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1.
Clin Transplant ; : e14237, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527535

RESUMEN

Teenagers represent a promising target population for organ donor registration efforts, as in the US teenagers age 15-17 may register their intent for organ donation, which later translates to consent at age 18. However, teenagers constitute a relatively understudied population in the organ donation literature. A sample of teenagers (N = 466) ranging in age from 13 to 19 was recruited from driver's education schools in Ohio and Michigan in order to learn more about their perceived reasons for and against registering as an organ donor. A coding scheme was developed, and responses were coded by two trained coders. In line with previous work in adult samples, our results revealed the three most common reasons for registering were prosocial benefits, rational arguments, and personal experience. In contrast to previous work among adults, the two most common reasons for not registering were bodily integrity and religious reasons. Several novel beliefs among teenagers that were both supportive and non-supportive of organ donor registration were identified. Findings from the current study are discussed with an emphasis on implications for practitioners working to promote organ donor registration among teenage audiences.

3.
J Health Commun ; 25(5): 374-384, 2020 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602417

RESUMEN

Preconception health (PCH) focuses on taking steps before a pregnancy to safeguard the health of the woman and future baby. Although recommendations to improve PCH target all people of reproductive age, research shows most interventions and messages focus primarily on women, which may contribute to existing normative beliefs that women are more responsible for protecting children's health. In this study, we explore society's gendered expectations of responsibility for engaging in recommended PCH behaviors (i.e., avoiding smoking, drinking, and environmental toxins). An applied thematic analysis of online survey responses from U.S. men and women (N = 573) identified five main themes and related subthemes: body and health, shared responsibility, choice and moral obligation, gender stereotypes, and doubt and uncertainty. Both men and women frequently referenced biological connections between prospective parents and offspring as justification for PCH behaviors. When challenging PCH recommendations, respondents mentioned excessive control of women and men's secondary role in reproduction. Overall, gender stereotypes were more commonly expressed in relation to men yet reflected both traditional and contemporary male roles (i.e., as supporters, co-parents). When judging personal responsibility, women commonly viewed PCH behaviors as the 'duty of a good mother'. Implications for PCH communication research and practice are discussed.

4.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(11): 677-683, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697597

RESUMEN

Reducing the rate of college binge drinking is a major public health goal. Social media sites such as Facebook serve as platforms for young adults' online communication, so they could potentially extend the reach of health campaign messages via retransmission. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that predict intentions to share health-related messages on social media. Drawing on the Spiral of Silence framework, the current research examined the effects of opinion climate, message efficacy, and publicness of social media on message retransmission intentions for anti-binge drinking "how-to" messages-messages that include advice and recommendations that target beliefs about efficacy. A 2 × 2 × 2 (efficacy: high vs. low × opinion climate: support vs. oppose × channel: public vs. private) between-subjects experiment was conducted. Data from 245 participants on Amazon Mechanical Turk demonstrated that people were more willing to share when they had an anti- rather than a pro-binge drinking opinion climate, when the messages were more useful, and when they were asked to share via private messaging rather than via public status updates. Theoretical and practical implications for the psychological mechanisms underlying message retransmission on social media are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Borrachera/prevención & control , Intención , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Borrachera/psicología , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Joven
5.
J Health Commun ; 24(10): 791-799, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559916

RESUMEN

Medical mistrust is associated with a decreased likelihood of engaging in various health behaviors, including health utilization and preventive screening. Despite calls for research to address medical mistrust, few studies have explicitly delved into antecedents to medical mistrust. The current study a) examines the relationship between discrimination experiences and medical mistrust and b) experimentally tests the influence of mediated vicarious discrimination on reported levels of medical mistrust. Participants (N = 198) were randomly assigned to view news stories in one of four experimental conditions: no exposure, no discrimination control, implicit racial discrimination, and explicit racial discrimination. Results indicated prior personal and vicarious discrimination experiences were related to medical mistrust. Furthermore, exposure to mediated discrimination influenced medical mistrust in different ways for Black and White participants. Among Black participants, medical mistrust was significantly higher for those exposed to the implicit racial discrimination condition than the control condition. Marginal differences were found for White participants such that those exposed to both explicit and implicit racial discrimination conditions reported higher medical mistrust than those exposed to the control condition. Our findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical implications for health communication scholars seeking to examine and influence health behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Racismo/psicología , Confianza/psicología , Afroamericanos/psicología , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Medio Oeste de Estados Unidos , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
7.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(4): 459-469, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552600

RESUMEN

Introduction As mounting evidence underscores the importance of both men and women taking steps before pregnancy to improve reproductive outcomes, public health priorities are shifting toward a more gender-inclusive program of promoting preconception health (PCH). This study examined whether prescriptive gender stereotypes, defined as men's and women's beliefs about PCH behavioral norms each gender should uphold, were positively associated with intentions to engage in behaviors to protect a future child's health. Methods Data came from a June 2017 online survey of 609 U.S. men and women ages 18-44. Two six-item scales of prescriptive same- and opposite-gender stereotypes were used to predict a six-item scale of intentions to engage in six recommended PCH behaviors (i.e., avoiding smoking, secondhand smoke, drinking, exposure to bisphenol A and pesticides, and preventing Zika infection). Multiple linear regression models also adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Results Among both male and female respondents, PCH prescriptive gender stereotypes for men were rated significantly lower than those for women. Adjusting for covariates, stronger prescriptive same-gender stereotypes were associated with increased PCH intentions (men: B = 0.496, p < 0.001; women: B = 0.486, p < 0.001). Opposite-gender stereotypes were also positively associated with PCH intentions (men: B = 0.205, p < 0.001; women: B = 0.235, p < 0.001). Current every day smoking status (men and women), being uninsured (women only), and having children (women only) were also associated with lower PCH intentions. Conclusion Prescriptive gender stereotypes may play an important, yet slightly different, role in promoting PCH behavior among men and women.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Motivación , Atención Preconceptiva/normas , Sexismo/psicología , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Atención Preconceptiva/tendencias , Factores Sexuales , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Health Commun ; 34(4): 500-510, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364737

RESUMEN

Against a backdrop of increasing smoke-free policies, electronic cigarette use, and discussion about public health risks posed by smoking and vaping, this study examines psychosocial predictors of intentions to ask others not to use e-cigarettes (vape) and smoke - i.e., assertive communication intentions. A national sample of U.S. adults (n = 474) reported assertive communication intentions for public venues. Psychosocial correlates included perceived risks of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) and secondhand vapor (SHVe), SHSe and SHVe attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy. Separate linear regression models were conducted for smoking and vaping assertive communication intention outcomes. Perceived risks and self-efficacy were associated with greater vaping and smoking assertive communication intentions; subjective norms were only significant for vaping assertive communication intentions. Although a majority of respondents indicated they were unlikely to intervene to voice objections about SHSe and SHVe in public venues, this study suggests that incidental or intentional messages and policies that influence perceptions of risk, norms, and efficacy could affect willingness to voice objections about others' vaping and smoking in public.


Asunto(s)
Asertividad , Comunicación en Salud , Fumar/psicología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Vapeo/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicología , Autoeficacia , Fumar/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos , Vapeo/efectos adversos
9.
Health Commun ; 34(7): 726-734, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388802

RESUMEN

Research on graphic health warnings (GHWs) indicates that beyond changing cognitions about the health effects of smoking, GHWs evoke emotional reactions that can influence quit-related outcomes. Emotions can be classified based on valence (positive or negative) and arousal (calm or excited). However, although considerable research has examined the differential effectiveness of positive versus negative GHW-evoked emotions, research investigating the role of arousal activation in quit-related behaviors is scarce. This study examined associations between quit-related outcomes (intention and attempt to quit) and GHWs-evoked negative emotions classified as high and low in arousal activation as well as cognitive reactions among smokers of low socioeconomic position (SEP). It also examined whether perceived health risks of smoking moderate the relationship between emotional and cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit-related outcomes. Data were collected from low SEP smokers in three Massachusetts communities. Participants were screened and randomized to view one of the nine GHWs initially proposed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and answered pre- and post-exposure questions. Results showed that GHW-evoked negative emotions high in arousal activation and cognitive reactions were both significantly associated with intention to quit during immediate post-test, controlling for age, warning label difference, and prior quit intention. However, these associations did not hold for quit attempts at follow-up. Perceived health risks of smoking moderated the association between cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit attempts at follow-up. The findings suggest that not all negative emotions evoked by GHWs are effective. Negative emotions high in arousal activation may be more effective in influencing quit-related behavioral intentions in low SEP groups. Additionally, unlike emotional reactions, cognitive reactions to GHWs may have effects that last relatively longer, but only among smokers who had low levels of perceived health risks of smoking at baseline.


Asunto(s)
Nivel de Alerta/fisiología , Cognición , Emociones , Etiquetado de Productos , Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Comunicación Persuasiva , Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
10.
Addict Behav ; 87: 196-199, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053705

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study describes prevalence and correlates of US adults' intentions to engage in assertive communication (i.e., speak up) about others' smoking and vaping in public venues. METHODS: Participants from a nationally representative online survey of 1551 US adults conducted October-December 2013 reported intentions to ask others not to smoke/vape in three types of public venues (restaurants, bars/casinos/nightclubs, and parks). We examined weighted prevalence of intentions and conducted weighted logistic regression. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of participants reported being likely to ask someone not to smoke in at least one venue compared with 19% for vaping. Assertive communication intentions for smoking in restaurants (48%), bars/casinos/nightclubs (35%), and parks (32%) were higher than for vaping (16%, 14%, and 12%, respectively). Significant correlates of assertive communication intentions in one or more venues were current smoking status, ever trying e-cigarettes, gender, age, health status, political ideology, and party identification. CONCLUSIONS: US adults were more willing to ask others not to smoke than vape. Intentions to speak up about smoking and vaping differed by venue, demographics, and cigarette/e-cigarette use. These findings help establish an evidence base to inform policymakers in developing strategies to promote compliance with smoke-free and vape-free laws.


Asunto(s)
Asertividad , Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Comunicación , Instalaciones Públicas , Vapeo/prevención & control , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Estados Unidos , Vapeo/psicología
11.
Patient Educ Couns ; 101(10): 1786-1794, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861339

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Medical mistrust is seen as a barrier to health promotion and addressing health disparities among marginalized populations. This study seeks to examine how medical mistrust has been measured as a step towards informing related health promotion efforts. METHODS: A systematic review of medical mistrust scales was conducted using four major databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Communication & Mass Media Complete. Databases were searched using the terms "medical mistrust scale" "medical mistrust" and "medical distrust." RESULTS: The search returned 1595 non-duplicate citations; after inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 185 articles were retained and coded. Almost a quarter of studies used a single-item or a few items. Among validated scales, the Group-Based Medical Mistrust Scale, Medical Mistrust Index, and Health Care System Distrust Scale were most frequently used. There were important differences among these scales such as the object of mistrust (e.g., system, individual physician) and referent specificity (e.g., group). The measurement of medical mistrust varied by health topic and sample population. CONCLUSION: These differences in scales and measurement should be considered in the context of intervention goals. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Researchers should be aware of differences in measures and choose appropriate measures for a given research question or intervention.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Confianza/psicología , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
J Cancer Educ ; 33(4): 749-756, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243956

RESUMEN

Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Evaluación de Necesidades , Neoplasias , Población Rural , Adulto , Concienciación , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Illinois , Adulto Joven
13.
Prev Med ; 111: 284-290, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154794

RESUMEN

Previous studies indicated that narrative health messages are more effective than non-narrative messages in influencing health outcomes. However, this body of evidence does not account for differences in health domain, and little is known about the effectiveness of this message execution strategy during public health emergencies. In this study, we examined the relative effectiveness of the two formats in influencing knowledge and perceived response efficacy related to prevention of pandemic influenza, and determined whether effects of message format vary across population sub-groups. Data for the study come from an experiment fielded in 2013 that involved a nationally representative sample of 627 American adults. Participants were randomly assigned to view either a narrative (n=322) or a non-narrative (n=305) video clip containing closely matched information about knowledge and preventive actions related to pandemic influenza, and completed pre- and post-viewing questions assessing knowledge and perceived response efficacy related to the prevention of pandemic influenza. Results indicated that participants in the non-narrative condition reported greater knowledge and rated pandemic influenza prevention measures as more effective compared with those in the narrative condition. Message format effects did not vary across population sub-groups; post-viewing scores of knowledge and perceptions related to pandemic influenza were consistently higher in the non-narrative condition compared with the narrative condition across five socio-demographic groups: age, gender, education, race/ethnicity and income. We concluded that didactic, non-narrative messages may be more effective than narrative messages to influence knowledge and perceptions during public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Urgencias Médicas , Comunicación en Salud , Narración , Comunicación Persuasiva , Salud Pública , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(10): 1143-1155, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866791

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. METHODS: Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities. Participants viewed and rated the effectiveness of nine GHWs. Mixed effects regression models predicted perceived effectiveness with gender and sexual orientation, adjusting for repeated measurements, GHWs viewed, age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and health status. RESULTS: Female heterosexuals rated GHWs as more effective than male heterosexual, lesbian, and transgender and other gender respondents. There was no significant difference between female and male heterosexuals versus gay, male bisexual, or female bisexual respondents. Differences by gender and sexual orientation were consistent across all nine GHWs. Significant correlates of higher perceived effectiveness included certain GHWs, older age, being African-American (vs white), being Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic), having less than high school education (vs associate degree or higher), and being current smokers (vs non-smokers). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived effectiveness of GHWs was lower in certain SGM groups. We recommend further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms for these findings and investments in research and policy to communicate anti-smoking messages more effectively to SGM populations.


Asunto(s)
Heterosexualidad/psicología , Etiquetado de Productos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Grupos de Población Continentales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Conducta Sexual , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Joven
15.
Prev Med ; 105: 97-103, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882742

RESUMEN

News coverage of novel tobacco products including e-cigarettes has framed the use of these products with both positive and negative slants. Conflicting information may shape public knowledge, perceptions of e-cigarettes, and their harms. The objective of this study is to assess effects of exposure to conflicting news coverage on US adults' beliefs about harms and benefits of e-cigarette use. We conducted a one-way between-subjects randomized controlled experiment in 2016 to compare the effects of viewing either 1) positive, 2) negative, 3) both positive and negative (conflicting) news headlines about the safety of using e-cigarettes, or 4) no-message. Participants were 2056 adults aged 18 and older from an online survey panel. Outcomes were beliefs about harms (3-item scale, α=0.76) and benefits (3-item scale, α=0.82) of using e-cigarettes. Participants who viewed negative headlines reported increased beliefs about harms (B=0.164, p=0.039) and lower beliefs about benefits of e-cigarette use (B=-0.216, p=0.009), compared with those in the positive headlines condition. These differences were replicated in subgroup analyses among never e-cigarette users. In addition, never e-cigarette users who viewed conflicting headlines reported lower beliefs about benefits of e-cigarette use (B=-0.221, p=0.030) than the positive headlines condition. Valence of news coverage about e-cigarettes (positive, negative, or conflicting) could influence people's beliefs about harms and benefits of e-cigarette use.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Vapeo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 39(2): 282-289, 2017 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084759

RESUMEN

Background: Large-scale influenza outbreaks over the last decade, such as SARS and H1N1, have brought to global attention the importance of emergency risk communication and prompted the international community to develop communication responses. Since pandemic outbreaks are relatively infrequent, there is a dearth of evidence addressing the following questions: (i) Have the resources invested in strategic and routine communication for past pandemic outbreaks yielded public health preparedness benefits? (ii) Have past efforts sensitized people to pay attention to new pandemic threats? The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that was followed closely by major media outlets in the USA provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between exposure to public communication about epidemics and public awareness and knowledge about new risks. Methods: In December, 2013, we surveyed a nationally representative sample of 627 American adults and examined the associations between people's awareness to prior pandemics and their awareness of and knowledge about MERS. Results: Awareness of prior pandemics was significantly associated with awareness and knowledge of MERS. The most common sources from which people first heard about MERS were also identified. Conclusions: Communication inequalities were observed between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic positions, suggesting a need for more effective pandemic communication.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Risk Anal ; 37(6): 1170-1180, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27595498

RESUMEN

Potentially harmful chemicals are detectable in e-cigarette secondhand vapor (hereafter SHV), contrary to advertising and marketing claims that it contains "only water vapor." We assessed public knowledge about the presence of chemicals in SHV and associations between knowledge and perceived harms of exposure to SHV. We conducted an online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,449 U.S. adults (GfK's KnowledgePanel) from October to December 2013. Respondents were asked whether e-cigarette vapor contains only water vapor, contains tar, or contains formaldehyde (true/ false/ do not know). Responses to these three items were recoded (1 = incorrect, 2 = do not know, and 3 = correct) and averaged into a knowledge scale. They were also asked if they perceived breathing SHV to be harmful to one's health (two-item scale) and comparative harm of breathing SHV versus breathing secondhand smoke (SHS). Multiple regression analyses were weighted to the U.S. adult population and adjusted for potential confounders. Most respondents (58-75%) reported not knowing whether SHV contained only water vapor, if SHV contained tar, and if it contained formaldehyde. African-American respondents (vs. white) and current smokers (vs. nonsmokers) had lower levels of knowledge about chemicals in SHV. Adjusting for covariates, correct knowledge about chemicals in SHV was associated with higher perceived harms about SHV for one's health and perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. These findings suggest a need to provide accurate information about the presence of chemicals in SHV (e.g., using product ingredient labels or public education).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Formaldehído , Gases , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Estados Unidos , Agua , Adulto Joven
18.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161124, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27517716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. METHODS: Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. RESULTS: A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. DISCUSSION: This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. IMPLICATIONS: Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/efectos adversos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(4): 603-12, 2016 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Americans remain under-informed about cancer and other health disparities and the social determinants of health (SDH). The news media may be contributing to this knowledge deficit, whether by discussing these issues narrowly or ignoring them altogether. Because local media are particularly important in influencing public opinion and support for public policies, this study examines the prevalence and framing of disparities/SDH in local mainstream and ethnic print news. METHODS: We conducted a multi-method content analysis of local mainstream (English language) and ethnic (Spanish language) print news in two lower income cities in New England with substantial racial/ethnic minority populations. After establishing intercoder reliability (κ = 0.63-0.88), coders reviewed the primary English and Spanish language newspaper in each city, identifying both disparities and non-disparities health stories published between February 2010 and January 2011. RESULTS: Local print news coverage of cancer and other health disparities was rare. Of 650 health stories published across four newspapers during the one-year study period, only 21 (3.2%) discussed disparities/SDH. Although some stories identified causes of and solutions for disparities, these were often framed in individual (e.g., poor dietary habits) rather than social contextual terms (e.g., lack of food availability/affordability). Cancer and other health stories routinely missed opportunities to discuss disparities/SDH. CONCLUSION: Local mainstream and ethnic media may be ideal targets for multilevel interventions designed to address cancer and other health inequalities. IMPACT: By increasing media attention to and framing of health disparities, we may observe important downstream effects on public opinion and support for structural solutions to disparities, particularly at the local level. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 603-12. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "MULTILEVEL APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING CANCER HEALTH DISPARITIES".


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Neoplasias/etnología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Prevalencia
20.
Health Commun ; 31(8): 974-87, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757354

RESUMEN

As countries implement Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, graphic warning labels that use images of people and their body parts to illustrate the consequences of smoking are being added to cigarette packs. According to exemplification theory, these case examples-exemplars-can shape perceptions about risk and may resonate differently among demographic subpopulations. Drawing on data from eight focus groups (N = 63) with smokers and nonsmokers from vulnerable populations, this qualitative study explores whether people considered exemplars in their reactions to and evaluations of U.S. graphic health warning labels initially proposed by the Food and Drug Administration. Participants made reference to prior and concurrent mass media messages and exemplars during the focus groups and used demographic cues in making sense of the images on the warning labels. Participants were particularly sensitive to age of the exemplars and how it might affect label effectiveness and beliefs about smoking. Race and socioeconomic status also were salient for some participants. We recommend that exemplars and exemplification be considered when selecting and evaluating graphic health warnings for tobacco labels and associated media campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Etiquetado de Productos/métodos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Percepción Social , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
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