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BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1604, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097015


BACKGROUND: There are limited data globally on HIV in men who engage in casual and transactional sex with female tourists. METHODS: In 2018 we carried out a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey among beach boys in Galle, Sri Lanka, to determine prevalence of HIV and other infections, HIV risk behaviours and utilisation of HIV prevention services. Eligibility criteria included men who cruise in and around beach areas and who had anal and/or vaginal sex with female or male tourists in the 12 months before the survey. RESULTS: We recruited 373 beach boys. Approximately 49.6% of the participants were married, while 45.7% were single and 4.7% divorced, separated or widowed. A lower percentage of beach boys reported regular partners in the past 12 months (52.3%) compared to casual partners (95.4%). Condom use at last sex with a casual partner was higher (76.7%) compared to condom use with regular partners (58.3%). Condom use at last sex with a tourist was reported by 75.3%. Ever receiving money, goods or services in exchange for sex was reported by 39.7%. For 85.5% of beach boys who sold sex, the last paying partner was a tourist (85.5%) and a woman (82.0%). In the past 12 months before the survey, 32.3% of beach boys paid money for sex, and 99.5% did so from women. Ever been tested for HIV was reported by 35.3, and 69.1% of those were tested in the 6 months before the survey. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, significant correlates of never testing for HIV were lack of comprehensive knowledge about HIV and unprotected last sexual intercourse with tourists. The prevalent infections were: HIV, 0.3% (95% CI 0.0-0.4%); syphilis, 0.5% (0.0-1.2%); herpes virus type-2, 5.0% (2.5-7.5%). CONCLUSIONS: There are low level HIV and syphilis prevalence among beach boys in Galle but a high level of sexual risk taking. Beach boys may be acting as a bridge for HIV transmission between higher-risk groups (paying female tourists, men who have sex with men) and lower-risk heterosexual female population in Sri Lanka. More research is needed in South-East Asia on men who trade sexual services to female and male tourists.

PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239951, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002081


Sri Lanka has a low-level HIV epidemic. This study aims to provide evidence on HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B (HBV) prevalence, sexual risk behaviours and utilisation of HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers (FSW) in the cities Colombo, Galle, and Kandy. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited a total of 458 FSW in Colombo, 360 in Galle and 362 in Kandy from November 2017 to March 2018. Participants provided biological specimens for testing for infections and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We found no HIV nor HBV infections in Galle and Kandy, and low HIV (0.4%) and HBV surface antigen (0.6%) prevalence in Colombo. FSW in Colombo had higher positivity on Treponema pallidum-particle agglutination test (8.4%) compared to Galle (2.0%) and Kandy (2.5%). About two thirds of FSW heard of HIV in each of the cities. Around 90% of FSW used condom at last sex with a client in both Colombo and Galle, but considerably less in Kandy (57.1%). However, lower proportion of FSW used condoms every time during sex with clients in the past 30 day: 22.9% of FSW in Colombo, 26.6% in Kandy and 68.4% in Galle. Across cities, 17.5%-39.5% of FSW reported being tested for HIV in the past 12 months or knowing HIV positive status. The commonest reasons for never testing for HIV was not knowing where to test (54.2% in Colombo, 41.8% in Galle, 48.1% in Kandy) followed by inconvenient testing location (23.7% in Colombo and 31.1% in Kandy). HIV has not yet been firmly established among FSW in three cities in Sri Lanka, but the vulnerability towards HIV and STIs is substantial. HIV interventions should be intensified by expanding community-based HIV testing approaches, increasingawareness of HIV risks and addressing socio-structural vulnerabilities of FSW to HIV.

Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiología , Serodiagnóstico del SIDA/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sri Lanka , Serodiagnóstico de la Sífilis/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexo Inseguro/estadística & datos numéricos
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227689, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940404


We implemented population size estimation of female sex workers (FSW) and transgender women (TGW) in Sri Lanka in 2018 using several approaches (geographical mapping, service and unique object multiplier and a modified Delphi method during the stakeholder consensus meeting). Mapping was done in 49 randomly selected Divisional Secretariats, which provided a basis for extrapolation of size estimates to the national level. Two types of adjustments were applied on the mean (minimum-maximum) population estimate obtained during mapping: (1) an adjustment for mobility to reduce double counting of FSW and TGW frequenting multiple spots, obtained during mapping; (2) an adjustment for "a hidden population", obtained from surveys among FSW and TGW. For the multiplier method, we used data from services of non-governmental organisations that FSW and TGW were in contact with, and surveys based on respondent-driven sampling. Surveys were carried out in the cities of Colombo (FSW, TGW), Kandy (FSW), Galle (FSW) and Jaffna (TGW). We estimated that there are 30,000 FSWs in Sri Lanka, with a plausible range of 20,000-35,000, which implies a prevalence of FSW of 0.56% (0.37-0.65%) among adult females. This study provided baseline estimates of 2,200 TGW in the country, with a plausible range of 2,000-3,500, which is 0.04% (0.04-0.07%) of adult male population. Our estimates of the proportional contribution of the FSW and TGW populations among the adult population in Sri Lanka are consistent with the The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended estimates for Asia and the Pacific. The results provide an important point for macro- and micro-level planning of HIV services, allocating programme resources and assessing programme coverage and quality.

Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Densidad de Población , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Sri Lanka , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Transexualidad , Adulto Joven