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1.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(10): 1949-1956, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: No simple classification system has emerged for 'advanced basal cell carcinomas', and more generally for all difficult-to-treat BCCs (DTT-BCCs), due to the heterogeneity of situations, TNM inappropriateness to BCCs, and different approaches of different specialists. OBJECTIVE: To generate an operational classification, using the unconscious ability of experts to simplify the great heterogeneity of the clinical situations into a few relevant groups, which drive their treatment decisions. METHOD: Non-supervised independent and blinded clustering of real clinical cases of DTT-BCCs was used. Fourteen international experts from different specialties independently partitioned 199 patient cases considered 'difficult to treat' into as many clusters they want (≤10), choosing their own criteria for partitioning. Convergences and divergences between the individual partitions were analyzed using the similarity matrix, K-mean approach, and average silhouette method. RESULTS: There was a rather consensual clustering of cases, regardless of the specialty and nationality of the experts. Mathematical analysis showed that consensus between experts was best represented by a partition of DTT-BCCs into five clusters, easily recognized a posteriori as five clear-cut patterns of clinical situations. The concept of 'locally advanced' did not appear consistent between experts. CONCLUSION: Although convergence between experts was not granted, this experiment shows that clinicians dealing with BCCs all tend to work by a similar pattern recognition based on the overall analysis of the situation. This study thus provides the first consensual classification of DTT-BCCs. This experimental approach using mathematical analysis of independent and blinded clustering of cases by experts can probably be applied to many other situations in dermatology and oncology.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Análisis por Conglomerados , Consenso , Humanos
2.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(11): 2149-2153, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424580

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: No simple staging system has emerged for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), since they do not follow the TNM process, and practitioners failed to agree on simple clinical or pathological criteria as a basis for a classification. Operational classification of BCCs is required for decision-making, trials and guidelines. Unsupervised clustering of real cases of difficult-to-treat BCCs (DTT-BCCs; part 1) has demonstrated that experts could blindly agree on a five groups classification of DTT-BCCs based on five patterns of clinical situations. OBJECTIVE: Using this five patterns to generate an operational and comprehensive classification of BCCs. METHOD: Testing practitioner's agreement, when using the five patterns classification to ensure that it is robust enough to be used in the practice. Generating the first version of a staging system of BCCs based on pattern recognition. RESULTS: Sixty-two physicians, including 48 practitioners and the 14 experts who participated in the generation of the five different patterns of DTT-BCCs, agreed on 90% of cases when classifying 199 DTT-BCCs cases using the five patterns classification (part 1) attesting that this classification is understandable and usable in practice. In order to cover the whole field of BCCs, these five groups of DTT-BCCs were added a group representing the huge number of easy-to-treat BCCs, for which sub-classification has little interest, and a group of very rare metastatic cases, resulting in a four-stage and seven-substage staging system of BCCs. CONCLUSION: A practical classification adapted to the specificities of BCCs is proposed. It is the first tumour classification based on pattern recognition of clinical situations, which proves to be consistent and usable. This EADO staging system version 1 will be improved step by step and tested as a decision tool and a prognostic instrument.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Pronóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico
3.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 66(5): 413-416, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088500

RESUMEN

The tracheostomy procedure presents some long term complications such as the depressed scar. It can be responsible for a tracheal tug, invaginated scar, inaesthetic scar or all of them. No consensus has emerged in the treatment of this type of pathological scarring. We want to propose a new surgical approach to correct all these three pathological scarring mechanism by a subcutaneous flap in single operation.


Asunto(s)
Cicatriz , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Cicatriz/cirugía , Humanos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Traqueostomía
4.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 66(4): 320-328, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To minimize the risk of viscera exposure for parietal or calverial reconstruction after tumor removal, we used the two-stage free flap strategy. The flap was transferred a few days before tumor resection and left in a standby position until the second stage. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective monocentric study. All patients who underwent reconstruction with the two-stage free flap strategy after tumor resection since 2000 were included. RESULTS: We performed 14 two-stage flaps (8 for calvaria, 3 for abdomen, and 3 for thorax) on 12 patients. The average skin paddle surface was 318 cm2. The mean operative time was 274min for the first stage and 172min for the second stage. The average time between the two stages was 8.8 days (2 to 24 days). One flap necrosis, one venous thrombosis, and one hematoma were observed after the first stage. Partial skin paddle necrosis (2 flaps) and infections (3 flaps) occurred after the second stage. The mean follow-up was 20 months (6 to 61 months), and two patients had tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The two-stage free flap strategy is another option for major oncological reconstructions, to be safe and reliable some rules must be followed. The flap must contain a large skin paddle to ensure flap autonomization and to allow for complete tight plication of the flap between the two stages, which limits germ colonization. A short delay between the two stages (<12 days) decreases the risk of infection. The presence of a plastic surgeon during the second stage decreases the risk of pedicle trauma.


Asunto(s)
Colgajos Tisulares Libres , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Humanos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trasplante de Piel , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 66(2): 134-143, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958325

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Breast reconstruction with implants has long-term disadvantages and is leading an increasing number of patients to request secondary corrective surgery. Two surgical strategies are possible: implant replacement (associated with capsulectomy/capsulotomy and/or lipofilling procedures) and implant removal associated with the provision of autologous tissue (flap and/or lipofilling). METHOD: Between 2010 and 2018, 54 patients underwent secondary surgery for correction of a first implant breast reconstruction. The reasons for dissatisfaction with the initial reconstruction, the procedures performed, and postoperative complications were analysed. Patient well-being and satisfaction were evaluated using the BREAST-Q questionnaire. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients benefited from a prosthesis change and 20 patients benefited from a permanent removal of their prosthesis combined with the addition of autologous tissue. The presence of a periprosthetic shell, pain, fixed appearance of the breast and breast asymmetry were the most frequent reasons for dissatisfaction. With a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, autologous conversion patients were generally more satisfied with the appearance of their breasts than patients who retained a breast implant (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: In cases of poor esthetic or functional outcomes of implant-based breast reconstruction, removal of the prosthesis in combination with autologous reconstruction provides better results in terms of well-being and satisfaction than implant replacement.


Asunto(s)
Implantación de Mama , Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama , Mamoplastia , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 608503, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329679

RESUMEN

Silicon (Si) is one of the beneficial plant mineral nutrients which is known to improve biotic and abiotic stress resilience and productivity in several crops. However, its beneficial role in underutilized or "orphan" crop such as tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] has never been studied before. In this study, we investigated the effect of Si application on tef plant performance. Plants were grown in soil with or without exogenous application of Na2SiO3 (0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mM), and biomass and grain yield, mineral content, chlorophyll content, plant height, and expression patterns of putative Si transporter genes were studied. Silicon application significantly increased grain yield (100%) at 3.0 mM Si, and aboveground biomass yield by 45% at 5.0 mM Si, while it had no effect on plant height. The observed increase in grain yield appears to be due to enhanced stress resilience and increased total chlorophyll content. Increasing the level of Si increased shoot Si and Na content while it significantly decreased the content of other minerals including K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Fe, and Mn in the shoot, which is likely due to the use of Na containing Si amendment. A slight decrease in grain Ca, P, S, and Mn was also observed with increasing Si treatment. The increase in Si content with increasing Si levels prompted us to analyze the expression of Si transporter genes. The tef genome contains seven putative Si transporters which showed high homology with influx and efflux Lsi transporters reported in various plant species including rice. The tef Lsi homologs were deferentially expressed between tissues (roots, leaves, nodes, and inflorescences) and in response to Si, suggesting that they may play a role in Si uptake and/or translocation. Taken together, these results show that Si application improves stress resilience and yield and regulates the expression of putative Si transporter genes. However, further study is needed to determine the physiological function of the putative Si transporters, and to study the effect of field application of Si on tef productivity.

8.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 65(5-6): 589-605, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703588

RESUMEN

The arm is less often concerned by reconstructive surgeries than more distal parts of the upper extremity. However, when affected, the arm is frequently part of complex mutilating injuries involving composite defects. For a given traumatic or oncologic defect, there are several reconstructive options and choosing the right sequence may pose a challenge even to the most experienced surgeon. The latter must integrate not only functional and esthetic requirements, but also the surgeon's habits, especially in situations of emergency. Once life-threatening conditions are averted, wound debridement, bony stabilization, neurovascular, and cutaneous reconstruction tailored to the defects should be performed in a single-stage procedure. Functionally, prompt bony stabilization is necessary to allow early mobilization. Diaphyseal shortening of the humerus can be a salvage procedure to avoid nerve and vascular grafting, with good biomechanical tolerance up to 5cm. Restoration of adequate elbow motion sometimes requires muscle transfer and should be a main concern, as proper positioning of the hand during daily activities demands a functional elbow joint. Esthetically, the surgeon must choose the most cosmetic skin coverage option whilst limiting morbidity of the donor site area. The flaps vascularized by the sub- scapular or thoraco-dorsal vessels are the most useful flaps for arm reconstruction. This paper discusses the reconstructive sequence of complex defects of the arm and provides a review of commonly used reconstructive techniques supported with illustrative cases.


Asunto(s)
Brazo/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Humanos
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(6): 067701, 2020 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109120

RESUMEN

Spins in silicon quantum devices are promising candidates for large-scale quantum computing. Gate-based sensing of spin qubits offers a compact and scalable readout with high fidelity, however, further improvements in sensitivity are required to meet the fidelity thresholds and measurement timescales needed for the implementation of fast feedback in error correction protocols. Here, we combine radio-frequency gate-based sensing at 622 MHz with a Josephson parametric amplifier, that operates in the 500-800 MHz band, to reduce the integration time required to read the state of a silicon double quantum dot formed in a nanowire transistor. Based on our achieved signal-to-noise ratio, we estimate that singlet-triplet single-shot readout with an average fidelity of 99.7% could be performed in 1 µs, well below the requirements for fault-tolerant readout and 30 times faster than without the Josephson parametric amplifier. Additionally, the Josephson parametric amplifier allows operation at a lower radio-frequency power while maintaining identical signal-to-noise ratio. We determine a noise temperature of 200 mK with a contribution from the Josephson parametric amplifier (25%), cryogenic amplifier (25%) and the resonator (50%), showing routes to further increase the readout speed.

11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is now well documented that moonlight affects the life cycle of invertebrates, birds, reptiles, and mammals. The lunisolar tide is also well-known to alter plant growth and development. However, although plants are known to be very photosensitive, few studies have been undertaken to explore the effect of moonlight on plant physiology. RESULTS: Here for the first time we report a massive transcriptional modification in Coffea arabica genes under full moonlight conditions, particularly at full moon zenith and 3 h later. Among the 3387 deregulated genes found in our study, the main core clock genes were affected. CONCLUSIONS: Moonlight also negatively influenced many genes involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast machinery at the end of the night, suggesting that the full moon has a negative effect on primary photosynthetic machinery at dawn. Moreover, full moonlight promotes the transcription of major rhythmic redox genes and many heat shock proteins, suggesting that moonlight is perceived as stress. We confirmed this huge impact of weak light (less than 6 lx) on the transcription of circadian clock genes in controlled conditions mimicking full moonlight.


Asunto(s)
Relojes Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Coffea/fisiología , Luz , Luna , Coffea/genética , Fotosíntesis/genética
12.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 136(6): 461-464, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474545

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Surgical navigation systems (SNS) are now widely used in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Benefit, however, has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an SNS in terms of performance of the surgical procedure and of surgeon satisfaction, in a prospective multicenter study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective study included patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal surgery using the electromagnetic DigiPointeur® (DGP) SNS in 16 French hospitals. An observation form, completed by the surgeon immediately at end of procedure, included type of procedure, and any changes in strategy or extent of surgery related to use of the SNS. Surgeon satisfaction was rated on an analog scale, with self-assessment of stress experienced during the procedure. RESULTS: The study included 311 patients operated on by 36 surgeons in 16 French hospitals. Ethmoidectomy was the most frequent procedure (90%); tumor resection was performed in 5.1% of cases. The SNS enabled more extensive surgery in 81% of cases, in particular by identifying and opening additional cells (57% of cases). Mean satisfaction was 8.6/10; surgeons reported decreased surgical stress thanks to the SNS in 95% of cases. CONCLUSION: In this observational study, the use of an SNS increased the extent of surgery in 81% of cases, and had a positive impact on the stress perceived by the surgeon in 95% of cases.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Endoscopía/métodos , Enfermedades de los Senos Paranasales/cirugía , Neoplasias de los Senos Paranasales/cirugía , Cirugía Asistida por Computador/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica , Hueso Etmoides/cirugía , Senos Etmoidales/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/etiología , Masculino , Seno Maxilar/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucocele/cirugía , Pólipos Nasales/cirugía , Órbita/cirugía , Estudios Prospectivos , Sinusitis/cirugía , Seno Esfenoidal/cirugía , Cirugía Asistida por Computador/instrumentación
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2776, 2019 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270319

RESUMEN

Silicon spin qubits have emerged as a promising path to large-scale quantum processors. In this prospect, the development of scalable qubit readout schemes involving a minimal device overhead is a compelling step. Here we report the implementation of gate-coupled rf reflectometry for the dispersive readout of a fully functional spin qubit device. We use a p-type double-gate transistor made using industry-standard silicon technology. The first gate confines a hole quantum dot encoding the spin qubit, the second one a helper dot enabling readout. The qubit state is measured through the phase response of a lumped-element resonator to spin-selective interdot tunneling. The demonstrated qubit readout scheme requires no coupling to a Fermi reservoir, thereby offering a compact and potentially scalable solution whose operation may be extended above 1 K.

14.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 64(5-6): 674-684, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178307

RESUMEN

Not to burn one's bridges. This is the basic principle that comes immediately to the mind of the plastic surgeon when one brings up the secondary surgery of pressure ulcers, which is a common pathology in the spinal cord injured patients. Which ones are good candidates for surgical treatment? When? What preoperative, infectious, rehabilitative management is most likely to minimize the number of failures and recurrences? Which operative technique to prefer in first intention? And in case of secondary surgery, how to choose the best strategy? We will see that some cases can be treated by primarily closing or flap remobilization but, in case of greater loss of substance the realization of a flap from another anatomical region will be essential.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera por Presión/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Humanos , Úlcera por Presión/etiología , Recurrencia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones
15.
J Dent Res ; 98(9): 985-993, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226001

RESUMEN

Chronic periodontitis (ChP) is a prevalent inflammatory disease affecting 46% of the US population. ChP produces a profound local inflammatory response to dysbiotic oral microbiota that leads to destruction of alveolar bone and tooth loss. ChP is also associated with systemic illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying these adverse health outcomes are poorly understood. In this prospective cohort study, we used a highly multiplex mass cytometry immunoassay to perform an in-depth analysis of the systemic consequences of ChP in patients before (n = 28) and after (n = 16) periodontal treatment. A high-dimensional analysis of intracellular signaling networks revealed immune system-wide dysfunctions differentiating patients with ChP from healthy controls. Notably, we observed exaggerated proinflammatory responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide in circulating neutrophils and monocytes from patients with ChP. Simultaneously, natural killer cell responses to inflammatory cytokines were attenuated. Importantly, the immune alterations associated with ChP were no longer detectable 3 wk after periodontal treatment. Our findings demarcate systemic and cell-specific immune dysfunctions in patients with ChP, which can be temporarily reversed by the local treatment of ChP. Future studies in larger cohorts are needed to test the boundaries of generalizability of our results.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Monocitos/inmunología , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Adulto , Citocinas/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Estudios Prospectivos
17.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 64(1): 24-32, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269882

RESUMEN

In primary male to female (MTF) sex reassignment surgery (SRS), the most frequent postoperative functional complications using the penoscrotal skin technique remain neovaginal stenosis, urinary meatal stenosis and secondary revision surgery. We aimed to retrospectively analyze postoperative functional and anatomical complications, as well as secondary procedures required after MTF SRS by penile skin inversion. All patients operated on for MTF SRS, using the inverted technique, from June 2006 to July 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. The minimum follow-up was one year (five-years maximum follow-up). Soft postoperative dilationprotocol was prescribed until complete healing of the vagina. We did not prescribe long-term hard dilation systematically. Possible short-depth neovaginas were primarily treated with further temporary dilation using a hard bougie. Among the 189 included patients, we reported a 2.6% of rectovaginal wall perforations. In 37% of patients we had repeated compressive dressings and 15% of them required blood transfusions. Eighteen percent of patients presented with hematoma and 27% with early infectious complications. Delayed short-depth neovagina occurred in 21% of patients, requiring additional hard dilatation, with a 95.5% success rate. Total secondary vaginoplasty rate was 6.3% (4.7% skin graft and 3.7% bowel plasty). Secondary functional meatoplasty occurred in 1% of cases. Other secondary cosmetic surgery rates ranged between 3 to 20%. A low rate of secondary functional meatoplasty was showed after MTF SRS by penile skin inversion. Hard dilation was prescribed in case of healed short-depth vagina, with good efficiency in most of cases. Secondary vaginoplasty was required in cases of neovagina stenosis or persisting short-depth neovagina after failure of hard dilation protocol.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía de Reasignación de Sexo/efectos adversos , Adulto , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
Ann Chir Plast Esthet ; 64(2): 199-203, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269883

RESUMEN

Breast reconstruction by abdominal flap has evolved to ensure minimal donor-site morbidity with the description of Deep Inferior Epigastric artery Perforator flap (DIEP flap). Being of the same thickness and the same surface, the Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery flap (SIEA flap) does not require, for it harvesting, to open the abdominal fascia or to dissect through the muscles minimizing again donor-site sequelae. However, it is little used because of the variability of its vascularization and a higher failure rate than the DIEP in the literature. We believe that it is reasonable, in some cases, to harvest a SIEA flap instead of DIEP flap in mammary reconstruction. We present a technical note explaining our operative strategy for reliably taking a SIEA when the caliber of the vessels allows.


Asunto(s)
Pared Abdominal/irrigación sanguínea , Arterias Epigástricas/anatomía & histología , Mamoplastia , Colgajo Perforante/irrigación sanguínea , Recolección de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos , Pared Abdominal/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos
19.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 192, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541080

RESUMEN

To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava (Manihot esculenta), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC) from Escherichia coli, were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar. A total of 13 multigene expressing transgenic lines were generated and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR showed that the microbial genes are expressed in the transgenic roots. Multigene-expressing transgenic lines produced up to 60% more storage root yield than the non-transgenic control, likely due to glgC expression. Total protein extracted from the transgenic roots showed up to 10-fold higher starch-degrading activity in vitro than the protein extracted from the non-transgenic control. Interestingly, transgenic tubers released threefold more glucose than the non-transgenic control when incubated at 85°C for 21-h without exogenous application of thermostable enzymes, suggesting that the archaeal enzymes produced in planta maintain their activity and thermostability.

20.
Int J Legal Med ; 132(4): 1117-1124, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25773917

RESUMEN

Because acellular dental cementum is considered to be formed continually throughout life and to not undergo remodeling processes, cementochronology is considered to be a method with the potential for directly assessing chronological age. Considering that most previous studies on humans have assumed the superior performance of this method, it is surprising that this technique is not more widely adopted in anthropology. To understand this controversy, we highlight that there is no standardized procedure for sample preparation. The numerous technical approaches that exist impact the reliability of the method, and the recent creation of an international work group (Cementochronology Research Program) demonstrates the need for researchers to share their experience to overcome these obstacles. This paper aims to address this paradox by debating the aspects that contribute to the limited use of this method and by illustrating its potential through an application on forensic cases. A protocol, which was recently certified according to the ISO-9001, was applied to nine anthropological cases from the Forensic Medicine Institute of Lille (northern France) and compared with routine osteological and dental methods. The results show that traditional methods matched the known age due to the wide extent of their range, while the accuracy and precision of cementochronological estimates was also notable. This paper establishes that cementochronology may serve as a particularly important tool for age estimation for forensic anthropologists and should, at least, be used in addition to other methods.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por los Dientes/métodos , Cemento Dental/patología , Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto , Anciano , Huesos/patología , Femenino , Antropología Forense , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Masculino , Microscopía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Fotomicrografía , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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