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1.
Genetics ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850872

RESUMEN

Primary cilia are sensory and signaling hubs with a protein composition that is distinct from the rest of the cell due to the barrier function of the transition zone (TZ) at the base of the cilium. Protein transport across the TZ is mediated in part by the BBSome, and mutations disrupting TZ and BBSome proteins cause human ciliopathy syndromes. Ciliopathies have phenotypic variability even among patients with identical genetic variants, suggesting a role for modifier loci. To identify potential ciliopathy modifiers, we performed a mutagenesis screen on nphp-4 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans and uncovered a novel allele of bbs-5. Nphp-4;bbs-5 double mutant worms have phenotypes not observed in either individual mutant strain. To test whether this genetic interaction is conserved, we also analyzed zebrafish and mouse mutants. While Nphp4 mutant zebrafish appeared overtly normal, Bbs5 mutants exhibited scoliosis. When combined, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant zebrafish did not exhibit synergistic effects, but the lack of a phenotype in Nphp4 mutants makes interpreting these data difficult. In contrast, Nphp4;Bbs5 double mutant mice were not viable and there were fewer mice than expected carrying three mutant alleles. In addition, postnatal loss of Bbs5 in mice using a conditional allele compromised survival when combined with an Nphp4 allele. As cilia are still formed in the double mutant mice, the exacerbated phenotype is likely a consequence of disrupted ciliary signaling. Collectively, these data support an evolutionarily conserved genetic interaction between Bbs5 and Nphp4 alleles that may contribute to the variability in ciliopathy phenotypes.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 705182, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970537

RESUMEN

Atxn10 is a gene known for its role in cytokinesis and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA10), a slowly progressing cerebellar syndrome caused by an intragenic pentanucleotide repeat expansion. Atxn10 is also implicated in the ciliopathy syndromes nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which are caused by the disruption of cilia function leading to nephron loss, impaired renal function, and cerebellar hypoplasia. How Atxn10 disruption contributes to these disorders remains unknown. Here, we generated Atxn10 congenital and conditional mutant mouse models. Our data indicate that while ATXN10 protein can be detected around the base of the cilium as well as in the cytosol, its loss does not cause overt changes in cilia formation or morphology. Congenital loss of Atxn10 results in embryonic lethality around E10.5 associated with pericardial effusion and loss of trabeculation. Similarly, tissue-specific loss of ATXN10 in the developing endothelium (Tie2-Cre) and myocardium (cTnT-Cre) also results in embryonic lethality with severe cardiac malformations occurring in the latter. Using an inducible Cagg-CreER to disrupt ATXN10 systemically at postnatal stages, we show that ATXN10 is also required for survival in adult mice. Loss of ATXN10 results in severe pancreatic and renal abnormalities leading to lethality within a few weeks post ATXN10 deletion in adult mice. Evaluation of these phenotypes further identified rapid epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these tissues. In the pancreas, the phenotype includes signs of both acinar to ductal metaplasia and EMT with aberrant cilia formation and severe defects in glucose homeostasis related to pancreatic insufficiency or defects in feeding or nutrient intake. Collectively, this study identifies ATXN10 as an essential protein for survival.

3.
Dev Dyn ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728725

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Genetic tools to study gene function and the fate of cells in the anterior limb bud are very limited. RESULTS: We describe a transgenic mouse line expressing CreERT2 from the Aristaless-like 4 (Alx4) promoter that induces recombination in the anterior limb. Cre induction at embryonic day 8.5 revealed that Alx4-CreERT2 labeled cells using the mTmG Cre reporter contributed to anterior digits I to III as well as the radius of the forelimb. Cre activity is expanded further along the AP axis in the hindlimb than in the forelimb resulting in some Cre reporter cells contributing to digit IV. Induction at later time points labeled cells that become progressively restricted to more anterior digits and proximal structures. Comparison of Cre expression from the Alx4 promoter transgene with endogenous Alx4 expression reveals Cre expression is slightly expanded posteriorly relative to the endogenous Alx4 expression. Using Alx4-CreERT2 to induce loss of intraflagellar transport 88 (Ift88), a gene required for ciliogenesis, hedgehog signaling, and limb patterning, did not cause overt skeletal malformations. However, the efficiency of deletion, time needed for Ift88 protein turnover, and for cilia to regress may hinder using this approach to analyze cilia in the limb. Alx4-CreERT2 is also active in the mesonephros and nephric duct that contribute to the collecting tubules and ducts of the adult nephron. Embryonic activation of the Alx4-CreERT2 in the Ift88 conditional line results in cyst formation in the collecting tubules/ducts. CONCLUSION: Overall, the Alx4-CreERT2 line will be a new tool to assess cell fates and analyze gene function in the anterior limb, mesonephros, and nephric duct.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(3-4): 234-246, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560420

RESUMEN

Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling compartments present on most mammalian cell types. These specialized structures require a unique signaling protein composition relative to the rest of the cell to carry out their functions. Defects in ciliary structure and signaling result in a broad group of disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. One ciliopathy, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS; OMIM 209900), presents with diverse clinical features, many of which are attributed to defects in ciliary signaling during both embryonic development and postnatal life. For example, patients exhibit obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, developmental delay and skeletal abnormalities along with sensory and cognitive deficits, but for many of these phenotypes it is uncertain, which are developmental in origin. A subset of BBS proteins assembles into the core BBSome complex, which is responsible for mediating transport of membrane proteins into and out of the cilium, establishing it as a sensory and signaling hub. Here, we describe two new mouse models for BBS resulting from a targeted LacZ gene trap allele (Bbs5-/-) that is a predicted congenital null mutation and conditional (Bbs5flox/flox) allele of Bbs5. Bbs5-/- mice develop a complex phenotype consisting of increased pre-weaning lethality craniofacial and skeletal defects, ventriculomegaly, infertility and pituitary anomalies. Utilizing the conditional allele, we show that the male fertility defects, ventriculomegaly and pituitary abnormalities are only present when Bbs5 is disrupted prior to postnatal day 7, indicating a developmental origin. In contrast, mutation of Bbs5 results in obesity, independent of the age of Bbs5 loss.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Mutación , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/genética , Hipófisis/anomalías , Animales , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patología , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/fisiopatología , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Fenotipo , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/metabolismo , Hipófisis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hipófisis/metabolismo
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