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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(4): 047002, 2019 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768353

RESUMEN

The study of superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces has generated great interest in the last decades, leading to the observation of spin-aligned triplet supercurrents and 0-π transitions in Josephson junctions where two superconductors are separated by an itinerant ferromagnet. Recently, spin-filter Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic barriers have shown unique transport properties, when compared to standard metallic ferromagnetic junctions, due to the intrinsically nondissipative nature of the tunneling process. Here we present the first extensive characterization of spin polarized Josephson junctions down to 0.3 K, and the first evidence of an incomplete 0-π transition in highly spin polarized tunnel ferromagnetic junctions. Experimental data are consistent with a progressive enhancement of the magnetic activity with the increase of the barrier thickness, as neatly captured by the simplest theoretical approach including a nonuniform exchange field. For very long junctions, unconventional magnetic activity of the barrier points to the presence of spin-triplet correlations.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(7): 077003, 2018 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169105

RESUMEN

At a superconductor-ferromagnet (S/F) interface, the F layer can introduce a magnetic exchange field within the S layer, which acts to locally spin split the superconducting density of states. The effect of magnetic exchange fields on superconductivity has been thoroughly explored at S-ferromagnet insulator (S/FI) interfaces for isotropic s-wave S and a thickness that is smaller than the superconducting coherence length. Here we report a magnetic exchange field effect at an all-oxide S/FI interface involving the anisotropic d-wave high temperature superconductor praseodymium cerium copper oxide (PCCO) and the FI praseodymium calcium manganese oxide (PCMO). The magnetic exchange field in PCCO, detected via magnetotransport measurements through the superconducting transition, is localized to the PCCO/PCMO interface with an average magnitude that depends on the presence or absence of magnetic domain walls in PCMO. The results are promising for the development of all-oxide superconducting spintronic devices involving unconventional pairing and high temperature superconductors.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(1): 015804, 2018 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135466

RESUMEN

Obtaining high efficiency spin filtering at room temperature using spinel ferromagnetic tunnel barriers has been hampered by the formation of antiphase boundaries due to their difference in lattice parameters between barrier and electrodes. In this work we demonstrate the use of LiTi2O4 thin films as electrodes in an all-spinel oxide CoFe2O4-based spin filter devices. These structures show nearly perfect epitaxy maintained throughout the structure and so minimise the potential for APBs formation. The LiTi2O4 in these devices is superconducting and so measurements at low temperature have been used to explore details of the tunnelling and Josephson junction behaviour.

4.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40604, 2017 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106102

RESUMEN

Spin filter superconducting S/I/N tunnel junctions (NbN/GdN/TiN) show a robust and pronounced Zero Bias Conductance Peak (ZBCP) at low temperatures, the magnitude of which is several times the normal state conductance of the junction. Such a conductance anomaly is representative of unconventional superconductivity and is interpreted as a direct signature of an odd frequency superconducting order.

5.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8053, 2015 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26329811

RESUMEN

The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(6): 067201, 2015 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296128

RESUMEN

Epitaxial Ho/Nb/Ho and Dy/Nb/Dy superconducting spin valves show a reversible change in the zero-field critical temperature (ΔT(c0)) of ∼400 mK and an infinite magnetoresistance on changing the relative magnetization of the Ho or Dy layers. Unlike transition-metal superconducting spin valves, which show much smaller ΔT(c0) values, our results can be quantitatively modeled. However, the fits require an extraordinarily low induced exchange splitting which is dramatically lower than known values for rare-earth Fermi-level electrons, implying that new models for the magnetic proximity effect may be required.

7.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7376, 2015 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26054495

RESUMEN

The interfacial coupling of two materials with different ordered phases, such as a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), is driving new fundamental physics and innovative applications. For example, the creation of spin-filter Josephson junctions and the demonstration of triplet supercurrents have suggested the potential of a dissipationless version of spintronics based on unconventional superconductivity. Here we demonstrate evidence for active quantum applications of S-F-S junctions, through the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Josephson junctions with GdN ferromagnetic insulator barriers. We show a clear transition from thermal to quantum regime at a crossover temperature of about 100 mK at zero magnetic field in junctions, which present clear signatures of unconventional superconductivity. Following previous demonstration of passive S-F-S phase shifters in a phase qubit, our result paves the way to the active use of spin filter Josephson systems in quantum hybrid circuits.

8.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 26(45): 453201, 2014 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25318455

RESUMEN

Ferromagnetism and conventional singlet superconductivity can be regarded as competing ordering phenomena. A considerable body of theoretical work over the past twenty years has predicted that at interfaces between the two systems competition or coupling between superconducting and magnetic phenomena are possible. Despite the very short lengthscales over which some of the phenomena exist, many of these predictions have been experimentally realized. The aim of this topical review is to provide an overview of the experimental position and to discuss the potential developments and applications of existing results.

9.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4771, 2014 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154467

RESUMEN

Magnetic inhomogeneity at a superconductor (S)-ferromagnet (F) interface converts spin-singlet Cooper pairs into spin-one triplet pairs. These pairs are immune to the pair-breaking exchange field in F and support a long-range proximity effect. Although recent experiments have confirmed the existence of spin-polarized triplet supercurrents in S-F-S Josephson junctions, reversible control of the supercurrent has been impossible because of the robust preconfigured nature of the inhomogeneity. Here, we use a barrier comprising three F layers whose relative magnetic orientation, and hence the interfacial inhomogeneity, can be controlled by small magnetic fields; we show that this enables full control of the triplet supercurrent and, by using finite element micromagnetic simulations, we can directly relate the experimental data to the theoretical models which provide a general framework to understand the role played by magnetic states in long-range supercurrent modulation.

10.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3340, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24535069

RESUMEN

Higher harmonics in current-phase relations of Josephson Junctions are predicted to be observed when the first harmonic is suppressed. Conventional theoretical models predict higher harmonics to be extremely sensitive to changes in barrier thickness, temperature, and so on. Here we report experiments with Josephson junctions incorporating a spin-dependent tunnelling barrier, revealing a current-phase relation for highly spin polarized barriers that is purely second harmonic in nature and is insensitive to changes in barrier thickness. This observation implies that the standard theory of Cooper pair transport through tunnelling barriers is not applicable for spin-dependent tunnelling barriers.

11.
Sci Rep ; 4: 3762, 2014 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24446019

RESUMEN

Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications.


Asunto(s)
Conductividad Eléctrica , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Microondas
12.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3048, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24401841

RESUMEN

Spin selectivity in a ferromagnet results from a difference in the density of up- and down-spin electrons at the Fermi energy as a consequence of which the scattering rates depend on the spin orientation of the electrons. This property is utilized in spintronics to control the flow of electrons by ferromagnets in a ferromagnet (F1)/normal metal (N)/ferromagnet (F2) spin valve, where F1 acts as the polarizer and F2 the analyser. The feasibility of superconducting spintronics depends on the spin sensitivity of ferromagnets to the spin of the equal spin-triplet Cooper pairs, which arise in superconductor (S)-ferromagnet (F) heterostructures with magnetic inhomogeneity at the S-F interface. Here we report a critical temperature dependence on magnetic configuration in current-in-plane F-S-F spin valves with a holmium spin mixer at the S-F interface providing evidence of a spin selectivity of the ferromagnets to the spin of the triplet Cooper pairs.

13.
Adv Mater ; 25(39): 5581-5, 2013 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23893892

RESUMEN

Tunnel junctions incorporating GdN ferromagnetic semiconductor barriers show a spin polarization exceeding 90% and a high conductance. These devices show an unusual low-bias conductance peak arising from a strong bias-dependence of the spin polarization. This originates from a strong magneto-electric coupling within a double Schottky barrier formed with the NbN electrodes.

14.
Sci Rep ; 2: 699, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23019520

RESUMEN

Conventional spin-singlet Cooper pairs convert into spin-triplet pairs in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions in which the superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces (S/F) are magnetically inhomogeneous. Although much of the theoretical work describing this triplet proximity effect has considered ideal junctions with magnetic domain walls (DW) at the interfaces, in practice it is not easily possible to isolate a DW and propagate a supercurrent through it. The rare-earth magnet Gd can form a field-tuneable in-plane Bloch DW if grown between non-co-linearly aligned ferromagnets. Here we report supercurrents through magnetic Ni-Gd-Ni nanopillars: by field annealing at room temperature, we are able to modify the low temperature DW-state in Gd and this result has a striking effect on the junction supercurrent at 4.2 K. We argue that this result can only be explained in terms of the interconversion of triplet and singlet pairs, the efficiency of which depends on the magnetic helicity of the structure.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Electromagnéticos , Imanes , Campos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Modelos Teóricos , Nanotecnología , Temperatura
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(16): 166802, 2012 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22680748

RESUMEN

The two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between LaAlO(3) and SrTiO(3) has become one of the most fascinating and highly debated oxide systems of recent times. Here we propose that a one-dimensional electron gas can be engineered at the step edges of the LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interface. These predictions are supported by first-principles calculations and electrostatic modeling which elucidate the origin of the one-dimensional electron gas as an electronic reconstruction to compensate a net surface charge in the step edge. The results suggest a novel route to increasing the functional density in these electronic interfaces.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(41): 416006, 2011 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21959945

RESUMEN

We report the structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited epitaxial Ho. We present room temperature characterization by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction and temperature dependent characterization by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The data show the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature. Films of different thickness, exhibiting signs of differing epitaxially induced strain, tend towards specific spin-slip phases in the low temperature regime. The more highly strained thinnest films tend towards values with a longer magnetic wavelength.

17.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 369(1948): 3198-213, 2011 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21727121

RESUMEN

The fabrication of nanopillar devices has been essential to the understanding and development of metallic spin electronics. This paper discusses the processes that can be used for the fabrication of such structures and the challenges in which they present, with particular emphasis on extreme sub-micrometre pillar structures suitable for the study of spin-transfer torque effects.

18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(30): 305002, 2011 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21709353

RESUMEN

We show the influence of pulsed laser deposition fluence on the transport properties of the LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) (LAO/STO) heterointerface. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and medium energy ion spectrometry enables us to deduce that the electronic behaviour is extremely sensitive to the stoichiometry of the LAO layer as well as the structural quality of the STO surface. An optimum balance of these two quantities is demonstrated for an intermediate laser fluence.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(20): 207001, 2010 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867052

RESUMEN

π coupling may arise when a ferromagnet forms a link between two superconductors of an artificial Josephson junction. Using a trilayer Fe/Cr/Fe barrier in which the Cr thickness determines the alignment of the Fe layers, we show that the critical currents are substantially enhanced in the antiparallel configuration. The result agrees with existing superconductor-ferromagnet proximity theory according to which the phase-controlling effects of ferromagnets on Cooper pairs can be minimized by arranging their moments in a nonparallel way [Bergeret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3140 (2001); Blanter, Phys. Rev. B 69, 024525 (2004)].

20.
Science ; 329(5987): 59-61, 2010 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20538913

RESUMEN

The superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect describes the fast decay of a spin-singlet supercurrent originating from the superconductor upon entering the neighboring ferromagnet. After placing a conical magnet (holmium) at the interface between the two, we detected a long-ranged supercurrent in the ferromagnetic layer. The long-range effect required particular thicknesses of the spiral magnetically ordered holmium, consistent with spin-triplet proximity theory. This enabled control of the electron pairing symmetry by tuning the degree of magnetic inhomogeneity through the thicknesses of the holmium injectors.

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