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1.
Am J Health Promot ; : 890117120911885, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186199

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine factors associated with frequency of plain water (ie, tap, bottled, and unflavored sparkling water) intake among US high school students. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SETTING: The 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. SUBJECTS: US high school students with plain water intake data (N = 10 698). MEASURES: The outcome was plain water intake. Exposure variables were demographics, academic grades, and behavioral characteristics. ANALYSIS: We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with infrequent plain water intake (<3 vs ≥3 times/day). RESULTS: Overall, 48.7% of high school students reported drinking plain water <3 times/day. Factors associated with infrequent plain water intake were younger age (≤15 years; aOR = 1.20, CI = 1.05-1.37); earning mostly D/F grades (aOR = 1.37, CI = 1.07-1.77); consuming regular soda 1 to 6 times/week (aOR = 1.92, CI = 1.67-2.20) or ≥1 time/day (aOR = 3.23, CI = 2.65-3.94), sports drinks 1 to 6 times/week (aOR = 1.30, CI = 1.14-1.49), milk <2 glasses/day (aOR = 1.51, CI = 1.31-1.73), fruits <2 times/day (aOR = 1.92, CI = 1.66-2.22), and vegetables <3 times/day (aOR = 2.42, CI = 2.04-2.89); and being physically active ≥60 minutes/day on <5 days/week (aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.60-2.08). Students with obesity were less likely to have infrequent water intake (aOR = 0.63, CI = 0.53-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent plain water intake was associated with younger age, poor academic grades, poor dietary behaviors, and physical inactivity. These findings can inform intervention efforts to increase water intake to promote healthy lifestyles among adolescents.

2.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E07, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971897

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among US adults (n = 68,896) residing in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties, by state, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used multinomial logistic regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for daily (≥1 time per day) SSB intake. Overall, 26.0% of respondents reported daily SSB intake, with significantly higher prevalence in nonmetropolitan counties (30.9%) than in metropolitan counties (24.8%) (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.39). This same pattern was significant in 5 of 11 states with metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. These findings could inform efforts to reduce frequent SSB intake in nonmetropolitan areas.

3.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 76-82, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409090

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine associations of adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with parent SSB intake and parent and adolescent attitudes about limiting SSB and junk food (SSB/JF) intake. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SETTING: The 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study. SAMPLE: Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 1555). MEASURES: The outcome was adolescent SSB intake. Exposure variables were parent SSB intake, sociodemographics, and parent and adolescent attitudes about SSB/JF intake (responses: agree, neither, or disagree). ANALYSIS: Multinomial logistic regressions estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Half (49.5%) of adolescents and 33.7% of parents consumed SSB ≥1 time/day. Parent daily SSB intake was associated with adolescent daily SSB intake (aOR = 8.9; CI = 4.6-17.3) [referent: no consumption]. Adolescents who disagreed on having confidence to limit SSB/JF intake had higher odds of daily SSB intake (aOR = 3.5; CI = 1.8-6.8), as did those who disagreed they felt bad about themselves if they did not limit SSB/JF intake (aOR = 1.9; CI=1.1-3.3), compared to adolescents who agreed with these attitudes. No parental attitudes were significant. CONCLUSION: Higher odds of daily SSB intake among adolescents was associated with parent SSB intake and adolescent attitudes about confidence in, and feeling bad about, limiting SSB/JF intake. Parent attitudes were not associated with daily adolescent SSB intake. Efforts to reduce adolescent SSB intake could consider strategies geared toward improving adolescent attitudes and dietary behaviors and parental SSB intake.

4.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1714-1715, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688881
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1057-1061, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751324

RESUMEN

Obesity negatively affects children's health because of its associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors, type 2 diabetes, asthma, fatty liver disease, victimization stemming from social stigma and bullying, and poor mental health (e.g., anxiety and depression) (1). Children who have overweight or obesity in early childhood are approximately four times as likely to have overweight or obesity in young adulthood as their normal weight peers (2). Obesity prevalence is especially high among children from low-income families (3). In 2010, the overall upward trend in obesity prevalence turned downward among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); prevalence decreased significantly in all racial/ethnic groups and in 34 of the 56 WIC state or territory agencies during 2010-2014 (4). A more recent study among young children enrolled in WIC reported that the overall obesity prevalence decreased from 15.9% in 2010 to 13.9% in 2016 and statistically significant decreases were observed in all age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups (3). However, this study did not provide obesity trends at the state level. In collaboration with USDA, CDC used data from the WIC Participant and Program Characteristics (WIC PC) to update state-specific trends through 2016. During 2010-2016, modest but statistically significant decreases in obesity prevalence among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in WIC occurred in 41 (73%) of 56 WIC state or territory agencies. Comprehensive approaches that create positive changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity for young children from all income levels,* strengthen nutrition education and breastfeeding support among young children enrolled in WIC, and encourage redemptions of healthy foods in WIC food packages could help maintain or accelerate these declining trends.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
J Water Health ; 17(4): 587-596, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313996

RESUMEN

We described sociodemographic differences in perceptions of drinking water safety and examined associations between perceptions and plain water intake. We used the 2015 Estilos survey of 1,000 US Hispanic adults conducted in both Spanish and English. Outcome was water intake. Exposures were the level of agreement about water perceptions (My tap water is safe to drink; Community tap water is safe to drink; Bottled water is safer; I would buy less bottled water if my tap water was safe). Covariates were sociodemographics, region, Hispanic heritage, and acculturation. We used chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression to examine associations of water perceptions and intake. Overall, 24% of Hispanic adults consumed water ≤1 time/day. Although 34% disagreed their home tap water was safe to drink, and 41% disagreed their community tap water was safe to drink, 65% agreed bottled water is safer than tap water, and 69% agreed they would buy less bottled water if they knew their tap water was safe. Perceptions differed by some covariates but were not significantly associated with plain water intake. In conclusion, negative perceptions of tap water were common among US Hispanic adults, which can inform efforts to increase awareness about safe public water systems.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Adulto , Ingestión de Líquidos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Percepción , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Am J Health Promot ; 33(1): 39-47, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747519

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine associations between knowledge of health conditions and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Hispanic adults. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SETTING: The 2015 Estilos survey data. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand US Hispanic adults (≥18 years). MEASURES: The outcome variable was frequency of SSB intake (regular soda, fruit drink, sports/energy drink, and sweetened coffee/tea drink). Exposure variables were knowledge of 6 SSB-related health conditions (weight gain, diabetes, dental caries, high cholesterol, heart disease, and hypertension). ANALYSIS: Six multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for consuming SSBs ≥3 times/day (high intake), in relation to knowledge of SSB-related health conditions. RESULTS: Overall, 58% of Hispanic adults consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day and 36% consumed SSBs ≥3 times/day. Although most identified that weight gain (75%) and diabetes (76%) were related to drinking SSBs, only half identified this relation with dental caries (57%) and hypertension (41%). Even fewer identified high cholesterol (32%) and heart disease (32%) as related. In crude analyses, SSB intake was significantly associated with knowledge of the associations between SSBs and weight gain, dental caries, and heart disease; however, after adjusting for sociodemographics and acculturation, associations were no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Although SSB intake was very high, knowledge of SSB-related health conditions was low and was not related to high SSB intake among US Hispanic adults. Education efforts alone may not be adequate for Hispanic adults to change their behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Gaseosas/efectos adversos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Bebidas Energéticas/efectos adversos , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E154, 2018 12 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576280

RESUMEN

We examined associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake - a chronic disease risk factor - and characteristics of 75,029 adults (≥18 y) in 9 states by using 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios for SSB intake categorized as none (reference), fewer than 1 time per day, and 1 or more times per day, by sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Overall, 32.1% of respondents drank SSBs 1 or more times per day. We found higher odds for 1 or more times per day among younger respondents, men, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black respondents, current smokers, respondents residing in nonmetropolitan counties, employed respondents, and those with less than high school education, obesity, and no physical activity. Our findings can inform the targeting of efforts to reduce SSB consumption.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sacarosa en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Edulcorantes/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Azúcares , Edulcorantes/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Clin Nutr Res ; 7(4): 241-247, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406053

RESUMEN

One contributing factor to the obesity epidemic is the large portion sizes served in restaurants. However, no study has looked at the parents' desire for smaller-portioned meals for their children at restaurants in the U.S. This study examined parents' preference for restaurants to offer smaller, lower-priced child portions for their children and reasons for the preference. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the association between preference for child portions and variables on parental sociodemographic characteristics and weight status. About 70% of parents said they would prefer that restaurants offer smaller, lower-priced child portions of all menu offerings. The adjusted odds of preferring child portions were significantly higher among Hispanic parents (OR, 1.95 vs. non-Hispanic whites) but significantly lower among parents with lower education (≤ high school, OR, 0.64; some college, OR, 0.69 vs. college graduate) and parents residing in the Midwest or West (Midwest, OR, 0.61; West, OR, 0.58 vs. South). The most common reason for preferring child portions of all meals was "wanting my child to eat healthier foods that are not offered on the children's menu" (72%). These findings can be used to encourage restaurants and other venues to consider offering child portions of healthier menu items.

12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(23): 653-658, 2018 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902166

RESUMEN

Approximately 46 million persons (14%) in the United States live in nonmetropolitan counties.* Compared with metropolitan residents, nonmetropolitan residents have a higher prevalence of obesity-associated chronic diseases such as diabetes (1), coronary heart disease (1), and arthritis (2). The 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) found a significantly higher obesity prevalence among adults in nonmetropolitan (39.6%) than in metropolitan (33.4%) counties (3). However, this difference has not been examined by state. Therefore, CDC examined state-level 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data and found that the prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) was 34.2% among U.S. adults living in nonmetropolitan counties and 28.7% among those living in metropolitan counties (p<0.001). Obesity prevalence was significantly higher among nonmetropolitan county residents than among metropolitan county residents in all U.S. Census regions, with the largest absolute difference in the South (5.6 percentage points) and Northeast (5.4 percentage points). In 24 of 47 states, obesity prevalence was significantly higher among persons in nonmetropolitan counties than among those in metropolitan counties; only in Wyoming was obesity prevalence higher among metropolitan county residents than among nonmetropolitan county residents. Both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties can address obesity through a variety of policy and environmental strategies to increase access to healthier foods and opportunities for physical activity (4).


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(8): 1661-1670, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618222

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To examine associations of adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake with parent SSB intake and parent and adolescent knowledge of SSB-related health risks. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional. SETTING: 2014 SummerStyles survey. SUBJECTS: Nine hundred and ninety parent and adolescent (12-17 years) pairs. MEASURES: The outcome was self-reported adolescent intake (0, >0 to <1, or ≥1 time/day) of SSBs (soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, other SSBs). The exposures were self-reported parent SSB intake (0, >0 to <1, ≥1 to <2, or ≥2 times/day) and parent and adolescent knowledge of SSB-related health risks (weight gain, diabetes, and dental caries). ANALYSIS: Separate multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for adolescent SSB intake ≥1 time/day (ref: 0 times/day), according to (1) parent SSB intake and (2) parent and (3) adolescent knowledge. RESULTS: About 31% of adolescents consumed SSBs ≥1 time/day, and 43.2% of parents consumed SSBs ≥2 times/day. Adolescent and parent knowledge that SSB intake is related to health conditions ranged from 60.7% to 80.4%: weight gain (75.0% and 80.4%, respectively), diabetes (60.7% and 71.4%, respectively), and dental caries (77.5% and 72.9%, respectively). In adjusted models, adolescent SSB intake ≥1 time/day was associated with parent intake ≥2 times/day (aOR = 3.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.62-6.74) but not with parent or adolescent knowledge of health risks. CONCLUSION: Parental SSB intake may be an important factor in understanding adolescent behavior; knowledge of SSB-related health conditions alone may not influence adolescent SSB behavior.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sacarosa en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Peso Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Caries Dental/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus/etiología , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Aumento de Peso
14.
JAMA Pediatr ; 172(3): 232-238, 2018 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309485

RESUMEN

Importance: Severe obesity in childhood is associated with negative health consequences. A previous study examined trends in severe obesity among preschool-aged children in low-income families during 1998 to 2010. No recent trends have been reported. Objective: To examine trends in severe obesity by age, sex, and race/ethnicity among enrollees in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) aged 2 to 4 years during 2000 to 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional data from 22.6 million young children enrolled in WIC from 50 states, the District of Columbia, and 5 US territories from 2000 to 2014. Data analysis was conducted from February 16, 2017, to March 9, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of severe obesity. Severe obesity was defined as a sex-specific body mass index-for-age 120% or more of the 95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Children's weights and heights were measured. Children whose sex, weight, height, or body mass index was missing or biologically implausible were excluded. Results: The prevalence of severe obesity was 1.96% in 2014. During 2000 to 2004, the prevalence increased significantly overall from 1.80% to 2.11% (adjusted prevalence difference [APD], 0.26%) and among all the age, sex, and racial/ethnic groups except for Asian/Pacific Islander (APD, 0.05%-0.54% across groups with increases). The largest relative increase occurred in children aged 4 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR], 1.21) and non-Hispanic white (APR, 1.22) and American Indian/Alaska Native children (APR, 1.19). During 2004 to 2010, the prevalence decreased significantly overall (APD, -0.05%), among boys, children aged 2 and 3 years, and non-Hispanic black and Asian/Pacific Islander children (APD, -0.05% to -0.18%). During 2010 to 2014, the prevalence decreased significantly overall from 2.12% to 1.96% (APD, -0.14%) and among all demographic groups (APD, -0.04% to -0.30% across groups). The largest relative decrease occurred in children aged 2 years (APR, 0.88) and Hispanic (APR, 0.92), American Indian/Alaska Native (APR, 0.89), and Asian/Pacific Islander (APR, 0.87) children. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides updated prevalence and trends of severe obesity among young children enrolled in WIC and reports recent modest declines in severe obesity in all subgroups. Ongoing surveillance can assess whether declines continue into the future among low-income children.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria , Obesidad Mórbida/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(2): 264-270, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357693

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Characteristics of parents who purchased kids' meals, reasons for the purchase, and desire for healthy options were examined. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SETTING: National. PARTICIPANTS: The SummerStyles survey data of 1147 parents (≥18 years). MEASURES: Self-reported outcome variables were purchase of kids' meals (yes/no), reasons for the purchase (13 choices), and desire for healthy options (yes/no). ANALYSIS: We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for purchasing kids' meals based on parental sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Over half (51%) of parents reported purchasing kids' meals in the past month. The adjusted OR of purchasing kids' meals were significantly higher among younger parents (OR = 3.44 vs ≥50 years) and among parents who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily (OR = 2.70 vs none). No differences were found for race/ethnicity, income, and education. Parents who purchased kids' meals reported that the top 3 reasons for purchase were (1) because their children asked for kids' meals, (2) habit, and (3) offering of healthier sides such as fruits or fruit cups. Thirty-seven percent of parents who did not purchase kids' meals expressed willingness to purchase kids' meals if healthy options were available; this willingness was highest among younger parents (47%; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Kids' meal purchases were somewhat common. Our findings on characteristics of parents who frequently bought kids' meals (ie, younger parents and SSB consumers), common reasons for purchasing kids' meals, and willingness to buy healthier kids' meal can be used to inform intervention efforts to improve quality of kids' meals.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Comidas/psicología , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Azúcares de la Dieta , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
16.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(6): 1402-1408, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664774

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study examined associations between knowledge of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB)-related health conditions and SSB intake among US adults. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SUBJECT: The 2014 SummerStyles survey data for 4163 US adults (≥18 years) were used. MEASURES: The outcome measure was frequency of SSB intake (regular soda, fruit drinks, sports or energy drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks). Exposure measures were knowledge of 6 SSB-related health conditions: weight gain, diabetes, cavities, high cholesterol, heart disease, and hypertension. ANALYSIS: Six logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for consuming SSBs ≥2 times/d according to knowledge of SSB-related health conditions. RESULTS: Overall, 37.8% of adults reported consuming SSBs ≥2 times/d. Although most adults identified that weight gain (80.2%), diabetes (73.6%), and cavities (71.8%) are related to drinking SSBs, fewer adults identified high cholesterol (24.1%), heart disease (31.5%), and hypertension (33.0%) as being related to drinking SSBs. Crude analyses indicated that lower SSB intake was significantly associated with knowledge of the associations between SSBs and weight gain, diabetes, cavities, and heart disease. However, after adjustment for covariates, only lack of knowledge of the association between heart disease and SSBs was significantly associated with consuming SSBs ≥2 times/d (OR = 1.29) than non-SSB consumers. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that knowledge of SSB-related health conditions, in general, was not associated with high SSB intake suggests that knowledge on SSB-related health conditions alone may not be sufficient for adult behavior change.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
17.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(6): 1431-1437, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121793

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the performance of a 1-question survey screener measuring total sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to a screener measuring SSB types separately using 4 questions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Web-based 2014 SummerStyles survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4167 US adults (≥18 years). MEASURES: Frequency of SSB intake measured using a 1-question screener was compared to frequency using a 4-question screener (regular soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, sweetened coffee/tea). SSB intake (number of time/day) was categorized as 0, >0 to <1, and ≥1 time/day; difference in mean intake was calculated between 4 questions versus 1. ANALYSIS: Paired t tests were used, and agreement was evaluated using weighted κ and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). RESULTS: Mean SSB intake was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-1.79) times/day using 4 questions and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.56-0.62) times/day using 1 question ( P < .001). Intake frequency based on 4 questions versus 1 was 16.0% versus 38.5% for 0 time/day, 15.6% versus 42.5% for >0 to <1 time/day, and 68.4% versus 18.9% for ≥1 time/day. There was fair agreement for the 3 SSB intake categories (κ: .27) and poor absolute agreement between the 2 continuous measures (Lin's CCC: 0.31). CONCLUSION: Daily SSB intake was significantly lower using a 1-question screener versus a 4-question screener. Researchers should assess SSB types separately or consider that daily SSB intake is likely underestimated with 1 question.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Gaseosas/estadística & datos numéricos , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Bebidas Energéticas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ingestión de Energía , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(45): 1241-1247, 2017 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145355

RESUMEN

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall dietary pattern to reduce the risk for diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity (1). Adults should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruits and 2.0-3.0 cups of vegetables per day.* Overall, few adults in each state met intake recommendations according to 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; however, sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption were not examined (2). CDC used data from the 2015 BRFSS to update the 2013 report and to estimate the percentage of each state's population meeting intake recommendations by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio (IPR) for the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC). Overall, 12.2% of adults met fruit recommendations ranging from 7.3% in West Virginia to 15.5% in DC, and 9.3% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.8% in West Virginia to 12.0% in Alaska. Intake was low across all socioeconomic groups. Overall, the prevalence of meeting the fruit intake recommendation was highest among women (15.1%), adults aged 31-50 years (13.8%), and Hispanics (15.7%); the prevalence of meeting the vegetable intake recommendation was highest among women (10.9%), adults aged ≥51 years (10.9%), and persons in the highest income group (11.4%). Evidence-based strategies that address barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption such as cost or limited availability could improve consumption and help prevent diet-related chronic disease.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Frutas , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E113, 2017 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144894

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: More than 42 million people in the United States are food insecure. Although some health care entities are addressing food insecurity among patients because of associations with disease risk and management, little is known about the components of these initiatives. METHODS: The Systematic Screening and Assessment Method was used to conduct a landscape assessment of US health care entity-based programs that screen patients for food insecurity and connect them with food resources. A network of food insecurity researchers, experts, and practitioners identified 57 programs, 22 of which met the inclusion criteria of being health care entities that 1) screen patients for food insecurity, 2) link patients to food resources, and 3) target patients including adults aged 50 years or older (a focus of this assessment). Data on key features of each program were abstracted from documentation and telephone interviews. RESULTS: Most programs (n = 13) focus on patients with chronic disease, and most (n = 12) partner with food banks. Common interventions include referrals to or a list of food resources (n = 19), case managers who navigate patients to resources (n = 15), assistance with federal benefit applications (n = 14), patient education and skill building (n = 13), and distribution of fruit and vegetable vouchers redeemable at farmers markets (n = 8). Most programs (n = 14) routinely screen all patients. CONCLUSION: The programs reviewed use various strategies to screen patients, including older adults, for food insecurity and to connect them to food resources. Research is needed on program effectiveness in improving patient outcomes. Such evidence can be used to inform the investments of potential stakeholders, including health care entities, community organizations, and insurers.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria/organización & administración , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Recolección de Datos , Asistencia Alimentaria/economía , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pobreza , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos
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