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1.
Evolution ; 78(1): 127-145, 2024 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37919254

RESUMEN

Flea beetles of the genus Psylliodes have evolved specialized interactions with plant species belonging to several distantly related families, mainly Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, and Fagaceae. This diverse host use indicates that Psylliodes flea beetles are able to cope with different chemical defense metabolites, including glucosinolates, the characteristic defense metabolites of Brassicaceae. Here we investigated the evolution of host use and the emergence of a glucosinolate-specific detoxification mechanism in Psylliodes flea beetles. In phylogenetic analyses, Psylliodes species clustered into four major clades, three of which contained mainly species specialized on either Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, or Fagaceae. Most members of the fourth clade have broader host use, including Brassicaceae and Poaceae as major host plant families. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that Psylliodes flea beetles were initially associated with Brassicaceae and then either shifted to Solanaceae or Fagaceae, or expanded their host repertoire to Poaceae. Despite a putative ancestral association with Brassicaceae, we found evidence that the evolution of glucosinolate-specific detoxification enzymes coincides with the radiation of Psylliodes on Brassicaceae, suggesting that these are not required for using Brassicaceae as hosts but could improve the efficiency of host use by specialized Psylliodes species.


Asunto(s)
Brassicaceae , Escarabajos , Animales , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Escarabajos/genética , Filogenia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo
2.
Zookeys ; 1145: 181-189, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37234695

RESUMEN

Polyclada Chevrolat and Procalus Clark are flea beetle genera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini). Polyclada is endemic to the Afrotropical region, while Procalus has never been described outside of the Neotropical region. The new combination Procalusmaculipennis (Bryant, 1942), comb. nov. is proposed for Polycladamaculipennis Bryant, 1942. Its plausible type locality is Venezuela, and not Cameroon, as recorded on the labels of the type material, and hence the occurrence of P.maculipennis in Africa is questionable.

3.
Insects ; 14(4)2023 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37103209

RESUMEN

The distribution of global biodiversity can be investigated based on comprehensive datasets and many methods to process them. The taxonomic diversity of phytophagous insects is typically linked to plant diversity, which increases from temperate to tropical latitudes. In this paper, we explored the latitudinal distribution of the flea beetle genera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini) on the African continent. We divided the area into latitudinal belts and looked for possible correlations with the number and types of vegetational divisions, the area of each belt, and the bioclimatic variables. The number of flea beetle genera is related to the number and types of vegetation divisions rather than the area of each belt. Some bioclimatic variables are highly related to the number of genera, which is higher within those belts where climate factors limit the oscillation of temperature over the year and favor high precipitations, especially in the warmest months. These biotic and abiotic factors lead to a two-peak trend in the taxonomic richness of flea beetle genera from north to south. Genera endemic to restricted areas are linked to the presence of high mountain systems and increase the taxonomic richness of the belt they belong to.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36899728

RESUMEN

The Calabrian Alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris inexpectata) is a glacial relict with small and extremely localised populations in the Catena Costiera (Calabria, Southern Italy) and is considered to be "Endangered" by the Italian IUCN assessment. Climate-induced habitat loss and recent fish introductions in three lakes of the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) Laghi di Fagnano threaten the subspecies' survival in the core of its restricted range. Considering these challenges, understanding the distribution and abundance of this newt is crucial. We surveyed the spatially clustered wetlands in the SAC and neighbouring areas. First, we provide the updated distribution of this subspecies, highlighting fish-invaded and fishless sites historically known to host Calabrian Alpine newt populations and two new breeding sites that have been recently colonised. Then, we provide a rough estimate of the abundance, body size and body condition of breeding adults and habitat characteristics in fish-invaded and fishless ponds. We did not detect Calabrian Alpine newts at two historically known sites now invaded by fish. Our results indicate a reduction in occupied sites and small-size populations. These observations highlight the need for future strategies, such as fish removal, the creation of alternative breeding habitats and captive breeding, to preserve this endemic taxon.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553462

RESUMEN

The genus Argopistes (Chrysomelidae: Alticini) is the only group of flea beetles specialized in plant hosts in the family Oleaceae. In southern Africa, Argopistes are often found feeding on African Wild Olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) and European cultivated olive (O. e. subsp. europaea), and heavy infestations can be devastating to mature trees and compromise the development of young trees. Despite their negative agricultural impact, African Argopistes are an understudied group for which no genetic data were available. We assessed the species diversity of olive flea beetles in the Western Cape province of South Africa, the largest olive-producing region in sub-Saharan Africa, by collecting adult specimens on wild and cultivated olive trees between 2015 and 2017. Argopistes sexvittatus Bryant, 1922 (n = 289) dominated at all sampling sites, and Argopistes capensis Bryant, 1944 (n = 2) was found only once. Argopistes oleae Bryant, 1922, a third species previously reported in the region, was not found. The complete mitogenomes of one A. capensis and two A. sexvittatus (striped and black morphotypes) individuals were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction in the context of other 64 species. The two olive flea beetle species form a monophyletic clade with other Argopistes, supporting the hypothesis that the exclusive feeding habit on Oleaceae is an evolutionary adaptation in this genus.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Olea , Oleaceae , Siphonaptera , Animales , Filogenia , Olea/genética , Escarabajos/genética , Evolución Biológica , Oleaceae/genética
6.
PeerJ ; 10: e14446, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36518268

RESUMEN

Background: Suitable climate and availability of habitats for roosting, foraging, and dispersing are critical for the long-term persistence of bat species. The giant noctule (Nyctalus lasiopterus) represents one of the lesser-known European bats, especially regarding the environmental factors which shape its distribution. Methodology: We integrated climate-based ecological niche models with information about topography and rivers' network to model weighted suitability for N. lasiopterus in the western Palearctic. The weighted suitability map was then used to estimate connectivity among the distinct occurrence localities of N. lasiopterus, as well as from these latter towards European old-growth forests, under current conditions and different combinations of future timeframes (2030, 2050, 2070) and shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs 3.70 and 5.85). Results: Current weighted suitability is highest in Andalusia, northern Iberia, southwestern France, peninsular Italy, coastal Balkans and Anatolia, with dispersed suitable patches elsewhere. A north-eastward shift of weighted suitability emerges in the considered future scenarios, especially under SSP 5.85. The major current ecological corridors for N. lasiopterus are predicted within a 'belt' connecting northern Spain and southwestern France, as well as in the Italian Alps. However, following changes in weighted suitability, connectivity would increase in central-eastern Europe in the future. The bioclimatic niche of the western N. lasiopterus populations does not overlap with those of the central and eastern ones, and it only overlaps with climatic conditions characterizing old-growth forests in western Europe. Conclusions: The outcomes of our analyses would help in designing specific conservation measures for the distinct groups of giant noctule populations, favoring the possibility of range expansion and movement towards forested habitats.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Bosques , Francia , Peninsula Balcánica
7.
Insects ; 13(8)2022 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893023

RESUMEN

Coupling the geographic distribution and the ecological requirements of species often supports taxonomy and biogeography. In this contribution, we update the distribution of two flea beetle species of ethno-entomological interest, Polyclada bohemani and P. pectinicornis, by analyzing original data. In addition, we supply their main morphological diagnostic characters, describing their aedeagal and spermathecal shapes for the first time. We also assess their niche differences in terms of climatic and vegetation needs, by means of ecological niche modelling and remote sensing techniques. Several new localities were identified to improve knowledge of the geographical distribution of both species. Moreover, we located a wide climatic suitability overlap in East Africa for these two flea beetle species, while in other areas they show a clear separation. Our analysis also reports that P. bohemani is associated with areas of denser tree cover than P. pectinicornis. Finally, the lectotypes of Diamphidia bohemani Baly, 1861, Clytra pectinicornis Olivier, 1791, and Diamphidia compacta Fairmaire, 1887 are here designated and the new synonymy Clytra pectinicornis Olivier = Diamphidia compacta Fairmaire syn.nov. is proposed.

8.
Zookeys ; 1084: 119-137, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177948

RESUMEN

Calotheca Heyden is a flea beetle genus with a largely sub-Saharan distribution and currently comprising 34 species. The examination of new material is revealing an increase in species richness and intraspecific variability. Calothecacarolineae sp. nov. and C.wanati sp. nov., both from KwaZulu-Natal in the Republic of South Africa, are here described and attributed to the C.nigromaculata (Jacoby) species group, mainly based on genitalic characters. Photographs of the main diagnostic characters are provided, including the habitus, median lobe of the aedeagus, and spermatheca. Information on the geographic distribution and host plants of these species is also provided.

9.
Ecol Evol ; 12(2): e8430, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35222942

RESUMEN

The influence of climate on the distribution of taxa has been extensively investigated in the last two decades through Habitat Suitability Models (HSMs). In this context, the Worldclim database represents an invaluable data source as it provides worldwide climate surfaces for both historical and future time horizons. Thousands of HSMs-based papers have been published taking advantage of Worldclim 1.4, the first online version of this repository. In 2017, Worldclim 2.1 was released. Here, we evaluated spatially explicit prediction mismatch at continental scale, focusing on Europe, between HSMs fitted using climate surfaces from the two Worldclim versions (between-version differences). To this aim, we simulated occurrence probability and presence-absence across Europe of four virtual species (VS) with differing climate-occurrence relationships. For each VS, we fitted HSMs upon uncorrelated bioclimatic variables derived from each Worldclim version at three grid resolutions. For each factor combination, HSMs attaining sufficient discrimination performance on spatially independent test data were projected across Europe under current conditions and various future scenarios, and importance scores of the single variables were computed. HSMs failed in accurately retrieving the simulated climate-occurrence relationships for the climate-tolerant VS and the one occurring under a narrow combination of climatic conditions. Under current climate, noticeable between-version prediction mismatch emerged across most of Europe for these two VSs, whose simulated suitability mainly depended upon diurnal or yearly variability in temperature; differently, between-version differences were more clustered toward areas showing extreme values, like mountainous massifs or southern regions, for VSs responding to average temperature and precipitation trends. Under future climate, the chosen emission scenarios and Global Climate Models did not evidently influence between-version prediction discrepancies, while grid resolution synergistically interacted with VSs' niche characteristics in determining extent of such differences. Our findings could help in re-evaluating previous biodiversity-related works relying on geographical predictions from Worldclim-based HSMs.

10.
Insects ; 14(1)2022 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661947

RESUMEN

New Caledonia is one of the major biodiversity hotspots. The flea beetle genus Arsipoda (Coleoptera Chrysomelidae) is present with 21 species, all endemic. We investigated, using GIS analyses and ecological niche models, the habitat preferences of these species in terms of vegetation types, altitude, and climate, and assessed the adequacy of knowledge on the spatial parameters affecting the distribution of the genus in New Caledonia. Altitude and geology seem to play an important role in shaping species distribution. Volcanic substrate allows the growth of ultramafic vegetation, which includes most of their host plants. From a biogeographic and conservation perspective, our results report a deep link between Arsipoda species and their habitats, making them particularly sensitive to environmental modifications.

11.
Insects ; 12(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940202

RESUMEN

Areas of endemism (AoEs) are a central area of research in biogeography. Different methods have been proposed for their identification in the literature. In this paper, a "grid-free" method based on the "Density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise" (DBSCAN) is here used for the first time to locate areas of endemism for species belonging to the beetle tribe Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Alticini in the Afrotropical Region. The DBSCAN is compared with the "Geographic Interpolation of Endemism" (GIE), another "grid-free" method based on a kernel density approach. DBSCAN and GIE both return largely overlapping results, detecting the same geographical locations for the AoEs, but with different delimitations, surfaces, and number of detected sinendemisms. The consensus maps obtained by GIE are in general less clearly delimited than the maps obtained by DBSCAN, but nevertheless allow us to evaluate the core of the AoEs more precisely, representing of the percentage levels of the overlap of the centroids. DBSCAN, on the other hand, appears to be faster and more sensitive in identifying the AoEs. To facilitate implementing the delimitation of the AoEs through the procedure proposed by us, a new tool named "CLUENDA" (specifically developed is in GIS environment) is also made available.

12.
PeerJ ; 9: e12387, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820174

RESUMEN

AIMS: Rice is a staple food for many countries, being fundamental for a large part of the worlds' population. In sub-Saharan Africa, its importance is currently high and is likely to become even more relevant, considering that the number of people and the per-capita consumption are both predicted to increase. The flea beetles belonging to the Chaetocnema pulla species group (pulla group), a harmful rice pest, are an important vector of the Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, a disease which leads even to 80-100% yield losses in rice production. We present a continental-scale study aiming at: (1) locating current and future suitable territories for both pulla group and rice; (2) identifying areas where rice cultivations may occur without suffering the presence of pulla group using an Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) approach; (3) estimating current and future connectivity among pulla group populations and areas predicted to host rice cultivations, based on the most recent land-use estimates for future agricultural trends; (4) proposing a new connectivity index called "Pest Aggression Index" (PAI) to measure the agricultural susceptibility to the potential future invasions of pests and disease; (5) quantifying losses in terms of production when rice cultivations co-occur with the pulla group and identifying the SSA countries which, in the future inferred scenarios, will potentially suffer the greatest losses. LOCATION: Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Since the ongoing climate and land-use changes affect species' distributions, we first assess the impact of these changes through a spatially-jackknifed Maxent-based Ecological Niche Modelling in GIS environment, for both the pulla group and rice, in two climatic/socioeconomic future scenarios (SSP_2.45 and 3.70). We then assess the connectivity potential of the pulla group populations towards rice cultivations, for both current and future predictions, through a circuit theory-based approach (Circuitscape implemented in Julia language). We finally measure the rice production and GPD loss per country through the spatial index named "Pest Aggression Index", based on the inferred connectivity magnitude. RESULTS: The most considerable losses in rice production are observed for Liberia, Sierra Leone and Madagascar in all future scenarios (2030, 2050, 2070). The future economic cost, calculated as USD lost from rice losses/country's GDP results are high for Central African Republic (-0.6% in SSP_2.45 and -3.0% in SSP_3.70) and Guinea-Bissau (-0.4% in SSP_2.45 and -0.68% in SSP_3.70), with relevant losses also obtained for other countries. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Since our results are spatially explicit and focused on each country, we encourage careful land-use planning. Our findings could support best practices to avoid the future settlement of new cultivations in territories where rice would be attacked by pulla group and the virus, bringing economic and biodiversity losses.

13.
Zookeys ; 1031: 125-131, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958909

RESUMEN

Belarima violacea (Lucas) is an uncommon species of the Galerucini tribe (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae) distributed in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, and recorded here for the first time for the European fauna. One male and one female were found, not far from each other, wandering on the sand among the vegetation of the shifting dunes of the Tuscan coast (Rosignano Solvay, Spiagge Bianche). Some hypotheses are proposed to explain the presence of B. violacea on the Italian coast. Morphological descriptions of external habitus, aedeagus and spematheca, the latter here described for the first time, are also provided, accompanied by micro-photographs.

14.
Ecol Evol ; 11(9): 3991-4011, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976789

RESUMEN

Transferability of habitat suitability models (HSMs), essential to accurately predict outside calibration conditions, has been seldom investigated at intraspecific level. We targeted Vipera ursinii ursinii, a meadow viper from southeastern France and central Italy, to assess determinants of transferability among geographically disjunct populations. We fitted HSMs upon occurrences of the Italian and French populations separately, as well as on the combined occurrence dataset. Internal transferability of HSMs, on spatially independent test data drawn from the calibration region, and their external transferability on the geographically disjunct populations were evaluated according to (a) use of full or spatially rarefied presence datasets; (b) ecology-driven or statistics-driven filtering of predictors; (c) modeling algorithm, testing generalized additive models and gradient boosting models; and (d) multivariate environmental novelty within test data. Niche overlap between French and Italian populations was also tested. Niche overlap was low, but niche divergence between the two populations' clusters was not corroborated. Nonetheless, wider niche breadth and heterogeneity of background environmental conditions characterizing the French populations led to low intercluster transferability. Although models fitted on the combined datasets did not attain consistently higher internal transferability than those separately fitted for the French and Italian populations, ensemble projection from the HSMs fitted on the joint occurrences produced more consistent suitability predictions across the full range of V. u. ursinii. Spatial thinning of occurrences ameliorated internal transferability but did not affect external transferability. The two approaches to predictors filtering did not differ in transferability of the respective HSMs but led to discrepant estimated environment-occurrence relationships and spatial predictions, while the two algorithms attained different relative rankings depending on the considered prediction task. Multivariate novelty of projection sites was negatively correlated to both internal transferability and external transferability. Our findings clarify issues researchers should keep in mind when using HSMs to get predictions across geographically disjunct populations.

15.
Insects ; 12(4)2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805394

RESUMEN

The genus Calotheca Heyden (Chrysomelidae) is mainly distributed in the eastern and southern parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with some extensions northward, while Blepharidina Bechyné occurs in the intertropical zone of Africa, with two subgenera, Blepharidina s. str. and Blepharidina(Afroblepharida) Biondi and D'Alessandro. These genera show different ecological preferences. Through an up-to-date presence-absence dataset, in the light of the terrestrial ecoregions of sub-Saharan Africa and the distribution of their possible host plants, we interpreted the pattern of occurrence of these three supraspecific taxa, by geostatistical analyses in GIS and R environments. The separation of Blepharidina from Calotheca was probably driven by changes in climate as adaptation to more xeric and warm environments with a major occupancy of semidesert and savannah habitats, especially in the Afroblepharida species. Based on our data and analyses, Calotheca is mainly associated with Searsia (Anacardiaceae), and Blepharidina is likely associated with Commiphora (Burseraceae). This hypothesis is also corroborated by the widespread and even dominance of the Commiphora plants in the ecoregions where both Blepharidina s.str. and, above all, Afroblepharida, are more common. The main areas of endemism of the two genera are also differently located: Calotheca in the temperate zone; Blepharidina within the intertropical belt.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19043, 2020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149242

RESUMEN

The distribution patterns of stygobitic crustacean harpacticoids at the boundaries of three different groundwater habitat types in Europe were analysed through a GIS proximity analysis and fitted to exponential models. The results showed that the highest frequency of occurrences was recorded in aquifers in consolidated rocks, followed by the aquifers in unconsolidated sediments and, finally, by the practically non-aquiferous rocks. The majority of the stygobitic harpacticoid species were not able to disperse across the boundaries between two adjacent habitats, with 66% of the species occurring in a single habitat type. The species were not evenly distributed, and 35-69% of them occurred from 2 to 6 km to the boundaries, depending on the adjacent habitat types. The distribution patterns were shaped by features extrinsic to the species, such as the hydrogeological properties of the aquifers, and by species' intrinsic characteristics such as the preference for a given habitat type and dispersal abilities. Most boundaries between adjacent habitat types resulted to be "breaches", that is transmissive borders for stygobitic harpacticoids, while others were "impermeable walls", that is absorptive borders. Our results suggest that conservation measures of groundwater harpacticoids should consider how species are distributed within the different groundwater habitat types and at their boundaries to ensure the preservation of species metapopulations within habitat patches and beyond them.


Asunto(s)
Crustáceos , Ecosistema , Agua Subterránea , Animales , Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Geografía , Análisis Espacial
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20523, 2020 11 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239619

RESUMEN

Long-distance migration of insects impacts food security, public health, and conservation-issues that are especially significant in Africa. Windborne migration is a key strategy enabling exploitation of ephemeral havens such as the Sahel, however, its knowledge remains sparse. In this first cross-season investigation (3 years) of the aerial fauna over Africa, we sampled insects flying 40-290 m above ground in Mali, using nets mounted on tethered helium-filled balloons. Nearly half a million insects were caught, representing at least 100 families from thirteen orders. Control nets confirmed that the insects were captured at altitude. Thirteen ecologically and phylogenetically diverse species were studied in detail. Migration of all species peaked during the wet season every year across localities, suggesting regular migrations. Species differed in flight altitude, seasonality, and associated weather conditions. All taxa exhibited frequent flights on southerly winds, accounting for the recolonization of the Sahel from southern source populations. "Return" southward movement occurred in most taxa. Estimates of the seasonal number of migrants per species crossing Mali at latitude 14°N were in the trillions, and the nightly distances traversed reached hundreds of kilometers. The magnitude and diversity of windborne insect migration highlight its importance and impacts on Sahelian and neighboring ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Migración Animal/fisiología , Biodiversidad , Insectos/fisiología , Animales , Vuelo Animal/fisiología , Geografía , Malí , Filogenia , Estaciones del Año , Especificidad de la Especie
18.
Zootaxa ; 4859(3): zootaxa.4859.3.5, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056190

RESUMEN

Based on a well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Groehnaltica batophiloides gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated using X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT). The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. In the extant Eurasian fauna Groehnaltica shows most similarity to Batophila Foudras, 1859. However, it is also similiar to a Palaeotropical group of genera, including Bikasha Maulik, 1931, and Lanka Maulik, 1926. Groehnaltica batophiloides is the tenth member of Alticini to be described from Baltic amber, adding to our understanding of the evolutionary history of this diverse group of beetles.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Siphonaptera , Ámbar , Animales , Países Bálticos , Microtomografía por Rayos X
19.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.8, 2020 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056882

RESUMEN

Adamastoraltica humicola gen. nov. and sp. nov. from the Republic of South Africa (Western Cape Province) is described. The new genus, collected in the humus, shows external characteristics typical of the moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera, mainly: very small size, very convex and subglobose body, antennae with enlarged apical antennomeres, strongly reduced hind wings, greatly simplified and shortened mesothorax and metathorax, and elytra lacking humeral calli. Adamastoraltica gen. nov. shows some similarities with the Asian genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov, Chamorro, Prathapan, Ge Yang. However, the absence of the scutellum brings this new genus close to Stegnaspea Baly, also occurring in Western Cape Province. For the new flea beetle genus, data on distribution are supplied, along with preliminary ecological notes. Photomicrographs of main morphological characters, including male and female genitalia, and metafemoral extensor tendon are also provided. Finally, the updated distribution of the moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera described so far, excluding the subtribe Monoplatina, is supplied.


Asunto(s)
Briófitas , Escarabajos , Siphonaptera , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Femenino , Masculino
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233573, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437469

RESUMEN

The accuracy of the DNA barcoding tool depends on the existence of a comprehensive archived library of sequences reliably determined at species level by expert taxonomists. However, misidentifications are not infrequent, especially following large-scale DNA barcoding campaigns on diverse and taxonomically complex groups. In this study we used the species-rich flea beetle genus Longitarsus, that requires a high level of expertise for morphological species identification, as a case study to assess the accuracy of the DNA barcoding tool following several optimization procedures. We built a cox1 reference database of 1502 sequences representing 78 Longitarsus species, among which 117 sequences (32 species) were newly generated using a non-invasive DNA extraction method that allows keeping reference voucher specimens. Within this dataset we identified 69 taxonomic inconsistencies using barcoding gap analysis and tree topology methods. Threshold optimisation and a posteriori taxonomic revision based on newly generated reference sequences and metadata allowed resolving 44 sequences with ambiguous and incorrect identification and provided a significant improvement of the DNA barcoding accuracy and identification efficacy. Unresolved taxonomic uncertainties, due to overlapping intra- and inter-specific levels of divergences, mainly regards the Longitarsus pratensis species complex and polyphyletic groups L. melanocephalus, L. nigrofasciatus and L. erro. Such type of errors indicates either poorly established taxonomy or any biological processes that make mtDNA groups poorly predictive of species boundaries (e.g. recent speciation or interspecific hybridisation), thus providing directions for further integrative taxonomic and evolutionary studies. Overall, this study underlines the importance of reference vouchers and high-quality metadata associated to sequences in reference databases and corroborates, once again, the key role of taxonomists in any step of the DNA barcoding pipeline in order to generate and maintain a correct and functional reference library.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/genética , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Animales , Escarabajos/clasificación , ADN/genética , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos , Evolución Molecular
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