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1.
Global Health ; 16(1): 34, 2020 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leadership and management training has become increasingly important in the education of health care professionals. Previous research has shown the benefits that a network provides to its members, such as access to resources and information, but ideas for creating these networks vary. This study used social network analysis to explore the interactions among Central American Healthcare Initiative (CAHI) Fellowship alumni and learn more about information sharing, mentoring, and project development activities among alumni. The CAHI Fellowship provides leadership and management training for multidisciplinary healthcare professionals to reduce health inequities in the region. Access to a network was previously reported as one of the top benefits of the program. RESULTS: Information shared from the work of 100 CAHI fellows from six countries, especially within the same country, was analyzed. Mentoring relationships clustered around professions and project types, and networks of joint projects clustered by country. Mentorship, which CAHI management promoted, and joint project networks, in which members voluntarily engaged, had similar inclusiveness ratios. CONCLUSION: Social networks are strategic tools for health care leadership development programs to increase their impact by promoting interactions among participants. These programs can amplify intergenerational and intercountry ties by organizing events, provide opportunities for alumni to meet, assign mentors, and support collaborative action groups. Collaborative networks have great value to potentiate health professionals' leadership and management capabilities in a resource-constrained setting, such as the Global South.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/tendencias , Liderazgo , Red Social , Adulto , Anciano , América Central , Becas/tendencias , Femenino , Salud Global , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
Glob Health Action ; 11(1): 1408359, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica. Launched in 2014, HIF's goal is to create a network of highly trained interdisciplinary health professionals in competencies to improve health of Central American communities through better health management. METHODS: The program's fellows carried out innovative healthcare projects in their local regions. The first three annual cohorts (total of 43 fellows) represented all health-related professions and sectors (private, public, and civil society) from six Central American countries. All fellows attended four 1-week, on-site modular training sessions, received ongoing mentorship, and stayed connected through formal and informal networks and webinars through which they exchange knowledge and support each other. CAHI stakeholders supported HIF financially. RESULTS: Impact evaluation of the three-year pilot training program is positive: fellows improved their health management skills and more than 50% of the projects found either financial or political support for their implementation. CONCLUSIONS: HIF's strengths include that both program leaders and trainees come from the Global South, and that HIF offers a platform to collaborate with partners in the Global North. By focusing on promoting innovation and management at a top business school in the region, HIF constitutes a novel capacity-building effort within global health education. HIF is a capacity-building effort that can be scaled up in the region and other low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/educación , Becas/organización & administración , Salud Global , Personal de Salud/educación , Creación de Capacidad/organización & administración , América Central , Costa Rica , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Liderazgo , Mentores , Pobreza , Servicios de Salud Rural/organización & administración , Población Rural
3.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 20(1): 171-177, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704388

RESUMEN

Effective screening in primary care among asylum-seekers in the US is critical as this population grows. This study aimed to evaluate disease prevalence and screening methods in this high-risk group. Two hundred ten new clients from 51 countries, plus Tibet, who were accepted into a program for asylum seekers from 2012 to 2014 were included. Screening rates and outcomes for infectious, non-communicable, and mental illnesses were evaluated. Screening rates were highest for PTSD, depression, hepatitis B, and latent tuberculosis. Seventy-one percent of clients screened positive for depression and 55 % for PTSD, followed by latent tuberculosis (41 %), hypertension (10 %), hepatitis B (9.4 %), and HIV (0.8 %). Overall screening rates were high. Point of care testing was more effective than testing that required a repeat visit. A large psychiatric and infectious disease burden was identified. These findings can inform future primary care screening efforts for asylum seekers in the US.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Tamizaje Masivo , Atención Primaria de Salud , Refugiados/psicología , Adulto , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/psicología , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Humanos , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Prevalencia
4.
Global Health ; 11: 28, 2015 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26141160

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Among US medical schools, demand for Global Health (GH) programs continues to grow. At the same time, cultural competency training has become a priority for medical students who will care for an increasingly diverse US patient population. We describe a pilot period for a new GH Selective designed to introduce medical students to global medicine and enhance culturally-sensitive communication skills. METHODS: As a 4-week clinical clerkship, the GH Selective was offered annually over a three-year period to a total of 33 students. Activities included clinical assignments, cultural competency and clinical skills simulations, patient case discussions in tropical medicine, journal clubs, and lectures. Faculty assessments of student performance and student evaluations of course content were focused on 6 course objectives, adapted from standardized GH objectives. RESULTS: For each offering of the GH Selective, at least 40 faculty members and fellows volunteered over 200 teaching hours from 11 medical school departments. Student feedback was consistently positive through competency-based curricular evaluations. As a result of its successes, the course is now offered on a biannual basis. DISCUSSION: Experiential, student-centered teaching employed in this course proved successful as an introduction to delivery of evidence-based and culturally sensitive GH. Special emphasis on working with standardized patients in interdisciplinary and cross-cultural simulations provided students with clinical skills applicable for care provided both locally and on international rotations. CONCLUSION: With a special emphasis on cross-cultural sensitivity, this pilot elective trained future practitioners in fund of knowledge, clinical skills, and service delivery methods in GH.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Entrenamiento Simulado , Estudiantes de Medicina , Enseñanza/métodos , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Estados Unidos
5.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 30(6): E1-8, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629258

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare spontaneous reporting of health complaints in a sample of refugee survivors of torture with a history of moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with survivors of torture without TBI and analyze the contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms to health outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-seeking refugee survivors of torture with a moderate/severe TBI (n = 85) and a control group (n = 72) of survivors who suffered a physical injury during their persecution but had no history of a head injury. MEASURES: Health outcomes included a self-report of general physical health (scale 1-5), number of medical visits, and a scaled score of the number of health complaints. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was used to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. RESULTS: Moderate/severe TBI was associated with more health complaints but not higher HTQ scores. TBI and HTQ scores are independently associated with a greater number of health complaints, and an interaction between TBI and HTQ scores suggests that the relationship between moderate/severe TBI and the number of health complaints strengthened with increased posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS: Health complaints may be a common expression of psychological trauma, and service providers should be certain to explore both medical and psychological contributors when assessing refugee survivors of torture.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas/psicología , Estado de Salud , Refugiados/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Tortura/psicología , Adulto , Lesiones Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Puntaje de Gravedad del Traumatismo , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Análisis Multivariante , Ontario , Calidad de Vida , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico , Sobrevivientes , Adulto Joven
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