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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890167

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term effectiveness of natalizumab (NTZ) and to determine demographic, clinical, and radiological predictors regarding long-term disease activity (≥ 7 years) in a nationwide observational cohort, using data collected prospectively in a real-life setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed data from 230 patients from the Austrian Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Registry (AMSTR), who had started treatment with NTZ at any time since 2006 and stayed on NTZ for at least 7 years without treatment gap of more than three months. RESULTS: Estimated mean annualised relapse rates (ARR) over a mean treatment period of 9.3 years were 0.07 for NTZ. Sustained EDSS progression for 12 weeks was observed in 36 (19%) patients and for 24 weeks in 31 (16.3%) cases. Sustained EDSS regression for 12 and 24 weeks was seen in 45 (23.7%) and 42 (22.1%) cases. The baseline parameters ≥ 1 Gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesion(s) [incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.409 (95% CI 0.283-0.593), p = 0.001], ARR ≤ 1 in the prior 12 month before treatment initiation with NTZ [IRR of 0.353 (95% CI 0.200-0.623), p = 0.001] and EDSS ≤ 1 [incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.081 (95% CI 0.011-0.581), p = 0.012] were significantly associated with a reduced relapse risk, whereas a disease duration ≤ 5 years increased significantly the ARR [IRR of 1.851 (95% CI 1.249-2.743), p = 0.002]. The only predictive baseline parameter for experiencing EDSS progression (sustained for 12 and 24 weeks) was age > 35 years [HR of 2.482 (95% CI 1.110-5.549), p = 0.027, and HR of 2.492 (95% CI 1.039-5.978), p = 0.041, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: These real-life data show a stable disease course regarding relapse activity and disease progression under NTZ treatment for more than 7 years. The main predictors for disease activity were higher relapse rate before treatment initiation, higher disability, shorter disease duration and absence of Gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesions at baseline. Older age at NTZ start was the only significant risk factor for disease progression over long-term.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646940, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828556

RESUMEN

Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) poses a diagnostic challenge due to its heterogeneous clinical presentation, which overlaps with various neurological and psychiatric diseases. During the diagnostic work-up, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is routinely obtained, allowing for differential diagnostics as well as for the determination of antibody subclasses and specificities. In this monocentric cohort study, we describe initial and serial CSF findings of 33 patients diagnosed with antibody-associated AIE (LGI1 (n=8), NMDA (n=7), CASPR2 (n=3), IgLON5 (n=3), AMPAR (n=1), GAD65/67 (n=4), Yo (n=3), Ma-1/2 (n=2), CV2 (n=2)). Routine CSF parameters of 12.1% of AIE patients were in normal ranges, while 60.6% showed elevated protein levels and 45.4% had intrathecal oligoclonal bands (OCBs). Repeated CSF analyses showed a trend towards normalization of initial pathological CSF findings, while relapses were more likely to be associated with increased cell counts and total protein levels. OCB status conversion in anti-NMDARE patients coincided with clinical improvement. In summary, we show that in routine CSF analysis at diagnosis, a considerable number of patients with AIE did not exhibit alteration in the CSF and therefore, diagnosis may be delayed if antibody testing is not performed. Moreover, OCB status in anti-NMDAR AIE patients could represent a potential prognostic biomarker, however further studies are necessary to validate these exploratory findings.

3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102916, 2021 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799283

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies suggested an association between MS and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). Data on the prevalence of RLS in Austrian MS patients and on the influence of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) on RLS are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) the prevalence of RLS in Austria compared to control persons (CP), (2) risk factors for RLS in MS, and (3) influence of DMTs on RLS prevalence and/or severity. METHODS: Adult MS patients and CP were screened for RLS by face-to-face interviews, including questionnaires for RLS severity, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: 23.9% of MS patients (n=117) had RLS compared to 3.4% (p<0.001) of CP (n=119). The MS+RLS group (n=28) had a higher rate of sleep impairment (78.6% vs 21.3%, p<0.001) and excessive daytime sleepiness (32.1% vs 15.7%, p=0.045) compared to the MS-RLS group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed higher Expanded Disability Status Scale and spinal lesions in MRI as risk factors for RLS in MS, while DMTs had no impact on RLS. CONCLUSION: Roughly a quarter of MS patients suffers from RLS, significantly impacting quality of life by poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness. RLS risk increases with physical disability and spinal lesions but is independent of DMT.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e27463, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing demand for treatment among cannabis users in many countries, most users are not in treatment. Internet-based self-help offers an alternative for those hesitant to seek face-to-face therapy, though low effectiveness and adherence issues often arise. OBJECTIVE: Through adherence-focused guidance enhancement, we aimed to increase adherence to and the effectiveness of internet-based self-help among cannabis users. METHODS: From July 2016 to May 2019, cannabis users (n=775; male: 406/575, 70.6%, female: 169/575, 29.4%; age: mean 28.3 years) not in treatment were recruited from the general population and were randomly assigned to (1) an adherence-focused guidance enhancement internet-based self-help intervention with social presence, (2) a similar intervention with an impersonal service team, and (3) access to internet as usual. Controls who were placed on a waiting list for the full intervention after 3 months underwent an assessment and had access to internet as usual. The primary outcome measurement was cannabis-use days over the preceding 30 days. Secondary outcomes included cannabis-dependence severity, changes in common mental disorder symptoms, and intervention adherence. Differences between the study arms in primary and secondary continuous outcome variables at baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up were tested using pooled linear models. RESULTS: All groups exhibited reduced cannabis-use days after 3 months (social presence: -8.2 days; service team: -9.8 days; internet as usual: -4.2 days). The participants in the service team group (P=.01, d=.60) reported significantly fewer cannabis-use days than those in the internet as usual group; the reduction of cannabis use in the social presence group was not significant (P=.07, d=.40). There was no significant difference between the 2 intervention groups regarding cannabis-use reduction. The service team group also exhibited superior improvements in cannabis-use disorder, cannabis-dependence severity, and general anxiety symptoms after 3 months to those in the internet as usual group. CONCLUSIONS: The adherence-focused guidance enhancement internet-based self-help intervention with an impersonal service team significantly reduced cannabis use, cannabis-use disorder, dependence severity, and general anxiety symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN11086185; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN11086185.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1816, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753741

RESUMEN

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), the most frequent monogenetic disorder of brain white matter, is highly variable, ranging from slowly progressive adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to life-threatening inflammatory brain demyelination (CALD). In this study involving 94 X-ALD patients and 55 controls, we tested whether plasma/serum neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) constitutes an early distinguishing biomarker. In AMN, we found moderately elevated NfL with increased levels reflecting higher grading of myelopathy-related disability. Intriguingly, NfL was a significant predictor to discriminate non-converting AMN from cohorts later developing CALD. In CALD, markedly amplified NfL levels reflected brain lesion severity. In rare cases, atypically low NfL revealed a previously unrecognized smoldering CALD disease course with slowly progressive myelin destruction. Upon halt of brain demyelination by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, NfL gradually normalized. Together, our study reveals that blood NfL reflects inflammatory activity and progression in CALD patients, thus constituting a potential surrogate biomarker that may facilitate clinical decisions and therapeutic development.


Asunto(s)
Adrenoleucodistrofia/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Degeneración Nerviosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adrenoleucodistrofia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Filamentos Intermedios/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Degeneración Nerviosa/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangre
6.
Acta Paediatr ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657661

RESUMEN

AIM: Due to scarce available national data, this study assessed current attitudes of neonatal caregivers regarding decisions on life-sustaining interventions, and their views on parents' aptitude to express their infant's best interest in shared decision-making. METHODS: Self-administered web-based quantitative empirical survey. All 552 experienced neonatal physicians and nurses from all Swiss NICUs were eligible. RESULTS: There was a high degree of agreement between physicians and nurses (response rates 79% and 70%, respectively) that the ability for social interactions was a minimal criterion for an acceptable quality of life. A majority stated that the parents' interests are as important as the child's best interest in shared decision-making. Only a minority considered the parents as the best judges of what is their child's best interest. Significant differences in attitudes and values emerged between neonatal physicians and nurses. The language area was very strongly associated with the attitudes of neonatal caregivers. CONCLUSION: Despite clear legal requirements and societal expectations for shared decision-making, survey respondents demonstrated a gap between their expressed commitment to shared decision-making and their view on parental aptitude to formulate their infant's best interest. National guidelines need to address these barriers to shared decision-making to promote a more uniform nationwide practice.

7.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macular ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thinning are markers of neuroaxonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), which is reduced by disease-modifying treatment (DMT). We aimed to investigate the potential of pRNFL and GCIPL thinning for prediction of DMT failure in relapsing MS (RMS). METHODS: In this 4-year prospective observational study on 113 RMS patients, pRNFL and GCIPL were measured at DMT initiation and after 12 months (M12) and 24 months (M24). Treatment failure was defined as 6-month confirmed Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and/or Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) worsening. Optimal cutoff values for predicting treatment failure were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses and hazard ratios (HRs) by multivariable Cox regression adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, EDSS/SDMT, and DMT class. RESULTS: Thinning of GCIPL >0.5 µm/year at M24 showed superior value for treatment failure prediction (HR: 4.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-7.6, p < 0.001; specificity 91%, sensitivity 81%), followed by GCIPL >0.5 µm at M12 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.4-6.9, p < 0.001; specificity 85%, sensitivity 78%), and pRNFL ≥2 µm/year at M24 (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.5, p = 0.023; specificity 84%, sensitivity 69%), whereas pRNFL at M12 was not predictive. CONCLUSIONS: GCIPL, and to a lesser degree pRNFL, thinning predicts disability progression after DMT initiation and may be a useful and accessible biomarker of treatment failure in RMS.

8.
J Sex Med ; 18(4): 743-749, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744180

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known on how to address sexuality in clinical care for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). AIM: To describe and contrast the perception of sexuality and associated aspects of communication in pwMS and their treating neurologists ("MSologists") and provide a standard of care. METHODS: Patients were surveyed using a 13-item questionnaire investigating perception on their own sexuality and opinions on communication about sexuality in context with MS. Certified MSologists in Austria received an 18-item survey regarding their approach to taking a sexual history of their patients. OUTCOMES: We report the frequency of answers given in this survey and propose a possible standard of care how sexuality could be addressed in clinical routine. RESULTS: Ninety-three pwMS (mean age 39 ± 11 years, 57% female) and 75 MSologists (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 63% male) completed this survey. Seventy-six percent of patients report their own sexuality as being (very) important to them and 95% think that sexual dysfunction would influence their quality of life. 84% would like to be asked about their sexuality by their MSologist. In contrast, only 15% of MSologists reported discussing sexuality with every patient. The most common reason for not doing so was a fear of crossing personal borders (34%). There is a strong desire for further medical education on this subject (76%). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Discussing sexuality is important to pwMS and MSologists should consider their patients' wishes and needs to talk about it. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: This is the largest survey contrasting the views of patients and their treating physicians on the topic of communication about sexuality. The use of an empirical unvalidated questionnaire may have introduced bias. Moreover, patients that are open to talk about their sexuality may be potentially overrepresented in this study. CONCLUSION: MSologists should offer their patients an open opportunity and appropriate framework to discuss their sexuality during a consultation. Altmann P, Leithner K, Leutmezer F, et al. Sexuality and Multiple Sclerosis: Patient and Doctor Perspectives. J Sex Med 2021;18:743-749.

9.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(3): e20036, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: University students with depression and anxiety do not easily receive or seek treatment; therefore, internet-based interventions have been suggested to be a promising way to improve treatment accessibility and availability. However, it has not been examined whether a guided, culturally adapted, transdiagnostic, internet-based intervention is effective for treating symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both among university students in Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the feasibility (acceptability and satisfaction, usability, and uptake) of a guided, culturally adapted, transdiagnostic, internet-based intervention among university students with symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both in Indonesia. METHODS: Students from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were screened for symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both, and filled online informed consent, demographic questionnaires, and a quality of life measure at pretreatment assessment (T0). Subsequently, the participants started the intervention. Seven weeks after T0, the primary outcomes of this feasibility study were analyzed at posttreatment assessment (T1) using the 8-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Mean and SDs for the CSQ-8 and SUS were calculated to examine feasibility. Within-group secondary outcomes (depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were inspected for outliers and normal distribution. Paired-sample t tests were used to investigate differences between time points of secondary outcomes. A mixed-method approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses was adopted. Both the primary and secondary outcomes were additionally explored with an individual semistructured interview and synthesized descriptively. RESULTS: A total of 50 participants completed the intervention. We found a moderate to high level of satisfaction and acceptability, a slightly below-average level of desirable usability (≥70), and an adherence rate of 52% which was higher than expected given the novelty of the intervention. Results for the secondary outcomes indicated a decrease in depression and anxiety. For depression, the overall mean difference between the 2 time points for depression was 3.92 (95% CI 2.75-5.1; Hedges g 1.15; P<.001). For anxiety, the overall mean difference between the 2 time points was 3.34 (95% CI 2.06-4.61; Hedges g 1.02; P<.001). Further, a moderate effect in improving quality of life was found (g=0.50). Overall, participants were positive about the online intervention and ECoaches (online guidance), and they found the intervention to be culturally appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: A culturally adapted, transdiagnostic, internet-based intervention appears to be acceptable and feasible for reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both, and increasing quality of life in university students in Indonesia. Future studies should include a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of such interventions as they may supplement existing counseling services in universities, reduce the treatment costs, and maximize treatment accessibility in low-resourced settings. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1016/j.invent.2018.11.002.

10.
Trials ; 22(1): 171, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic status and is affecting countries all over the world. The COVID-19 pandemic is accompanied by various stressors that require adjustment in everyday life and possibly changes in personal future prospects. While some individuals cope well with these challenges, some develop psychological distress including depressive symptoms, anxiety, or stress. Internet-based self-help interventions have proven to be effective in the treatment of various mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Based on that, we developed an internet-based self-help program for individuals with psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. The 3-week self-help program consists of 6 modules comprising texts, videos, figures, and exercises. Participants can request guidance within the self-help program (guidance on demand). The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the self-help program compared to a waiting control condition. METHODS: The design is a parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants are allocated to a 3-week self-help intervention plus care as usual or a 3-week waiting period with only care as usual. There are follow-ups after 6 weeks and 18 weeks. At least 80 participants with COVID-19 pandemic related psychological distress will be recruited. Primary outcome are depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes include anxiety and chronic stress, suicidal experiences and behavior, health-related quality of life, generalized optimism and pessimism, embitterment, optimistic self-beliefs, emotion regulation skills, loneliness, resilience, and the satisfaction with and usability of the self-help program. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies investigating the efficacy of an internet-based self-help program for psychological distress due to the situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the results of this study may give further insight into the use of internet-based self-help programs in pandemic-related psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04380909 . Retrospectively registered on 8 May 2020.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Depresión/terapia , Intervención basada en la Internet , Autocuidado , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Regulación Emocional , Humanos , Soledad , Optimismo , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Satisfacción del Paciente , Pesimismo , Distrés Psicológico , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autoeficacia , Automanejo , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Ideación Suicida
11.
Brain ; 144(1): 144-161, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578421

RESUMEN

Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating insult followed by progressive cord atrophy and neurodegeneration. Dysregulated or non-resolving inflammatory processes can disturb neuronal homeostasis and drive neurodegeneration. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of innate and adaptive inflammatory responses as well as oxidative tissue injury in human traumatic spinal cord injury lesions compared to non-traumatic control cords. In the lesion core, microglia were rapidly lost while intermediate (co-expressing pro- as well as anti-inflammatory molecules) blood-borne macrophages dominated. In contrast, in the surrounding rim, TMEM119+ microglia numbers were maintained through local proliferation and demonstrated a predominantly pro-inflammatory phenotype. Lymphocyte numbers were low and mainly consisted of CD8+ T cells. Only in a subpopulation of patients, CD138+/IgG+ plasma cells were detected, which could serve as candidate cellular sources for a developing humoral immunity. Oxidative neuronal cell body and axonal injury was visualized by intracellular accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and oxidized phospholipids (e06) and occurred early within the lesion core and declined over time. In contrast, within the surrounding rim, pronounced APP+/e06+ axon-dendritic injury of neurons was detected, which remained significantly elevated up to months/years, thus providing mechanistic evidence for ongoing neuronal damage long after initial trauma. Dynamic and sustained neurotoxicity after human spinal cord injury might be a substantial contributor to (i) an impaired response to rehabilitation; (ii) overall failure of recovery; or (iii) late loss of recovered function (neuro-worsening/degeneration).


Asunto(s)
Mielitis/inmunología , Estrés Oxidativo/inmunología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Citocinas/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Masculino , Microglía/inmunología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mielitis/etiología , Mielitis/patología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/patología
13.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; : 1-12, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524987

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize age- and gender-specific normative data of the singing voice using the voice range profile for clinical diagnostics. Furthermore, associations between the singing voice and the socioeconomic status were examined. METHODS: Singing voice profiles of 1,578 mostly untrained children aged between 7.0 and 16.11 years were analyzed. Participants had to reproduce sung tones at defined pitches, resulting in maximum and minimum fundamental frequency and sound pressure level (SPL). In addition, maximum phonation time (MPT) was measured. Percentile curves of frequency, SPL and MPT were estimated. To examine the associations of socioeconomic status, multivariate analyses adjusted for age and sex were performed. RESULTS: In boys, the mean of the highest frequency was 750.9 Hz and lowered to 397.1 Hz with increasing age. Similarly, the minimum frequency was 194.4 Hz and lowered to 91.9 Hz. In girls, the mean maximum frequency decreased from 754.9 to 725.3 Hz. The mean minimum frequency lowered from 202.4 to 175.0 Hz. For both sexes, the mean frequency range ∆f showed a constant range of roughly 24 semitones. The MPT increased with age, for boys and girls. There was neither an effect of age nor sex on SPLmin or SPLmax, ranging between 52.6 and 54.1 dBA and between 86.5 and 82.8 dBA, respectively. Socioeconomic status was not associated with the above-mentioned variables. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study is the first to present large normative data on the singing voice in childhood and adolescence based on a high number of measurements. In addition, we provide percentile curves for practical application in clinic and vocal pedagogy which may be applied to distinguish between normal and pathological singing voice.

14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(2): e21207, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528377

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Internet-based self-help interventions for individuals with depressive symptoms, in which the main component is often a web-based self-help program, have been shown to be efficacious in many controlled trials. However, there are also trials on self-help programs showing no significant effect when delivered in routine care, and some studies report high dropout and low adherence rates. Research suggests that these findings do not emerge primarily due to the specific content of a self-help program. It seems more important how a program is embedded in the context of human and automated support before and during the use of a self-help program. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to better understand the effects of 4 supportive contextual factors on outcomes of and adherence to a web-based self-help program for depressive symptoms. In a factorial experiment, 2 of 4 supportive factors, for which there is evidence for their role on outcomes and adherence, are realized during the intervention-personal guidance and automated email reminders. The other 2 factors are realized before the intervention-a diagnostic interview and a preintervention module aimed at increasing the motivation to use the program with motivational interviewing techniques. METHODS: The study is a full factorial randomized trial. Adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score: 5-14) are recruited from the community through the internet and conventional media. All participants receive access to a web-based self-help program based on problem-solving therapy. They are randomized across 4 experimental factors, each reflecting the presence versus absence of a supportive factor (guidance, automated reminders, diagnostic interview, preintervention module) resulting in a 16-condition balanced factorial design. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms at 10 weeks post assessment. Secondary outcomes include adherence to the program, anxiety, stress, health-related quality of life, possible negative effects, and treatment satisfaction. Potential moderators and mediators (eg, treatment expectancy, problem-solving skills, working alliance with the study team) will also be investigated. RESULTS: Ethical approval was received on January 20, 2020. The study was initiated in February 2020, and 240 participants have been enrolled in the study as of November 1, 2020. Recruitment for a total of 255 participants is ongoing. Data collection is expected to be completed by May 2021. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of relevant supportive factors in the dissemination of web-based interventions is necessary to improve outcomes of and adherence to web-based self-help programs. This study may inform health care systems and guide decisions to optimize the implementation context of web-based self-help programs for depressive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04318236; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04318236. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21207.

15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041389, 2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500282

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the moderating effects of sociodemographic variables on treatment benefits received from participating in an internet intervention for depression. DESIGN: Randomised, assessor-blind, controlled trial. SETTING: Online intervention, with participant recruitment using multiple settings, including inpatient and outpatient medical and psychological clinics, depression online forums, health insurance companies and the media (eg, newspaper, radio). PARTICIPANTS: The EVIDENT trial included 1013 participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention group subjects (n=509) received an online intervention (Deprexis) in addition to care as usual (CAU), while 504 participants received CAU alone. METHODS: To explore subgroup differences, moderating effects were investigated using linear regression models based on intention-to-treat analyses. Moderating effects included sex, age, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status and lifetime frequency of episodes. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was change in self-rated depression severity measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), comparing baseline versus 12-week post-test assessment. Secondary outcome measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms each at 12 weeks and at 6 and 12 months, and PHQ-9 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. In this article, we focus on the primary outcome measure only. RESULTS: Between-group differences were observed in post-test scores, indicating the effectiveness of Deprexis. While the effects of the intervention could be demonstrated across all subgroups, some showed larger between-group differences than others. However, after exploring the moderating effects based on linear regression models, none of the selected variables was found to be moderating treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Deprexis is equally beneficial to a wide range of people; that is, participant characteristics were not associated with treatment benefits. Therefore, participant recruitment into web-based psychotherapeutic interventions should be broad, while special attention may be paid to those currently under-represented in these interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01636752.

16.
Brain ; 144(3): 833-847, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484118

RESUMEN

Recent data suggest that multiple sclerosis white matter lesions surrounded by a rim of iron containing microglia, termed iron rim lesions, signify patients with more severe disease course and a propensity to develop progressive multiple sclerosis. So far, however, little is known regarding the dynamics of iron rim lesions over long-time follow-up. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study in 33 patients (17 females; 30 relapsing-remitting, three secondary progressive multiple sclerosis; median age 36.6 years (18.6-62.6), we characterized the evolution of iron rim lesions by MRI at 7 T with annual scanning. The longest follow-up was 7 years in a subgroup of eight patients. Median and mean observation period were 1 (0-7) and 2.9 (±2.6) years, respectively. Images were acquired using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence fused with iron-sensitive MRI phase data, termed FLAIR-SWI, as well as a magnetization prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echoes, termed MP2RAGE. Volumes and T1 relaxation times of lesions with and without iron rims were assessed by manual segmentation. The pathological substrates of periplaque signal changes outside the iron rims were corroborated by targeted histological analysis on 17 post-mortem cases (10 females; two relapsing-remitting, 13 secondary progressive and two primary progressive multiple sclerosis; median age 66 years (34-88), four of them with available post-mortem 7 T MRI data. We observed 16 nascent iron rim lesions, which mainly formed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Iron rim lesion fraction was significantly higher in relapsing-remitting than progressive disease (17.8 versus 7.2%; P < 0.001). In secondary progressive multiple sclerosis only, iron rim lesions showed significantly different volume dynamics (P < 0.034) compared with non-rim lesions, which significantly shrank with time in both relapsing-remitting (P < 0.001) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (P < 0.004). The iron rims themselves gradually diminished with time (P < 0.008). Compared with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, iron rim lesions in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were significantly more destructive than non-iron rim lesions (P < 0.001), reflected by prolonged lesional T1 relaxation times and by progressively increasing changes ascribed to secondary axonal degeneration in the periplaque white matter. Our study for the first time shows that chronic active lesions in multiple sclerosis patients evolve over many years after their initial formation. The dynamics of iron rim lesions thus provide one explanation for progressive brain damage and disability accrual in patients. Their systematic recording might become useful as a tool for predicting disease progression and monitoring treatment in progressive multiple sclerosis.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452920

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment can leave devastating side effects with a relevant impact on physical and emotional quality of life (QoL) of HNC patients. The objectives were to examine the amount of dysphagia, voice problems, and pain in HNC patients, the impact of sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors on these symptoms, the psychometric properties of the EAT-10, and the relationship between these symptoms and QoL variables. METHODS: HNC patients attending for regular follow-up from 07/2013 to 09/2019 completed questionnaires (Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10); questions from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC H&N35) on dysphagia, voice problems, pain, fatigue, and QoL collected with the software OncoFunction. Associations between prognostic factors and symptoms were tested with analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Associations between the symptom scales and QoL variables were expressed with Pearson correlations. RESULTS: Of 689 patients, 54.9% suffered from dysphagia, the EAT-10 proved to be a reliable measure. The mean voice score was 37.6 (± 33.9) [range 0-100], the mean pain score 1.98 (± 2.24) [range 0-10]. Trimodality treatment was associated with the highest dysphagia scores. Dysphagia, voice problems, and pain significantly correlated with each other, the highest association was found for dysphagia and pain (r = 0.51). QoL was strongly correlated with dysphagia and pain (r = - 0.39 and r = - 0.40, respectively), while the association with voice problems was weaker (r = - 0.28). CONCLUSION: Dysphagia is an important symptom in HNC patients greatly affecting patients' QoL and significantly correlating with voice problems and pain.

18.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(5): 1609-1616, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370478

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a lack of evidence guiding discontinuation of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Thus, the objective of this study was to generate and validate a risk score for disease reactivation after DMT discontinuation in RMS. METHODS: We drew a generation and validation dataset from two separate prospectively collected observational databases including RMS patients who received interferon-ß or glatiramer acetate for ≥12 months, then discontinued DMT for ≥6 months and had ≥2 years of follow-up available. In the generation sample (n = 168), regression analysis was performed to identify clinical or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables independently predicting disease reactivation after DMT discontinuation. A predictive score was calculated using the variables included in the multivariable model and applied to the validation sample (n = 98). RESULTS: The variables included in the final model as independent predictors of disease reactivation were age at discontinuation, MRI activity at discontinuation, and duration of clinical stability (all p < 0.001). The resulting score was able to robustly identify patients at high (83%-85%), moderate (36%-38%), and low risk (7%) of disease reactivation within 5 years after DMT discontinuation in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The composite VIAADISC score is a valuable tool to inform and support patients and neurologists in the process of decision making to discontinue injectable DMTs.

19.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190166, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1154215

RESUMEN

Abstract Specific psychological treatments for depressive disorders delivered on the Internet have shown effectiveness and presented advantages over face-to-face treatments (potentially less expensive, flexible schedules, available in remote areas). This paper aims to describe the characteristics of those who sought help from an online self-guided intervention for depression and to explore hypotheses about predictors of enrollment to the program. Based on a sample of 282 of individuals who filled in screening questionnaires, we verified that the respondents were mainly female, were on average 34.36 years old, were primarily recruited through Facebook, had been previously diagnosed by mental health professionals, presented moderate self-efficacy perception, and had moderately severe symptoms of depression. Respondents who reported comorbid conditions were more likely to attend enrollment interviews, and being in treatment or not did not influence attendance. Such characterization may provide strategies to reach more people and to optimize the design of interventions targeting help-seeking depressed individuals in Brazil.


Resumo Alguns tratamentos para a depressão baseados na Internet se mostraram efetivos e apresentaram vantagens em relação a tratamentos presenciais (potencialmente menos caros, com horários mais flexíveis e com disponibilidade em áreas remotas). Este artigo descreve as características de indivíduos que procuraram ajuda de uma intervenção autoguiada on-line e explora hipóteses sobre preditores de adesão ao programa. Baseado em uma amostra de 282 indivíduos que preencheram questionários de triagem, verificou-se que os participantes eram majoritariamente mulheres, tinham em média 34,36 anos, foram recrutados em sua maioria pelo Facebook, apresentaram diagnóstico psiquiátrico prévio feito por algum profissional de saúde mental, apresentaram percepção de autoeficácia moderada e sintomas depressivos moderadamente severos. Os respondentes que relataram condições comórbidas apresentaram mais chances de avançar para as entrevistas diagnósticas, e estar ou não em tratamento não influenciou a chegada às entrevistas. Estas descrições podem auxiliar na identificação de estratégias para se atingir mais indivíduos e para otimizar o desenho das intervenções on-line para brasileiros que as buscam.

20.
Neurology ; 96(2): 59-77, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310876

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Since the last epidemiologic review of neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD), 22 additional studies have been conducted. We systematically review the worldwide prevalence, incidence, and basic demographic characteristics of NMOSD and provide a critical overview of studies. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Embase using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms and reference lists of retrieved articles were searched from 1999 until August 2019. We collected data on the country; region; methods of case assessment and aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) test; study period; limitations; incidence (per 100,000 person-years); prevalence (per 100,000 persons); and age-, sex-, and ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence. RESULTS: We identified 33 relevant articles. The results indicated the highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of NMOSD in Afro-Caribbean region (0.73/100 000 person-years [95% CI: 0.45-1.01] and 10/100 000 persons [95% CI: 6.8-13.2]). The lowest incidence and prevalence of NMOSD were found in Australia and New Zealand (0.037/100 000 person-years [95% CI: 0.036-0.038] and 0.7/100,000 persons [95% CI: 0.66-0.74]). There was prominent female predominance in adults and the AQP4-Ab-seropositive subpopulation. The incidence and prevalence peaked in middle-aged adults. African ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of NMOSD, whereas White ethnicity had the lowest. No remarkable trend of incidence was described over time. CONCLUSION: NMOSD is a rare disease worldwide. Variations in prevalence and incidence have been described among different geographic areas and ethnicities. These are only partially explained by different study methods and NMO/NMOSD definitions, highlighting the need for specifically designed epidemiologic studies to identify genetic effects and etiologic factors.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Neuromielitis Óptica/diagnóstico , Neuromielitis Óptica/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Neuromielitis Óptica/sangre , Prevalencia
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