data to inform clinical and patient decision-making.

4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 50, 2020 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122312

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal randomized controlled trials (RCTs) often aim to test and measure the effect of treatment between arms at a single time point. A two-sample χ2 test is a common statistical approach when outcome data are binary. However, only complete outcomes are used in the analysis. Missing responses are common in longitudinal RCTs and by only analyzing complete data, power may be reduced and estimates could be biased. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with a random intercept can be used to test and estimate the treatment effect, which may increase power and reduce bias. METHODS: We simulated longitudinal binary RCT data to compare the performance of a complete case χ2 test to a GLMM in terms of power, type I error, relative bias, and coverage under different missing data mechanisms (missing completely at random and missing at random). We considered how the baseline probability of the event, within subject correlation, and dropout rates under various missing mechanisms impacted each performance measure. RESULTS: When outcome data were missing completely at random, both χ2 and GLMM produced unbiased estimates; however, the GLMM returned an absolute power gain up to from 12.0% as compared to the χ2 test. When outcome data were missing at random, the GLMM yielded an absolute power gain up to 42.7% and estimates were unbiased or less biased compared to the χ2 test. CONCLUSIONS: Investigators wishing to test for a treatment effect between treatment arms in longitudinal RCTs with binary outcome data in the presence of missing data should use a GLMM to gain power and produce minimally unbiased estimates instead of a complete case χ2 test.

5.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(1): 65-73, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Labor and delivery under the supervision of a skilled birth attendant have been shown to promote positive maternal and neonatal outcomes; yet, more than a third of births in Kenya occur outside a health facility. We investigated the association between measures of women's empowerment and health facility-based delivery in Northeastern and Western Kenya. METHODS: Analysis of 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data was conducted. Logistic regression adjusting for demographic factors, contraceptive use, and comprehensive HIV knowledge was used to assess the influence of the validated African Women's Empowerment Index-East (AWEI-E) on the likelihood of women's most recent birth having occurred in a health facility versus at home. Additionally, we explored the mediating effect of contraceptive use on women's empowerment and health facility-based delivery. RESULTS: Compared to respondents with low or moderate empowerment scores, those with high empowerment scores were more likely to have given birth at a health facility [odds ratio (OR) = 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30, 2.51], although this effect was null in the adjusted model (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.58, 1.45). Respondents with a recent facility birth (n = 372/836) were more likely to have high household-level wealth (40.9% vs 8.6%, p < 0.001) and use a contraceptive method (44.9% vs 27.4%, p < 0.001) than those without facility-based delivery. Current contraceptive use mediated 26.8% of the effect of empowerment on the odds of facility-based delivery. CONCLUSION: Women's empowerment, and its comprising three domains as measured by the AWEI-E, may be insufficient to overcome barriers to facility-based delivery for women in North Eastern or Western Kenya. High women's empowerment is strongly associated with current contraceptive use, which may inform pregnancy planning and location of delivery. Alternatively, higher empowered women who delivered at a facility may have been offered contraceptives at the time of delivery. Future research targeting these regions should explore culturally acceptable approaches to broadening access to skilled supervision of labor.

6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(5): 613-618, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200353

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest global incidence of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer morbidity and mortality among women in Zambia. HIV increases the risk for cervical cancer and with a national Zambian adult HIV prevalence of 16%, it is important to investigate the impact of HIV on the progression of cervical cancer. We measured differences in cervical cancer progression between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Zambia. METHODS: This study included 577 stage I and II cervical cancer patients seen between January 2008 and December 2012 at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. The inclusion criteria for records during the study period included known HIV status and FIGO stage I and II cervical cancer at initial date of registration in the Cancer Diseases Hospital. Medical records were abstracted for clinical and epidemiological data. Cancer databases were linked to the national HIV database to assess HIV status among cervical cancer patients. Logistic regression examined the association between HIV and progression, which was defined as metastatic or residual tumor after 3 months of initial treatment. RESULTS: A total of 2451 cervical cancer cases were identified, and after exclusion criteria were performed the final analysis population totaled 537 patients with stage I and II cervical cancer with known HIV status (224 HIV-positive and 313 HIV-negative). HIV-positive women were, on average, 10 years younger than HIV-negative women who had a median age of 42, ranging between 25 and 72. A total of 416 (77.5%) patients received external beam radiation, and only 249 (46.4%) patients received the recommended treatment of chemotherapy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. Most patients were stage II (85.7%) and had squamous cell carcinoma (74.7%). HIV-positive patients were more likely to receive lower doses of external beam radiation than HIV-negative patients (47% vs 37%; P<0.05, respectively). The median total dose of external beam radiation for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients was 46 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. HIV positivity did not lead to tumor progression (25.4% in HIV-positive vs 23.9% in HIV-negative, OR 1.04, 95% CI [0.57, 1.92]). However, among a subset of HIV-positive patients, longer duration of infection was associated with lower odds of progression. CONCLUSION: There was no significant impact on non-metastatic cervical cancer progression by HIV status among patients in Lusaka, Zambia. The high prevalence of HIV among cervical cancer patients suggest that HIV-positive patients should be a primary target group for HPV vaccinations, screening, and early detection.

7.
Trials ; 21(1): 148, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033617

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are a design used to test interventions where individual randomization is not appropriate. The mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) is a popular choice for individually randomized trials with longitudinal continuous outcomes. This model's appeal is due to avoidance of model misspecification and its unbiasedness for data missing completely at random or at random. METHODS: We extended the MMRM to cluster randomized trials by adding a random intercept for the cluster and undertook a simulation experiment to investigate statistical properties when data are missing at random. We simulated cluster randomized trial data where the outcome was continuous and measured at baseline and three post-intervention time points. We varied the number of clusters, the cluster size, the intra-cluster correlation, missingness and the data-generation models. We demonstrate the MMRM-CRT with an example of a cluster randomized trial on cardiovascular disease prevention among diabetics. RESULTS: When simulating a treatment effect at the final time point we found that estimates were unbiased when data were complete and when data were missing at random. Variance components were also largely unbiased. When simulating under the null, we found that type I error was largely nominal, although for a few specific cases it was as high as 0.081. CONCLUSIONS: Although there have been assertions that this model is inappropriate when there are more than two repeated measures on subjects, we found evidence to the contrary. We conclude that the MMRM for CRTs is a good analytic choice for cluster randomized trials with a continuous outcome measured longitudinally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02804698.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 591-598, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915146

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity-related cancers disproportionately affect the Black community. We assessed the relationship between diet quality, physical activity, and their combined effect on obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: Data from postmenopausal (50-79 years of age) Black women enrolled in WHI clinical trials or observational studies were analyzed. Exposure variables included baseline physical activity [metabolic equivalent of tasks (MET)-hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015]. Outcomes included adjudicated obesity-related cancer incidence and mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between MVPA and HEI-2015 and obesity-related cancer risk and mortality. RESULTS: The analytical sample included 9,886 Black women, with a baseline mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.1 kg/m2 (SD = 6.8); mean HEI-2015 score of 63.2 (SD = 11.0, possible range 0 to 100); and mean MVPA of 5.0 (SD = 9.4) MET-hours/week. Over an average of 13 years of follow-up, 950 (9.6%) obesity-related cancer cases were observed, with 313 (32.9%) resulting in death. Physical activity [HR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.30], diet quality (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.08), and their combination (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29) were not associated with risk for any or site-specific obesity-related cancers. Similarly, these health behaviors had no association with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality, physical activity and their combined effect, as measured, were not associated with obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in WHI. IMPACT: Other social, behavioral, and biological factors may contribute to racial disparities observed in obesity-related cancer rates.

9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(3): 452-459, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694464

RESUMEN

Background: High rates of smoking are documented among some American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, with potential variability by region and urban/rural settings. Quitlines are a cost-effective strategy for providing evidence-based cessation treatment, but little is known about the effectiveness of quitline services for the AI/AN population. Objectives: This study compared demographic characteristics, tobacco use, and cessation and program utilization behaviors between AI/AN (n = 297) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW; n = 13,497) quitline callers. The study also identified predictors of 30-day cessation at 7-month follow-up among AI/AN callers and determined if predictors were different between AI/AN and NHW callers. Methods: Data from callers to the Arizona Smokers' Helpline between January 2011 and June 2016 were analyzed. Results: At enrollment, AI/AN callers were less likely to use tobacco daily and were less dependent on nicotine compared to NHW callers. Both groups reported similar rates of 30-day cessation at 7-month follow-up (37.3% and 39.7% for AI/AN and NHW callers, respectively). For AI/AN callers, 30-day cessation was significantly associated with tobacco cessation medication use (OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.02-4.93), number of coaching sessions (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.26), and other smokers in the home (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). The effect of other smokers in the home was significantly different between AI/AN and NHW callers (p = .007). Conclusions: Different individual characteristics and predictors of cessation among AI/AN callers compared to NHW callers were documented. Findings may be used to inform the development of culturally-tailored strategies and protocols for AI/AN quitline callers.

10.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 16: 100437, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508532

RESUMEN

Background: Guided imagery (GI) is an evidence-based method that uses the imagination to practice and achieve a desired outcome. Little research has focused on how GI can be delivered to smokers using remote or virtual methods, such as a telephone-based intervention. Telephone-based services for tobacco cessation (quitlines) have emerged as standard of care for tobacco cessation. However, quitlines reach only a small fraction of smokers, and men and racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use quitlines than majority women. GI has the potential to attract under-served minority groups as well as smokers who are looking for an alternative approach to cessation. The present study is designed to test the feasibility and potential impact of a GI tobacco cessation intervention delivered by telephone. This study compares the GI intervention with a standard behavioral (SB) intervention. Methods: Participants (N = 100) are randomized to either the GI (intervention) or SB (control) condition. Each condition features a 6-week intervention in which participants work with coaches to quit tobacco. Primary outcomes are feasibility related (recruitment, retention, adherence), and secondary outcomes include cessation at 6 months post-intervention (7-day and 30-day abstinence). Discussion: A GI intervention delivered via quitline would allow for scalability and dissemination, potentially reaching a more representative group of smokers. Results from this study will determine the feasibility of delivering the GI intervention, and describe the reach of the intervention to under-represented tobacco users. If successful, our study results will guide the design and conduct of a future efficacy trial.

11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 161, 2019 07 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345166

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In many clinical trials continuous outcomes are dichotomized to compare proportions of patients who respond. A common and recommended approach to handling missing data in responder analysis is to impute as non-responders, despite known biases. Multiple imputation is another natural choice but when a continuous outcome is ultimately dichotomized, the specifications of the imputation model come into question. Practitioners can either impute the missing outcome before dichotomizing or dichotomize then impute. In this study we compared multiple imputation of the continuous and dichotomous forms of the outcome, and imputing responder status as non-response in responder analysis. METHODS: We simulated four response profiles representing a two-arm randomized controlled trial with a continuous outcome at four time points. We omitted data using six missing at random mechanisms, and imputed missing observations three ways: 1) replacing as non-responder; 2) multiply imputing before dichotomizing; and 3) multiply imputing the dichotomized response. Imputation models included the continuous response at all timepoints, and additional auxiliary variables for some scenarios. We assessed bias, power, coverage of the 95% confidence interval, and type 1 error. Finally, we applied these methods to a longitudinal trial for patients with major depressive disorder. RESULTS: Both forms of multiple imputation performed better than non-response imputation in terms of bias and type 1 error. When approximately 30% of responses were missing, bias was less than 7.3% for multiple imputation scenarios but when 50% of responses were missing, imputing before dichotomizing generally had lower bias compared to dichotomizing before imputing. Non-response imputation resulted in biased estimates, both underestimates and overestimates. In the example trial data, non-response imputation estimated a smaller difference in proportions than multiply imputed approaches. CONCLUSIONS: With moderate amounts of missing data, multiply imputing the continuous outcome variable prior to dichotomizing performed similar to multiply imputing the binary responder status. With higher rates of missingness, multiply imputing the continuous variable was less biased and had well-controlled coverage probabilities of the 95% confidence interval compared to imputing the dichotomous response. In general, multiple imputation using the longitudinally measured continuous outcome in the imputation model performed better than imputing missing observations as non-responders.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 875, 2019 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is among the leading causes of disability in persons 65 years and older worldwide and is known to have an impact on quality of life as well as social, cognitive, and physical functioning. Our objective was to assess statewide prevalence of self-reported hearing ability in Arizona adults and its association with general health, cognitive decline, diabetes and poor psychosocial health. METHODS: A self-report question on hearing was added to the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone-based survey among community-dwelling adults aged > 18 years (n = 6462). Logistic and linear regression were used to estimate the associations between self-reported hearing loss and health outcomes. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 4 adults reported trouble hearing (23.2, 95% confidence interval: 21.8, 24.5%), with responses ranging from "a little trouble hearing" to being "deaf." Adults reporting any trouble hearing were at nearly four times higher odds of reporting increased confusion and memory loss (OR 3.92, 95% CI: 2.94, 5.24) and decreased odds of reporting good general health (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.64) as compared to participants reporting no hearing difficulty. Those reporting any trouble hearing also reported an average 2.5 more days of poor psychosocial health per month (ß = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.64, 3.41). After adjusting for sex, age, questionnaire language, race/ethnicity, and income category the association between diabetes and hearing loss was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported hearing difficulty was associated with report of increased confusion and memory loss and poorer general and psychosocial health among Arizona adults. These findings support the feasibility and utility of assessing self-reported hearing ability on the BRFSS. Results highlight the need for greater inclusion of the full range of hearing disability in the planning process for public health surveillance, programs, and services at state and local levels.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Pérdida Auditiva/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Arizona/epidemiología , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Cognición , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
13.
Health Educ Behav ; 46(5): 763-772, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216875

RESUMEN

Background. Hispanic males have the highest rates of overweight and obesity compared with men of all other racial/ethnic groups. While weight loss can significantly reduce obesity-related health risks, there is limited research examining effective gender- and culturally tailored behavioral weight loss programs for Hispanic men. Objective. To assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week gender- and culturally sensitive weight loss intervention (GCSWLI) as compared with a waist-list control (WLC) in sedentary, Hispanic males with overweight/obesity. Method. Fifty Hispanic males (age: 43 years [SD = 11]; BMI: 34 ± 5 kg/m2; 58% Spanish monolingual) were randomized to one of two groups: GCSWLI (n = 25) or WLC (n = 25). GCSWLI participants attended weekly in-person individual sessions with a bilingual, bicultural Hispanic male lifestyle coach, and were prescribed a daily reduced calorie goal and 225 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week. The WLC were asked to maintain their usual diet and physical activity habits for 12 weeks. GCSWLI participants continued with 12 additional weeks of follow-up including biweekly phone calls with lifestyle coaches. Results. At Week 12, the mean weight loss in the GCSWLI was -6.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI; -8.1, -4.4]) compared with -0.8 kg (95% CI [-2.5, 0.9]) for the WLC (difference = -5.5 kg, 95% CI [-8.0, -2.9], p < .01). At Week 24, weight loss in the GCSWLI was maintained. Conclusions. The GCSWLI appears to be a feasible strategy to engage Hispanic males in short-term weight loss. Our pilot study indicates preliminary evidence of efficacy, though confirmation of these findings is needed in a larger study.

14.
Patient Relat Outcome Meas ; 10: 129-140, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114411

RESUMEN

Patient-reported outcomes, such as quality of life, functioning, and symptoms, are used widely in therapeutic and behavioral trials and are increasingly used in drug development to represent the patient voice. Missing patient reported data is common and can undermine the validity of results reporting by reducing power, biasing estimates, and ultimately reducing confidence in the results. In this paper, we review statistically principled approaches for handling missing patient-reported outcome data and introduce the idea of estimands in the context of behavioral trials. Specifically, we outline a plan that considers missing data at each stage of research: design, data collection, analysis, and reporting. The design stage includes processes to prevent missing data, define the estimand, and specify primary and sensitivity analyses. The analytic strategy considering missing data depends on the estimand. Reviewed approaches include maximum likelihood-based models, multiple imputation, generalized estimating equations, and responder analysis. We outline sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the primary analysis results when data are missing. We also describe ad-hoc methods, including approaches to avoid. Last, we demonstrate methods using data from a behavioral intervention, where the primary outcome was self-reported cognition.

15.
Health Educ Res ; 34(3): 345-355, 2019 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932151

RESUMEN

Home smoking bans may be an effective way to promote tobacco cessation among treatment seeking smokers. Few studies have examined this relationship in a quitline setting. Data were obtained from 14,296 adults who were enrolled in a state quitline between January 2011 and July 2016. This study investigated whether cessation rates varied by changes in home smoking ban implementation between enrollment and 7-month follow-up. The impact of changes in home smoking bans on cessation at follow-up was significantly modified by having other smokers living in the home at follow-up (P < 0.0001). Among callers who did not live with other smokers in the home, the highest odds ratio of 30-day cessation was for callers who reported bans at follow-up only (OR = 10.50, 95%CI: 8.00, 13.70), followed by callers who reported bans at both enrollment and follow-up (OR = 8.02, 95%CI: 6.27, 10.30) and callers who reported bans at enrollment only (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.47, 2.89) compared with callers with no home smoking bans. When callers reported that they lived with other smokers in the home, the effect of home smoking bans on cessation was much smaller. Quitlines should support the implementation of home smoking bans as a part of callers' goal setting activities to achieve tobacco cessation.


Asunto(s)
Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Política para Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
Prev Med Rep ; 14: 100863, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011517

RESUMEN

US Public Health Service guidelines recommend that healthcare providers assess patients for tobacco use and refer tobacco users to cessation services (e.g., quitlines). However, once referred, little is known on how program outcomes for referred tobacco users vary across healthcare settings. To examine differences in program enrollment, dropout at follow-up, utilization (number of coaching sessions and nicotine replacement therapy use), and quit outcomes among tobacco users referred across settings to a state quitline. In a retrospective analysis of clients referred to the quitline (January 2011-June 2016), referrals were categorized into six settings: general medical practice (reference group), acute care hospitals, behavioral health, federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), county health departments, and specialty clinics. Outcome variables included enrollment, dropout, program utilization, and 30-day tobacco abstinence at 7-month follow-up. Compared to medical practices, clients referred from behavioral health were less likely to enroll in services (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.76, 0.87), less likely to report using NRT in-program (OR = 0.51, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.62), and along with clients referred from FQHCs (OR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.64, 0.94) were less likely to be quit at follow-up (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.59, 0.92). Clients referred from acute care hospitals were less likely to enroll in services (OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.56, 0.64) and were more likely to drop-out of cessation services (OR = 1.12; 95%CI: 1.00-1.26). Findings reflect the need for better tailoring of messages for tobacco assessment within specific healthcare settings while bolstering behavioral counseling that quitlines provide to increase enrollment, engagement, and retention in tobacco cessation services.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 399, 2019 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latinos are currently the largest and fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the lowest rates nationally of regular sources of primary care. The changing demographics of Latino populations have significant implications for the future health of the nation, particularly with respect to chronic disease. Community-based agencies and clinics alike have a long history of engaging community health workers (CHWs) to provide a broad range of tangible and emotional support strategies for Latinos with chronic diseases. In this paper, we present the protocol for a community intervention designed to evaluate the impact of CHWs in a Community-Clinical Linkage model to address chronic disease through innovative utilization of electronic health records (EHRs) and application of mixed methodologies. Linking Individual Needs to Community and Clinical Services (LINKS) is a 3-year, prospective matched observational study designed to examine the feasibility and impact of CHW-led Community-Clinical Linkages in reducing chronic disease risk and promoting emotional well-being among Latinos living in three U.S.-Mexico border communities. METHODS: The primary aim of LINKS is to create Community-Clinical Linkages between three community health centers and their respective county health departments in southern Arizona. Our primary analysis is to examine the impact of the intervention 6 to 12-months post program entry. We will assess chronic disease risk factors documented in the EHRs of participants versus matched non-participants. By using a prospective matched observational study design with EHRs, we have access to numerous potential comparators to evaluate the intervention effects. Secondary analyses include modeling within-group changes of extended research-collected measures. This approach enhances the overall evaluation with rich data on physical and emotional well-being and health behaviors of study participants that EHR systems do not collect in routine clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The LINKS intervention has practical implications for the development of Community-Clinical Linkage models. The collaborative and participatory approach in LINKS illustrates an innovative evaluation framework utilizing EHRs and mixed methods research-generated data collection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was retrospectively registered, approved, and made available on Clinicaltrials.gov by NCT03787485 as of December 20, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Arizona , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Estudios Prospectivos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
18.
SSM Popul Health ; 7: 100357, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886886

RESUMEN

Background: Social gradients in health have been observed for many health conditions and are suggested to operate through the effects of status anxiety. However, the gradient between education and Alzheimer's disease is presumed to operate through cognitive stimulation. We examined the possible role of status anxiety through testing for state-level income inequality and social gradients in markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) for Alzheimer's disease risk. Methods: Using data from the cross-sectional 2015 and 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we tested for the association between U.S. state-level income inequality and individual SEP on subjective cognitive decline (SCD) - a marker of dementia risk - using a generalized estimating equation and clustering by state. Results: State income inequality was not significantly associated with SCD in our multivariable model (OR 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.6; p=0.49). We observed a clear linear relationship between household income and SCD where those with an annual household income of 50k to 75k had 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6) times the odds and those with household incomes of less than $10,000 had 4.7 (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7) times the odds of SCD compared to those with household income of more than $75,000. We also found that college graduates (ref.) and those who completed high school (OR: 1.1; 95% CI 1.04, 1.2) fared better than those with some college (OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.2, 1.4) or less than a high school degree (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.7). Conclusions: Income inequality does not play a dominant role in SCD, though a social gradient in individual income for SCD suggests the relationship may operate in part via status anxiety.

19.
Palliat Support Care ; 17(5): 507-514, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767818

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: The short-term impact of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) following bereavement is well documented. The longer term sequelae of PGD however are poorly understood, possibly unrecognized, and may be incorrectly attributed to other mental health disorders and hence undertreated. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of PGD three years post bereavement and to examine the predictors of long-term PGD in a population-based cohort of bereaved cancer caregivers. METHODS: A cohort of primary family caregivers of patients admitted to one of three palliative care services in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study (n = 301). Sociodemographic, mental health, and bereavement-related data were collected from the caregiver upon the patient's admission to palliative care (T1). Further data addressing circumstances around the death and psychological health were collected at six (T2, n = 167), 13 (T3, n = 143), and 37 months (T4, n = 85) after bereavement. RESULTS: At T4, 5% and 14% of bereaved caregivers met criteria for PGD and subthreshold PGD, respectively. Applying the total PGD score at T4, linear regression analysis found preloss anticipatory grief measured at T1 and self-reported coping measured at T2 were highly statistically significant predictors (both p < 0.0001) of PGD in the longer term. CONCLUSION: For almost 20% of caregivers, the symptoms of PGD appear to persist at least three years post bereavement. These findings support the importance of screening caregivers upon the patient's admission to palliative care and at six months after bereavement to ascertain their current mental health. Ideally, caregivers at risk of developing PGD can be identified and treated before PGD becomes entrenched.

20.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(3): 542-552, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451147

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults. DESIGN: Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18-64 years old and had BMI 30·0-50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes. SETTING: Tucson, AZ, USA.ParticipantsFifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female. RESULTS: Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown -1·7 (-14·2, 10·9), -3·9 (-17·2, 9·4) and -13·2 (-30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) -2·3 (-5·3, 0·7; ML), -1·0 (-4·2, 2·2; GT), -3·9 (-8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (-11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (-11·4, 12·4; GT), -9·8 (-25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Glucemia/análisis , Colesterol/sangre , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , , Adulto Joven
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